Molecular & Cell Biology For Dummies
Molecular and Cell Biology For Dummies
by Rene Fester Kratz, PhD
Studying molecular and cell biology can be challenging, but it's necessary if you want to pursue microbiology,
biotechnology, or genetics. Understanding molecular and cell biology entails kno
wing the four groups of macromolecules;
the processes of central dogma and cellular respiration; and essential components of eukaryotic cells.
Four Groups of Macromolecules
Macromolecules are just that
large molecules. The four groups of macromolecules,
shown in the table below, are
essential to the structure and function of a cell.
To Identify, Look for . . .
of plant cell wall
Made of C,H, and O;
on all carbons except one
Contain N, have N
Contain N in rings,
nucleotides made of sugar,
phosphate and nitrogenous
Fats, oils, waxes,
Made of C,H, and O; lots of
H bonds; may
C=C bonds (unsaturated);
steroids have 4 rings
*Lipids are not
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
In molecular and cell biology,
is the passage of information from DNA to RNA to protein. Here's a brief
central dogma's process:
DNA polymerase, primase,
helicase, DNA ligase,
Important Parts of Eukaryotic Cells
All eukaryotic cells have organelles, a nucleus, and many internal
membranes. These components divide the eukaryotic
cell into sections, with each specializing in different functions. Each function is vital to the cell's life.
is made of phospholipids and protein and serves as the selective boundary of
is surrounded by a nuclear envelope with nuclear pores. The nucleus stores and protects the DNA of the
consists of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and vesicles. It makes lipids,
proteins, and exported proteins and then “addresses” them and ships them where they need to go.
are surrounded by two membranes and have their own DNA and ribosomes. They transfer energy from
food molecules to ATP.
by two membranes, contain thylakoids, and have their own DNA and protein. They
transform energy from the sun and CO2 from atmosphere into food molecules (sugars).
is a network of proteins: actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermedia
te filaments. Cytoskeletal
proteins support the structure of the cell, help with cell division, and control cellular movements.
Cellular Respiration in Molecular Biology
Cellular respiration is your body's way of breaking down food molecules (carbohydrates
, proteins, and fats) and making
their stored energy available to the cell. Here's a brief overview:
Links to Other Phases?
NAD+, 2 ADP +
pyruvate, Net 2
ATP, 2 NADH +
Pyruvate to linking step;
NADH to ETC
2 NADH + H+, 2
CO2, 2 acetyl
NADH to ETC, acetyl
coA to Krebs
NAD+, 2 FAD
6 NADH + H+, 2
FADH2, 2 ATP, 4
NADH to ETC, FADH2
Inner membrane of
ADP + P
3 ATP per NADH,
2 ATP per FADH2
NAD+ to glycolysis,
linking step & Krebs,
FAD to Krebs