Appendices - National HE STEM Programme

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1


University of Sunderland

May 2012






Flexible
continuing professional development

to meet the needs of the
h
ealthcare
s
cience
w
orkforce in response to M
odernising
S
cientific
C
areers

Dr R. Trimble, Prof. A. Alabaster & Dr J.A. Kuit

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Well
-
Being, Faculty

of Applied Sciences,

University of Sunderland


Abstract

The project has created more accessible learning for healthcare
science staff
, through the provision
of modular, flexibly delivered training in science. University staff have engaged with local healt
h
service employers, to
develop, deliver and support modules

delivered by flexible learning
in
response to employer’s needs.

These modules have been evaluated by employers and employees
and form the basis of credit
-
bearing short course.
They have informed
the basis of a FdSc in
Healthcare Science which has been presented and positively received the DH and Cogent.

Key learning from the project is that it
is vital to be responsive to employer needs and opportunities
to engage with employers should be actively

encouraged. Developing flexible on
-
line learning
material which is supported through a VLE is not sufficient alone to meet employee needs and an
element of face
-
to
-
face teaching and support is still required. The ratio between the two elements
of delivery

will vary with the level of the award and the previous learning experience of the
employee.

Universities need to be flexible enough to be able to adapt to the sometimes conflicting
demands of an employer, an employee, limited resources, externally directe
d curricula, university
quality assurance requirements and appropriate pedagogies.


Background and rationale

In 2010, t
he Department of Health (DH)

announced a new career programme for the healthcare
science workforce known as Modernising Scientific
Careers (MSC). This provide
s

a standardised
national framework with a defined career pathway with entries at various levels: assistant;
associate; practitioner; scientist backed up by a learning and development framework to support the
introduction of
accr
edited
qualifications

based on curricula developed by the DH
.

Consequently in
2011, the
u
niversity
was accredited by the Academy
for

Healthcare Science to deliver a practitioner
training programme,
the
BSc Healthcare Science. The aim of this project was
t
o develop
flexibly
-
delivered
credit
-
bearing modules

in healthcare sciences which could be used by
assistants/associates to enable progression on to a foundation degree in healthcare science.



Implementation

This project could not be achievable without the

engagement of the training managers and
analytical laboratory departmental heads from the regional foundation trust hospitals. The project
idea was presented to them at a training meeting at a local hospital and again at the regional
Strategic Health Auth
ority (SHA) and this led to the formation of an employer steering group for the
project. As a result of discussions with the steering group, topics were identified as a starting point
for the training of healthcare science assistant/associates. Consequentl
y four modules were
identified, developed as flexible learning opportunities and
formally
approved by the
u
niversity
through its quality assurance processes
as a
40 credit
short course (Chemistry for Biology, Basic
statistics and data handling, Microbiolog
y, Immunology).

These four modules have been developed to be delivered entirely by the university’s virtual learning
environment (VLE) using fundamental principles of good instructional design in open learning
format. A dedicated section of the VLE has be
en created to support and deliver the short course.
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University of Sunderland

May 2012

This contains the learning materials as specified above; a frequently asked question page; formative
assessment; a discussion board; announcements; calendar; staff contact details; links to university
sup
port systems.
This has been evaluated (see below) and the course began in May 2012 and has
16 students all of whom are local hospital employees.


Evaluation

Once the short course was
initially
developed as described above, it was sent out to a larger gr
oup
(25)
of regional

NHS

employers

consisting of either training managers or heads of laboratories

to
garner their opinion
s

and some interesting and unexpected feedback was obtained.

Some felt that the short course was not what they wanted but that they r
eally required a full F
dSc

Healthcare Science for their assistant
/
associate staff
as part of MSC.
O
thers felt the short course
alone would be sufficient to fulfil the training needs

of those staff on basic pay bands.
Some
employers felt that the potential
students who would undertake the course would not be able to
study independently and at a distance and needed more face
-
to
-
face support
. O
thers acknowledged
the benefits of employees studying in their own time and not being

away from the workplace for
long

periods of time.
Some
employers
felt that 100 learning hours for each 10 credit module, 400h in
total, was too much for their staff to undertake whilst they were working full time and had family
commitments.

This feedback was very conflicting and not real
ly what we had been led to believe from our initial
planning meetings

with employers
. Part of this variation may be because in the absence of guidance
about

what will be mandated by the D
H in terms of future training programmes for associate and
assistant
staff through
the
MSC agenda, individual NHS heads of departments in the region may
have entirely different and localised training needs and demands on their staff time compared to the
overall sector.

This presented the University with a dilemma. How can t
he differing training needs of the employers
be addressed whilst at the same time achieve the outputs of the project?
The solution wa
s to
address the requirements of the project first and address the unpredicted requirements of the
employers outside of the

project but be informed by it.

Consequently two alternate training routes
were

proposed. One
wa
s the short 100 credit course
specified as above and delivered as previously described, taking further feedback from employers
and students in terms of content
, support and delivery. Evaluation criteria
were

developed for this
purpose and

s
ix hospital employees
were sent by their employers
on February 21
st

2012
to
undert
ake
this evaluation by piloting example
s

of the learning material
whilst
at the university. T
hey
provided positive feedback in terms of the content and mode of delivery but requested that face
-
to
-
face sessions and study skills were also included particul
arly for those staff that

had been out of
education for some time

(see appendix 3)
.

The second

training route, outwith the STEM project,
wa
s to develop the structure of a
FdSc

Healthcare Science and obtain feedback on this proposal from the employers at the regional
dissemination event to be held by March. This w
ould

provide the market research whi
ch w
ould

inform the viability of the proposed foundation degree before its development
could be
agreed by
the
u
niversity.

The
structure and content of the short
course
and FdSc
w
ere

presented at a
dissemination event
on March 28
th

2012
hosted by the univer
sity for regional NHS training managers
and
training leads
from the S
trategic Health Authority (SHA).

As part of this event they were invited
on a tour of the university’s teaching facilities and analytical laboratories and were extremely
impressed by them. They were very supportive of the short course, liking the content and delivery
method and sent 16
employees on to the course when it started in May 2012.

They were also
supportive of the proposed FdSc as a next step to meet the training needs of their staff.

The short
course has now started
and will continue until
March

2013

so it is too early in the p
rocess to get any
feedback from the
employees

or their employers.

The 16
employees

all work as either biomedical (14) or physiological (2) laboratory support workers
in the areas of microbiology (3), pathology (4), biochemistry (2), haematology (1), genetics (4) or
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University of Sunderland

May 2012

cardiology (2) from hospitals in Sunderland, Gateshead and Newcastle.
Th
eir previous highest level
of study has been NVQ 2 or 3 which was undertaken in the last ten years.

The course is delivered partly by face
-
to
-
face teaching
and partly online studying open learning
material.
In
direct
response to feedback from the employer
s, the
face to face element consists of a
three hour morning slot once a month

which focuses on skill development
. In response to feedback
from the employees who were concerned by their lack of time to study and recent studying
experience, the course is to

be delivered over ten months. The course has deliberately started slowly
with some time being spent on study skills and time management before the more academic
content begins. This is to build up the confid
ence of the
employees

so that they may more
succ
essfully participate and go on to further study.


Learning

It is vital to be responsive to employer needs and opportunities to engage with employers should be
actively encouraged. Developing flexible on
-
line learning material which is supported through a V
LE
is not sufficient alone to meet employee needs and an element of face
-
to
-
face teaching and support

including study skills and learning at a distance

is still required

particularly for those employees who
have been out of education for some time
. The rat
io between the two elements of delivery will vary
with the level of the award and the previous learning experience of the employee.


Universities need to be flexible enough to be able to adapt to the sometimes conflicting demands of
an employer, an employe
e, limited resources, externally directed curricula, university quality
assurance requirements and appropriate pedagogies

for distant learners.

Impact

Impact on the employers

The project fostered the establishment of a dialogue with regional hospital emplo
yers, the SHA and
the university. This has encouraged the university to be seen as a trusted and responsive training
provider with excellent facilities. Already this has led to proposals for developing a number of
foundation degrees out of the project
-
supp
orted short course and for
further
programmes to be
commissioned. For example, one of the local hospital trusts wants to commission the university to
develop a specific training course for them to address the training needs of laboratory staff. Also the
SH
A is interested in commissioning the university to develop some top
-
up awards to up
-
skill heads
of departments in areas where traditionally a degree was not an employment requirement.

Impact on the university

At the time of writing this report, the anticip
ated curriculum for a FdSc in Healthcare Science from
the DH has not been finalised but in order for any programme of study to be accredited by the
Academy for Healthcare Science it must replicate the DH curriculum. This has presented a dilemma
to the univ
ersity in that it wishes to use the short course as a starting point for the development of a
FdSc but in the absence of a specified curriculum any university
-
developed FdSc cannot be
accredited by the Academy. In order to address this issue, the universit
y has provided the DH with its
own version of a FdSc and as a consequence has become part of a small group invited by the DH to
evaluate the newly proposed content of the DH’s FdSc in Healthcare Science.


A particular area of added value has been that as
a direct consequence of this project the university
is now in discussion with Cogent, the Sector Skills Council for the science
-
using industries to address
workforce development needs about the development of a FdSc for the sector.


S
ustainability

As a con
sequence of working collaboratively with employers and the innovative employee
evaluation of the material, the university is putting together a FdSc in healthcare science and the
credit obtained by successfully passing the short course can be used to contr
ibute to the FdSc.

The project
has influenced the teaching and learning developments in the department by acting as a
pilot for the development of a FdSc which for the first time will be delivered in
-
house as opposed to
being franchised at a local FE college. Unexpectedly it has also le
d to the co
-
curriculum development
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University of Sunderland

May 2012

of a FdSc in Biopharmaceutical Sciences as many of the core modules on both programmes are
similar. Both FdSc would map straight onto existing BSc programmes and help to sustain their
viability.

HE STEM Healthcare Technic
ians CPD
Project
Outputs and Outcomes

Outputs

1.

Develop 4 ten credit modules and 2 other learning opportunities, ensuring that the content
is directly relevant to employers needs, and delivered in a way that reflects the
requirements of the Curricula for Hea
lthcare Science Assistants and Associates, whilst
facilitating ‘tailoring’ to allow APL.

See appendix 1
, 2

and
3 plus learning opportunity on
February 21
st

2012 and March 28
th

2012
.

2.

Engage with employers from 16 hospitals/44 departments from whom will be
drawn the
‘employer hub’ of the project steering group to be established to oversee the
implementation of the work. This vehicle will also be used to identify further, willing
employers beyond the steering group who are willing to engage with us in the dev
elopment
of the modules.

See appendix 4.

3.

Numbers of users/learners identified during consultation phase, and reported in July Interim
Review.
See appendix 5

4.

Populate the VLE Module Descriptors with learning materials.

See appendix 1 and below

http://sunspace.sunderland.ac.uk/webct/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct


5.

Produce a case study describing how the project aims and objectives were achieved.
See
appendix 6.

Outcomes


6.

Rais
e awareness of the
analytical sciences training expertise and facilities offer available
from the University of Sunderland.

Employer events, steering group meetings, dissemination
event.
See appendix 4.

7.

Ensure that the widest possible views of the sector
are gained on the ‘draft’ modules
developed, by engaging with other HEIs in the HE STEM Programme North East Spoke, the
National STEM Centre, Skills for Health, and the Centre for Workforce Intelligence.

See
appendi
ces

4

and 7
.

8.

Oversee the design and imple
mentation of a dedicated section of the University’s VLE to be
created to support learners engaged in the project.

http://sunspace.sunderland.ac.uk/webct/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct


9.

Participate in dissemination events.

See appendix 7
.

Appendices

1.

Module descriptors of the short course

2.

Outline of a FdSc Healthcare Science

3.

Evaluation criteria for distance learners

4.

List of
employers and
steering group members

5.

List of employees

6.

Case stud
y

7.

HE STEM Dissemination events


References

http://www.nhsemployers.org/PLANNINGYOURWORKFORCE/MODERNISING
-
SCIENTIFIC
-
CAREERS/MSC/Pages/MSC.as
px

Accessed 29.05.12

http://www.academyforhealthcarescience.co.uk/about/

Accessed 29.05.12


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University of Sunderland

May 2012

Appendices



Appendix 1

Module descriptors of the short course

Appendix 2

Outline of a FdSc
Healthcare Science

Appendix 3

Evaluation criteria for distance learners

Appendix 4

List of
employers and
steering group members

Appendix 5

List of employees

Appendix 6

Case study

Appendix 7

HE STEM events attended/presented



6


University of Sunderland

May 2012

Appendix 1

Module descriptors
of the short course



TITLE:


Biological Chemistry


CREDITS:

1
0


STAGE:


1


LEARNING HOURS:


1
00 the nature of which is specified in the module guide.


An introduction to the classification, structure and function of the biological building blocks of life
.


LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon successful completion of this module, students will have demonstrated:

Knowledge

1. Understanding of the basic chemistry and biochemistry relevant to life processes and to

2. Explain the
basic
structure and function of major
classes of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids.


Skills

And will have the ability to

3. Apply the principles of chemistry and biochemistry in solving problems.


CONTENT SYNOPSIS

This module will introduce students to the basic concepts that underpin any

study of cell and life
processes. Topics covered will include: the nature of matter, reactions and how macromolecules are
built from biological building blocks. The chemical processes that support life will be reviewed by
investigating the structure, func
tion and metabolism of biological molecules. The control of
carbohydrate, lipid, nucleic acid and protein metabolism will be considered.


The Nature of Matter:

Areas covered will include the concepts of atoms and molecules, their structure, mass and chemic
al
properties. Electronic structure including electron pairs, orbitals and shells. The formation of ions
and the role of salts in cell biology. Free radical chemistry and the importance of free radicals
derived from oxygen in aging and disease. Anti
-
oxidan
ts their structure and function within cells.
Chemical bonding and the formation of macromolecules. An introduction to molecular electron
orbitals and their role in determining molecular shapes. The importance of this concept in terms of
enzyme activity a
nd protein molecules in the plasma membrane used for both transport and
messaging systems. The structure of water and the role of hydrogen bonding. The properties of
water and its role within biological systems.


Biological Reactions:

Simple chemical react
ions will be evaluated in terms of, their direction, stoichiometry, catalysis and
energetics. Oxidation/reduction reactions will be covered with reference to biological systems.
Activation energy and the effects of temperature and concentrations on reactio
n rates. The
structure and role of enzymes in biological systems. Enzyme inhibition and its role in the control of
metabolic processes within the cell. Commonly used drugs and their role in the inhibition of enzymes
and the control of metabolic pathways.

I
onisation, water, strong and weak acids, bases, salts, pH, titrations and buffers. The effects of pH on
biological systems and cell buffering systems. The importance of the control of pH in biological
systems to prevent enzyme denaturation, commonly used b
uffering systems found within the cell.

Biochemical processes including respiration, osmosis, transport across membranes and the
movement of ions.


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University of Sunderland

May 2012

The Chemistry of Carbon and Biological Molecules:

Simple organic molecules and their reactions will be cover
ed.

The role of carbon and how its properties affect biological systems and reactions. Electrophillic and
nuleophillic groups and reactions.

The structure and function of the three main classes of biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids &
amino acids.


TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS:

The learning on this module will be through
flexible learning material delivered through Sunspace
.


Independent student study will be facilitated by reading lists


1
0
0h

and study activities to be completed in the students’

own

time and provided through the University VLE.


ASSESSMENT METHODS


One MCQ test addressing learning outcomes K1
, K2

& S3.




INDICATIVE READING LIST

Bradford P. Mundy, Arnold, M.T. & Mundy, J.
(
1993
)
. Organic & Biological Chemistry. Saunders
College

Publishing

Crowe, J., Bradshaw, T. & Monk, P.
(
2010
)

Chemistry for the Biosciences. The essential concepts.
Oxford University Press.

Marshall, W.J. (2008) Clinical Chemistry. Mosby.

Timberlake, K.C.
(
2001
),

Organic &

Biological Chemistry Structures of Life.

Pearson Education.






8


University of Sunderland

May 2012


TITLE:


Quantitative r
esearch methods



CREDITS:

10


SATGE
:


1


LEARNING HOURS:

100


LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon successful completion of this module, students will have demonstrated

Knowledge
of

1.

The
basic m
ethods of
quantitative
research
methods

which are used to
analyse data in the
area of biosciences
.


Skills

And will have the ability to

2.

Analyse data in the context of laboratory practice.


CONTENT SYNOPSIS



Basic statistics: the students will be introduced to basic statistical principles in the context of their
biological learning. This will be integrated into the module by using data generated in the laboratory
as a basis for the statistical work.

Hypothe
sis testing and the purpose of statistics.
Quantities typical of the data
: mean, median, mode.
Quantities that describe the variation of data: range, standard deviation, variance, standard error.
Populations. Normal distribution.

C
oefficient of variation

a
nd
an introduction to confidence limits.

Methods will include regression and correlation, paired and unpaired t
-
tests, paired and unpaired
rank tests
.

Students will be instructed in the use of SPSS to facilitate statistical calculations.


TEACHING AND LEA
RNING METHODS:

The learning on this module will be through
flexible learning material delivered through Sunspace
.



Independent student study will be facilitated by reading lists


1
0
0h

and study activities to be completed in the students’ own

time and pr
ovided through the University VLE.


ASSESSMENT METHODS


A coursework assignment on statistical analysis and assessed by staff, testing learning

outcome K1 & S2 and contributing 50% of the final module mark


INDICATIVE READING LIST

Argyrous G (2011) Statis
tics for research: With a guide to SPSS Sage

Bowers D (2000) Medical Statistics from Scratch. Wiley

Davidson, N (2008) Numeracy, Clinical Calculations and Basic Statistics: a textbook for health care

students. Exeter:

Reflect Press Ltd.

Field A, Hole G
J
(
2002
)
How to Design and Report Experiments Sage


Griffith F
(

2009
)
Research Methods for Health Care Practice Sage





9


University of Sunderland

May 2012

TITLE:


Microbiology


CREDITS:

1
0


STAGE
: 1


LEARNING HOURS:


1
00


LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon successful completion of this module,
students will have demonstrated


Knowledge

of


1.

K
ey concepts in microbiology
.


2.

C
haracteristics of the major groups of microorganisms

Skills

And will have the ability to

3.
Solve problems involving data handing and analysis.


CONTENT SYNOPSIS

Microbiology is

the study of the structure, physiology, biochemistry, classification and control of
micro
-
organisms, including the role of normal flora.

The module will provide a structured and integrated delivery of the major concepts
in
microbiology,
The content will

focus on disease but will also be illustrated with applications to environment and
industry.

The microbiology content will be introduced through the history and scope of microbiology and
cover details of viral, bacterial, and fungal structure; microbial g
rowth and reproduction; an
introduction to microbial metabolism; and the disease process and infection control. A comparison
will be made between prokaryotes and eukaryotes to illustrate different cell structures, biochemical
components and physiology. Spe
cific microorganisms will be considered as examples of each major
group and their characteristics used to illustrate morphology, physiology, disease virulence and
modes of treatment. The epidemiology of disease will be illustrated with contemporary exampl
es,
models of dispersion and interactive case studies.

The importance of environmental factors affecting the survival, growth and death of microorganisms
will be illustrated by tutorial and practical examples with reference to susceptibility to antimicrobi
al
agents and to how microorganisms adapt to different conditions. The effect of genetic variation in
survivability and the development of resistance will be illustrated with consideration of current
disease patterns and a focus on hospital and community
acquired infections. The involvement of
microorganisms in disease, in industrial processes and in the environment will be outlined to
demonstrate common features and specific applications both as problems and benefits. The use of
microorganisms in biotechn
ology for production of clinical products and for diagnostics will be
outlined and considered in the context of diagnosing, screening, monitoring and treating health and
disorders.

The principles of microscopy and modern techniques for detection of micro
-
o
rganisms will be
outlined in theory
.

The evolution of microorganism diseases will be considered in relation to
microbial resistance and to the development of virulent factors and to the evolution of novel
antigens.

Basic groupings and modes of action of an
tibiotics will be outlined as example treatments of disease
along with the use of disinfectants, decontamination of materials,

management of occupational and
patient exposure and of clinical areas. The importance of public health and infection control will

be
emphasized along with the relationship between pathology and other professions in health and
s
ocial care. This will be further considered in the context of legislation and professional guidelines of
operation and the application of ethical principles.


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University of Sunderland

May 2012

TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS:

The learning on this module will be through
flexible learning material delivered through Sunspace
.


Independent student study will be facilitated by reading lists


1
0
0h

and study activities to be completed in the students’ own

time and provided through the University VLE.


ASSESSMENT METHODS


An end of course examination will assess outcomes
K
1
, K2

and
S3

in more detail and across the full
range of topic areas.


INDICATIVE READING LIST

Greenwood, D. Slack, C. B., Peuherer. J. F.
(2002)
Medical Microbiology. 16
th

Edition.2002. Churchill,
Livingstone.

Kent, M. Advanced Biology.
(
2000
)
. Oxford University Press.

Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P., Klein. D.A. Microbiology.
(2006)

7th Edition. McGrawHill





11


University of Sunderland

May 2012


TITLE:


Immun
ology


CREDITS:

1
0


STAGE
: 1


LEARNING HOURS:


1
00


LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon successful completion of this module, students will have demonstrated

Knowledge

of


1.

T
he

key concepts in immune defence and molecul
ar biology.



Skills

And the ability to


2.

Solve problems involving data handing and analysis.


CONTENT SYNOPSIS

The module will provide a structured and integrated delivery of the major concepts of immunology
and molecular biology.

Immunology is the
study of components of the immune system, their structure, function and
mechanisms of action. It includes innate and acquired immunity.

The role of the immune system in
defence against infectious diseases will be explained
.

It will include the principles o
f innate and
adaptive responses, ie how pathogens are recognised and destroyed. Lymphocyte maturation,
receptor diversity, antigen presentation, cellular communication, phagocytosis, complement fixation
and other effector mechanisms will be covered. Partic
ular effort to explain the terminology will be
made. Standard techniques of cellular and humoral immunity will be performed and relevance to
clinical laboratories made. Discussion of how inflammatory / immune responses can be measured
(eg flow cytometry, t
issue culture) and applied to biomedical sciences eg organ transplantation.
Discussion of the causes and consequences of abnormal immune function, neoplastic diseases and
transplantation reactions together with their detection, diagnosis, treatment and mon
itoring
immunological techniques used in clinical and research laboratories, the principles of the function
and measurement of effectors of the immune response, prophylaxis and immunotherapy.



Molecular biology is that branch of biology that deals with
the manipulation of nucleic acids
(deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)) so that genes can be isolated, sequenced or
mutated.

The basics of gene regulation in bacteria will be illustrated by using the lac operon as a model and
will includ
e an outline of translation at the ribosome and will discuss the means by which
information flow is regulated. Molecular biology concepts include an outline of the "New Genetics"
and its links with classical genetics; The concept of “Gene” from Mendel to
the present day,
including experimental evidence; the structure of DNA and the genetic code; The chromosome
theory of inheritance; mapping genes by recombination and other methods needed to map the
human genome. Important deviations from Mendelian ratios
in higher organisms will be considered
using disease examples.

The techniques of molecular biology will be introduced including DNA extraction and isolation
mutagenesis in yeast, and analysis of bacterial biochemical mutants.


TEACHING AND LEARNING METHOD
S:

The learning on this module will be through
flexible learning material delivered through Sunspace
.


12


University of Sunderland

May 2012


Independent student study will be facilitated by reading lists


1
0
0h

and study activities to be completed in the students’ own

time and provided throu
gh the University VLE.


ASSESSMENT METHODS


An end of course examination will assess outcomes
K
1
, K2

and
S3

in more detail and across the full
range of topic areas.


INDICATIVE READING LIST

Hall A & Yates C (2010)
Immunology Oxford University Press.

Kindt

TJ, Osborne BA, and Goldsby R.

(2006) Immunology

7
th

Edition

WH Freeman.

Murphy,Travers and Walport,
(2007)
Janeway’s Immunobiology: the immune system in health and
disease (7th Edition). Garland Science.




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University of Sunderland

May 2012

Appendix 2

Outline of a FdSc Healthcare
Science


Learning Outcomes of the Programme

Students will be able to demonstrate a development in knowledge (K) and skills (S) as they
progress through their programme of study. At the end of each stage, they will be able to
demonstrate:

Knowledge

Stage 1

Certificate in Higher Education

K1 A broad knowledge of the processes which support life at the genetic, cellular, tissues
and systems level.

K2 An understanding of the structure, function and control of major systems of the
human body
.

K3 An underpinning

knowledge of health and social care services in the UK and their
application to Healthcare Science.

Stage 2 Foundation Degree in Healthcare Science
as above plus:

K4 Knowledge of the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease and
pathological responses in the context of investigation relevant to healthcare science.

K5 Knowledge of the critical risks and benefits related to equipment and techniques
used in h
ealthcare science.

K6 Understanding of the principles and practices underpinning the routine investigations
and procedures within a quality assurance and legislative framework utilised when
undertaking testing, diagnosis and treatment in healthcare science
.

Skills

Stage 1 Certificate in Higher Education

S1 Demonstrate safe working practices in the laboratory in accordance with health and
safety legislation.

S2 Demonstrate competence in analytical techniques, measurement and data handling.

S3 Communicate in
a structured and coherent manner by a variety of techniques.

S4 Demonstrate interpersonal and transferable skills (including teamwork, time
management and IT skills).

S5 Demonstrate proficiency in basic professional and clinical skills.

S6 Identify, reflec
t on and review personal, academic and the professional targets of a
Healthcare Science Associate.

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Stage 2 Foundation Degree in Healthcare Science
as above plus:

S7 Gain proficiency in a range of established analytical techniques and measurements
that form

the basis of pathological diagnosis in healthcare science including an
assessment of their capabilities and limitations.

S8 Analyse and interpret clinical data in the context of routine investigations and
diagnosis relevant to healthcare science.


S9 Orga
nise, evaluate and reference appropriate sources of information using standard
scientific convention.

S10 Effectively communicate information, arguments and analyses by a variety of
techniques to a variety of specialist and non
-
specialist audiences includi
ng patients and
carers.

S11 Critically review and evaluate departmental protocols in relation to the core skills in
health and safety, human rights, patient identification, communication skills and
management and quality assurance.

Learning and teaching st
rategy

The following modules will be delivered by a blended approach including on
-
line learning, face
-
to
-
face learning and work
-
based learning. The emphasis will be on face
-
to
-
face sessions providing a
theoretical underpinning with students demonstrating a
pplication of theory to practice with work
-
based learning.


GENERIC MODULES

STAGE 1


Professional practice and l
earning and skill development
in HE

This module introduces the student to the theoretical, practical and professional aspects of the
disciplines

involved in healthcare science. Students will gain an understanding of the importance of
practice based on best evidence and will be able to reflect on their own educational and professional
needs and achievements.

Students will learn the theoretical prin
ciples and practices of good study skills and how to be an
effective learner.
Theories of reflective practice will be taught so that students will understand how
they apply to their professional practice. They will learn through reflection how to monitor t
heir own
performance and time management including the importance of honesty and integrity.

By developing an awareness of their personal responsibilities they will learn how to develop safe
working practices, communicate with both colleagues and the gener
al public and their role in
enhancing the quality of provision within their department.

Students will be given a framework of knowledge of the expectations of a healthcare
science
associate

and how they practice in a modern National Health Service. This w
ill include recording and
reviewing their development through the module.


Human anatomy and physiology

A number of systems within the body will be studied including the nervous system (CNS/PNS/special
senses) and sleep, skeletal muscle system, blood and t
he cardiovascular system, respiratory system,
digestive system, renal system, reproductive system and endocrine system. The importance of the
inter relationship between these diverse systems for the maintenance of normal function will be
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emphasised. Change
s in physiological systems during growth and ag
e
ing will be studied including
embryonic development. The pathophysiology of disease development of common diseases across
the body systems and how the basic principles of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and th
erapeutics
are used to treat disease will be introduced. This includes the tissue and systems responses to injury
and repair. Laboratory techniques for studying human physiology will be introduced. These will be
both additional to, and complementary with,

lecture material. They will include basic haematological
techniques, cardiovascular measurements at rest and during postural and exercise stress and lung
function measurements.


C
ell
Science

The module will begin with a review of the basic structure of t
he cell and the organelles that it
contains. The relationship between their structure and function will be covered. Transport across the
membrane will be introduced by detailing osmosis, simple & facilitated diffusion and active
transport. Examples of mate
rials moved into the cell by these processes will be described. The
movement of drugs across the plasma membrane will be introduced. Maintenance of the osmotic
balance of cells and the role of the sodium
-
potassium pump will be described.

Structure and func
tion of specialised cells within the body will be reviewed.

The cell cycle, including mitosis and meiosis, together with the necessary checks upon cell division
will be reviewed. The development of cancers due to the uncontrolled division of cells and the
mode
of action of commonly used anti
-
cancer drugs.

I
nheritance will be introduced through a description of the structure and function of chromosomes.
Genetic mutation in both somatic and gamete cells and the diseases that result will be considered.
Chromo
some segregation and variability in populations leading to evolution. The human genome
and the genome of infective organisms including bacteria and viruses.

Cell signalling, in terms of messaging systems, leading to the production of proteins and enzymes
in
the cell will be described. The process of protein synthesis including transcription, translation and
post
-
translational modification together with systems for the identification and destruction of
incorrectly processed proteins will be evaluated. Examp
les of diseases associated with the abnormal
structure of proteins.


Infection and immunity

The module will provide a structured and integrated delivery of the major concepts of microbiology,
immunology and molecular biology. The microbiology content
will be introduced through the
history and scope of microbiology and cover details of viral, bacterial, and fungal structure; microbial
growth and reproduction; an introduction to microbial metabolism; and the disease process and
infection control. Specifi
c microorganisms will be considered as examples of each major group and
their characteristics used to illustrate morphology, physiology, disease virulence and modes of
treatment. The epidemiology of disease will be illustrated with contemporary examples,
models of
dispersion and interactive case studies.

The importance of environmental factors affecting the survival, growth and death of microorganisms
will be illustrated by tutorial and practical examples with reference to susceptibility to antimicrobial
a
gents and to how microorganisms adapt to different conditions. The effect of genetic variation in
survivability and the development of resistance will be illustrated with consideration of current
disease patterns and a focus on hospital and community acqu
ired infections. The use of
microorganisms in biotechnology for production of clinical products and for diagnostics will be
outlined and considered in the context of diagnosing, screening, monitoring and treating health and
disorders.

The principles of mic
roscopy and modern techniques for detection of micro
-
organisms will be
outlined in theory and with laboratory activities. The module will introduce the basics of host
defence against infection and the fundamental principles of immune responses. Antibody
p
roduction will be outlined and different cellular responses to antigens discussed in relation to
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infectious and auto
-
immune diseases. The evolution of microorganism diseases will be considered in
relation to microbial resistance and to the development of v
irulent factors and to the evolution of
novel antigens.

Basic groupings and modes of action of antibiotics will be outlined as example treatments of disease
along with the use of disinfectants, decontamination of materials, management of occupational and
p
atient exposure and of clinical areas. The importance of public health and infection control will be
emphasized along with the relationship between pathology and other professions in health and
social care. This will be further considered in the context of

legislation and professional guidelines of
operation and the application of ethical principles.

The basics of gene regulation in bacteria will be illustrated by using the lac operon as a model and
will include an outline of translation at the ribosome an
d will discuss the means by which
information flow is regulated. Molecular biology concepts include an outline of the "New Genetics"
and its links with classical genetics; The concept of “Gene” from Mendel to the present day,
including experimental eviden
ce; the structure of DNA and the genetic code; The chromosome
theory of inheritance; mapping genes by recombination and other methods needed to map the
human genome; the principles of inheritance including carrier status; the role of genetics in
medicine.

Important deviations from Mendelian ratios in higher organisms will be considered using
disease examples.

Practical techniques will include aseptic techniques, microscopic and staining methods, enumeration
and growth studies. Morphology and biochemical a
ctivities of bacteria, will be related to classical
and rapid identification methods including API and ELISA. Practical work will be conducted to
develop understanding of accurate observation, of controlled experimental protocols and of data
collation and
interpretation.


Introduction to applied physics and measurement

This module will provide students with a background of the analytical methods, skills and
instrumentation used in healthcare sciences

and the theoretical principles underpinning this
applic
ation
. The primary focus will be to develop laboratory skills
,
basic analytical and report writing
skills

and to

provide students with a background of the concepts of instrumentation used

in
healthcare s
cience together with an appreciation of the physical
and mathematical principles that
underpin these concepts and measurements. These basic principles extend to ensuring that safe and
effective clinical practice is demonstrated and that the respectful care of the patient lies at the
centre of practice.

In pa
rticular, students will be taught basic laboratory practice and units of measurement. They will
be introduced to concepts such as biological variation and pre
-
analytical variability, reference
ranges, action limits, sensitivity, specificity and predictive
values, internal quality control and
external quality assessment, evaluation of assay performance, quality management and laboratory
accreditation, informatics including laboratory information.

The module will cover a series of practical experiments which

will introduce students to a range of
analytical and physiological methods.

The subject of electricity will be introduced so that students gain a basic understanding of many of
the concepts in electricity so that they can understand the principles under
lying the application of
physiological measurement. Areas covered will include current, potential difference, resistance,
Ohm’s Law, resistivity, capacitors, rectification, circuits with resistors and capacitors, AC/ DC, period,
RMS values, static and dyna
mic instrument characteristics, measurement errors.

Magnetism and electromagnetism will be introduced including induction, electromagnetic radiation.
Followed by light and lasers, the electromagnetic spectrum, wave and quantum theories,
polarisation, lase
rs, refraction and reflection.

The importance of sound and ultrasound will emphasised so that the fundamentals principles are
understood are how they are applied to clinical practice. The following areas will be covered, wave
formation, simple harmonics,
propagation, transmission through different media, diffraction/scatter,
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absorption, frequency, amplitude, velocity, acoustic interface and impedance, intensity, gain, decibel
scale and the measurement of sound.

The underlying principles underpinning fluid
flow through tubes such as
Poiseuille’s Law, laminar and
turbulent flow

will be introduced and their clinical relevance specified.


Safety relating to all aspects of applied physics
i.e. electrical, ionising radiation, MRI, electromagnetic
radiation will b
e emphasised so that students understand the importance of safe working practices
with patients.


DIVISION MODULES: LIFE SCIENCE

STAGE 1

Biological
Chemistry

This module will introduce students to the basic concepts that underpin any study of cell and
life
processes. Topics covered will include: the nature of matter, reactions and how macromolecules are
built from biological building blocks. The chemical processes that support life will be reviewed by
investigating the structure, function and metabolism

of biological molecules. The control of
carbohydrate, lipid, nucleic acid and protein metabolism will be considered.

Areas covered will include the concepts of atoms and molecules, their structure, mass and chemical
properties. Electronic structure includ
ing electron pairs, orbitals and shells. The formation of ions
and the role of salts in cell biology. Free radical chemistry and the importance of free radicals
derived from oxygen in aging and disease. Anti
-
oxidants their structure and function within cel
ls.
Chemical bonding and the formation of macromolecules. An introduction to molecular electron
orbitals and their role in determining molecular shapes. The importance of this concept in terms of
enzyme activity and protein molecules in the plasma membran
e used for both transport and
messaging systems. The structure of water and the role of hydrogen bonding. The properties of
water and its role within biological systems.

Simple chemical reactions will be evaluated in terms of, their direction, stoichiometr
y, catalysis and
energetics. Oxidation/reduction reactions will be covered with reference to biological systems.
Activation energy and the effects of temperature and concentrations on reaction rates. The
structure and role of enzymes in biological systems.

Enzyme inhibition and its role in the control of
metabolic processes within the cell. Commonly used drugs and their role in the inhibition of enzymes
and the control of metabolic pathways.

Ionisation, water, strong and weak acids, bases, salts, pH,
titrat
ions and buffers. The effects of pH on biological systems and cell buffering systems. The
importance of the control of pH in biological systems to prevent enzyme denaturation, commonly
used buffering systems found within the cell.

Simple organic molecules
and their reactions will be covered.

The role of carbon and how its
properties affect biological sy
stems and reactions. Electrophi
lic and nu
c
leophilic groups and
reactions. The structure and function of the three main classes of biological molecules:
carbo
hydrates, lipids & amino acids. How macromolecules are developed from these basic building
blocks and how abnormalities in structure and function can lead to human disease.


Analysis and measurement

This module will provide students with a background of
the analytical methods, skills and

instrumentation used in healthcare sciences. The primary focus will be to develop laboratory

skills and basic analytical and report writing skills.

The module will cover a series of practical experiments which will introd
uce students to a range

of analytical and physiological methods. Exercises will include, for example, preparation of

physiological salt solutions, use of the light microscope (and demonstration of electron

microscopy), osmosis and cell structure, tonicity
and cell structure, ultrasound (anatomical

structure), colorimetry and absorption spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, use of the chloride

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meter, determination of Na and K by flame photometry and a demonstration of mass

spectrometry.

In particular, students wi
ll be taught basic laboratory practice and units of measurement. They

will be introduced to concepts such as biological variation and pre
-
analytical variability,

reference ranges, action limits, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, internal qual
ity

control and external quality assessment, evaluation of assay performance, quality management

and laboratory accreditation, informatics including laboratory information. The range of

practicals will be designed to introduce pathology in general and the
life science disciplines in

particular (blood sciences, infection sciences, cellular sciences and genetic sciences).

Safe practice relating to all aspects of analysis and measurement will be taught and required.


DIVISION MODULES:
PHYSIOLOGICAL
SCIENCE

STA
GE 1

Introduction to
cardiovascular
,
respiratory

and sleep science

This module will cover in greater detail the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of the
cardiovascular system, the respiratory and sleep systems and examine how these systems are
integr
ated under normal physiological and abnormal pathophysiological conditions. It will also
describe the interdependence and integration of other physiological systems such as the renal
system, the endocrine system and the nervous system on the physiology and

pathophysiology of the
cardiac, vascular and respiratory and sleep systems.

The anatomy of the heart will be described and the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the
anatomy and function of the heart discussed. The properties of cardiac muscle an
d how this leads to
the development of the cardiac action potential, generation of pacemaker potentials and how they
are regulated. The transmission of cardiac impulses across the heart and the basic electrophysiology
which generates an ECG trace will be d
escribed and analysed.

Cardiac embryology and foetal heart development will be described and the subsequent health
problems arising from abnormal foetal development discussed and analysed.

The autonomic nervous system and its regulation of cardiac output,

stroke volume and heart rate
will be described.

The anatomy of the vasculature will be covered including the anatomical and functional differences
between arteries and veins and the relationship between structure and function in the capillary
network. Poi
seuille’s Law and the physics of blood flow through the vasculature. The regulation of
blood flow will be described and the relationship between blood flow and blood pressure. The
control of blood pressure and the pathophysiology of high blood pressure wil
l be described.

The structure and function of the lymphatic system and its relevance to the maintenance of blood
volume will be explained. The pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system including left and right
ventricular failure, circulatory shock and
lymphoedema will be discussed and their impact of patient
care discussed. The generation of atherosclerosis and its relationship with cardiovascular disease will
be described. The risk factors for peripheral vascular disease will be introduced.

The pharmac
ology and the therapeutics of common cardiovascular diseases will be described.

The anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system will be described. The mechanics of
breathing including the structure and functional relationships of the respiratory syst
em, the
bronchioles and the chest wall and pleurae will be included. The muscles of respiration and the
respiratory cycle. The mechanics of ventilation, airflow and gas diffusion. Ventilation and perfusion
relationships. The structure and function of t
he alveolus and its role in the mechanisms of gaseous
transport and exchange will be examined. Gas transport in the blood, oxygen dissociation curves.
The normal neural control of respiration and pulmonary ventilation and how this is affected by
changes in

gas concentrations will be discussed.

The regulation of acid
-
base balance by the body will be described including the role of the lungs in
this regulatory process. The pathophysiology of common lung diseases will be examined. Normal,
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University of Sunderland

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obstructive and rest
rictive pathologies, the effects of smoking and obesity. The pharmacology and
the therapeutics of common respiratory diseases will be described.

The physiology of sleep and its control will be described including the sleep wake cycle, sleep stages
and arou
sal. Common sleep disorders, central and obstructive apnoeas, oxygen desaturation. The
relationship between respiration and sleep, both under normal and pathological conditions will be
described.


Anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of

neurosensory sy
stem
s

This module will enable the student to build on learning in the scientific basis of Healthcare Science
to gain a deeper understanding of anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology within the
Neurosensory Sciences which will support and develop the spec
ialism specific pathway and modules.

The generation of the electrical signals in neurones including the generation of bio
-
potentials,
resting membrane potentials, action potentials and their characteristics and propagation in
different neurone types.

The

signal transmission at synapses and the role of neurotransmitters in
this transmission will be discussed as well as how pharmacological intervention can effect this
transmission.

The organisation, structure and functions of the nervous system starting wit
h the
histology of nervous tissue will be included. This will be extended to the sensory, integrative and
motor functions of the nervous system, afferent and efferent pathways, reflex vs. voluntary activity.

The anatomical components of the brain and thei
r functions will be taught including the following:
brainstem (medulla, pons and mid brain); cerebellum; diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus);
cerebrum (limbic system, basal ganglia, cerebral hemispheres, lobes, cerebral white matter); cranial
nerves.

Students will gain an understanding of the importance of ventricles of the brain, brain membranes
(meninges), cerebrospinal fluid circulation, blood
-

cerebrospinal fluid circulation barrier and the
blood supply to the brain and blood
-
brain barrier.

The an
atomical components and functions of the spinal cord will be taught including spinal reflexes.


The structure and function of the autonomic nervous system will be described and its relevance to
the control of other physiological systems emphasised.

The str
ucture and function of the somatic nervous system, somatic motor and sensory pathways,
common peripheral nerves and the importance of pain will be taught
.

The
-
histology and function of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle will be described including
excita
tion
-
contraction coupling of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle.

Motor units and their receptors and common muscle groups will be included. A comparison will be
made of smooth and skeletal muscle contraction and how it is initiated and controlled.

The
anatomy of ear including the outer, middle and inner ear including the osseous labyrinth and
membranous labyrinth will be studied. The a
fferent and efferent auditory pathways, cranial nerves
with specific emphasis on vestibular
-
cochlear nerve will be cover
ed.

Neural coding including the generation of action potentials and synaptic transmission, hair
-
cell and
cochlear nerve physiology and sound transduction will be studied in depth.

An overview of pathophysiology, clinical and practical aspects of central,
peripheral and vestibular
disorders will be provided.

The anatomy of the eye and ocular adnexae: including lacrimal apparatus, orbit, extraocular
muscles, eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, trabecular meshwork, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous,
retina
, choroid and optic nerve head will be studied.

The physiology of the eye and ocular adnexae including production and drainage of tears,
production and drainage of aqueous humour, pupil responses, retina receptor functioning and
neural processing will be
studied. The optical functions of the eye: cornea, lens, accommodation,
errors of refraction will be taught. The importance of the visual pathway: optic nerve, chiasm, optic
tract, optic radiation, visual cortex and visual perception: visual acuity, colour

vision, field of vision
will be emphasised in health and disease.

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Introduction to n
eurosensory testing

This module will taught using practical examples and applications from the neurosensory area so
that students will be able to understand the context o
f the module content in physiological
measurement systems.

The routine investigations and procedures carried out in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological
disease will be introduced. Physiological measurement systems in the evaluation of brain and
ner
vous system function will be studied. For example the principles of electroencephalography will
be described and how brain waves are produced and measured. The reasons why patients are
referred to neurophysiology departments will be discussed.

The routine
investigations and procedures carried out in the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation
of hearing disorders will be introduced. Physiological measurement systems in the evaluation of
hearing and balance will be studied and the reasons for patient referra
l discussed.

The routine investigations and procedures carried out in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of
the visual system will be introduced and the reasons for patient referral.



Introduction to the practice of c
ardiovascular
,
respiratory
and
sleep science

The aim of this module is to understand the basic principles underpinning the routine

investigations and procedures carried out in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular

and respiratory diseases. These basic principles will be extended

so that students can

demonstrate that they can apply this knowledge to ensure that safe and effective clinical

practice in physiological measurement is demonstrated and that the respectful care of the

patient lies at the centre of practice. Students
will be able to describe the role of cardiology,

vascular, respiratory and sleep science in relevant patient pathways.

Students will learn the application of safe and effective practice in physiological measurement
including the management of risk and in
fection control. Students will gain an understanding of the
importance of patient
-
centred care across a wide spectrum of age and needs including children,
vulnerable adults, adults, elderly patients and patients with disability.

Routine investigations and

procedures carried out in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease
will be discussed and analysed. Identification of normal and abnormal ECG traces will be examined.

Investigations and procedures carried out in the diagnosis and treatment of cardia
c disease. The
characteristics of recording equipment and their evaluation including calibration and quality control
procedures will be identified. Basic cardiac electrophysiology will be practiced and recognition and
interpretation of normal ECG waveforms

undertaken.

Basic principles of physics including ultrasound and radiation and how these are used in cardiac
physiology to screen, diagnose and treat disease.


The use of ultrasound and physiological measurement systems in the evaluation of the vascular
system will be described. The characteristics of recording equipment and their evaluation will be
described. The measurement of blood pressure and oxygen saturation will be practiced and the
theory underlying this procedure described.

The investigations an
d procedures carried out in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease
will be described and evaluated.

The characteristics of recording equipment and their evaluation including calibration

quality control procedures will be identified. Investigat
ions and procedures carried out in the

diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease including sleep disorders will be studied.

Communicable disease and microbiological hazards in the respiratory laboratory will be identified
and methods of sterilisation

and disinfection applied. Quality control and routine maintenance.

Physiological measurement systems in the evaluation of lung function will be practiced as well as
dynamic lung volumes and transfer factors, mechanics and measurement. Students will be abl
e to

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d
efin
e

terms, symbols and units, principles of measurement and common equipment. Physiological
measurement systems used to measure respiration during sleep will demonstrated. Calculation of
reference values will be shown using common abbreviations and

units. Defining a normal population
and normal in clinical practice and the variations of lung function with age.


GENERIC MODULES

STAGE 2

Professional practice and l
earning and skill development at work

In this module students will
continue
to develop the principles of good
personal professional
practice required for the workplace including:



Know the importance of prioritising the patient’s wishes encompassing their beliefs,
concerns, expectations and needs.



Understand the procedures relevan
t to the use of chaperones.



Understand current child protection regulations relevant to practice as a Healthcare Science
Practitioner.



Understand the patient and carer perspective with respect to the NHS, diversity of the
patient experience, healthcare, illness and disability, including an understanding of the
impact of life threatening and critical conditions.



Understand the importance
of integration across professions, cross division, specialism and
boundary working.



Know and understand the principles, guidance and laws regarding medical ethics and
confidentiality.



Know the guidelines and processes for gaining consent.



Understand the

necessity of obtaining valid consent from the patient.



Define Standard Operating Procedure, Protocol and Guidelines and understand the purpose
of and difference between each document.



Understand the regulations and current procedures in place with respe
ct to equipment
safety.



Know the common causes of error and understand the critical incident reporting process.



Know and understand the legal requirements with respect to equality and diversity.



Understand local guidelines for responding to unacceptable

behaviour by patients, carers,
relatives, peers and colleagues including harassment, bullying and violent behaviour.


Research methods

The process of research from the identification of an idea through planning, design and
methodology through to conclusi
ons and dissemination

will be introduced
. The understanding of
appropriate statistical techniques for dealing with quantitative and qualitative data, including
sample
-
size determination and parametric and non
-
parametric data analysis

will be covered
.

The p
rocess of research inquiry and the role and responsibility of the researcher

will be addressed
including an a
ppreciation of the legal, ethical and governance framework when conducting research
within the health sector.
Applying s
cientific writing and diss
emination when conducting a literature
review and avoid
ing

of plagiarism.
Students will gain an understanding t
he characteristics of
observational and experimental research methods and their application.
How to work with t
he
research governance framework
for protecting the well
-
being and rights of the participants,
appreciation of
the
Caldicott
enquiry
and confidentiality

will be addressed
.
Students will understand
t
he difference between audit, research and service improvement. Qualitative research methods

and
evidence based practice using questionnaires, implications of longitudinal and cross
-
sectional data.

The role of statistics in
clinical practice
including
descriptive, sampling, distribution, parametric/non
-
parametric, errors, variance, logarithms, gr
aphs.

Data distributions: normal, binomial, Poisson;
sampling, statistical power, sample size and effect sizes, measures of central tendency.
The following
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will be covered: data types (levels of measurement; characteristics of nominal, ordinal, interval an
d
ratio; data transformations using logs and other normalization techniques.


Work
-
based project

The research project must be relevant to the student

s Healthcare Science discipline

and

the data
should be gathered in / informed by the workplace. Students will be expected to have benefited
from their learning of research methods earlier in the programme. A literature review, planning of a
programme of research including any relevant lega
l aspects, the successful execution of project
work, meaningful interpretation of data and writing a full scientific report on the work will all be
essential components. This will all be carried out with input from an academic supervisor. The
project wil
l be delivered over the final year. The context will be situated within the workplace

and
the students will be supported and assessed on campus. There will not be a rigid structure to the
delivery of the module. There will be initial discussions to plan t
he work
;

use of the scientific
literature by the students
;

regular meetings between the student and the supervisor to check on
progress
;

plan further work
.



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DIVISION
MODULES
: LIFE SCIENCE STAGE 2

Analytical science

The purpose of this module is to use mod
ern analytical techniques and instrumentation to

analyse biological samples. The techniques will include those used in clinical analysis and

will be delivered in the state of the art Analytical Instrumentation Laboratory. This resource will

allow the rapid

implementation of teaching the analysis of new markers for disease as they are

introduced in the public and private
-
industrial clinical labs. The wide
-
ranging philosophy of analysis
will be discussed including the fundamental theories required to perform
basic analytical tests. The
nature and different types of application will be discussed and the individual analytical
considerations noted, specifically the challenges of analytical methods to biological molecules in
complex biological matrices.

An introdu
ction to the overall analytical process will be described and the importance of defining

the analytical problem, sample considerations and the requirements for sample modification

demonstrated. The analysis of clinical samples to regulatory a workflow and
level of quality will be
used to place each analytical technique in context as part of a suite used to characterise and
evaluate the sample and suggest clinical diagnosis.

The theoretical background and demonstrable skill, of a number of fundamental analyt
ical
techniques will be taught, including a number of chromatographic, spectroscopic and
electrophoretic techniques.


Cell science 2

Cell science 2 covers two distinct areas: histology and molecular biology. These underpin the

disciplines of cellular and m
olecular pathology.

Histology is the study of tissues and organs through the examination of the microscopical

architecture of tissues and the relationship between the different types of cells and tissue types

found within tissues and organs. It will includ
e an introduction to cytology ie study tissues and

fluids at the cellular STAGE with a microscope. An important emphasis will be relating theory to

practice, so students will exposed to the principles and practices of microscopy, theoretical and

practical
aspects of fixation, tissue processing and microtomy, key stains in histology, molecular

pathology (FISH, TEM, SEM) and cytopathology. They will perform a series of histological and

histochemical stains in order to examine a range of sections microscopical
ly. These will include

basic cationic stains (e.g. methylene blue at different pHs), haematoxylin and eosin, staining

and interpretation of blood slides (comparing Romanowsky dyes eg Leishmans’, Wright
-

Giemsa, Diff Quick), histological demonstration of co
nnective tissue (including Van Gieson’s

stain for collagen, Gordon & Sweet’s method to detect reticulum and Voerhoff’s elastin stain),

carbohydryate (periodic acid Schiff technique) and mucins (alcian blue at different pH), and

cytological stains (includin
g papanicolaou and May Grunwald
-
giemsa). This will develop

competency in standard and special stains plus develop the ability to identify a range of

anatomical structures (including the kidney, liver, heart, muscle, gut etc

Molecular techniques in Biomedic
al Science were pioneered by the detection of infectious

disease but their application has become much more widespread in the post
-
genomic era. The

students will develop practical and theoretical knowledge of a range of basic molecular

techniques
including:



the use of electrophoresis for the separation and analysis of DNA, RNA and protein.



the methods involved in cloning DNA. DNA extraction processes, the use of restriction
enzymes to cut DNA and the use of ligase to join them. The use of simple ba
cterial vectors
for the cloning and propagation of DNA and methods for introducing and replicating DNA in
micro
-
organisms (transformation and transfection).

24


University of Sunderland

May 2012



methods of Southern, Northern and Western blotting and the methods required for probe
preparation.



An introduction to DNA sequencing



PCR underpins the technology of many molecular biology applications and both standard
and reverse
-
transcription PCR will be covered.


Infection and immunity 2

The module will cover microbiology relevant to the biomedical s
ciences and will include the

study of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites which cause disease. Techniques to identify

these organisms and treatment required to inactivate them and prevent disease will be

discussed. Examples of the application of microbi
ology to diagnose clinically significant

diseases will be provided. In particular, the pathogenic mechanisms of a range of

microorganisms, the laboratory investigation and the epidemiology of infectious diseases, food,

water and environmental microbiology,

anti
-
microbial and anti
-
viral therapy (including drug

resistance) and infection control will be discussed.

The role of the immune system in defence against infectious diseases will be explained and

foundation provided in stage 1 built on. It will include
the principles of innate and adaptive

responses,
i.e
. how pathogens are recognised and destroyed. Lymphocyte maturation, receptor

diversity, antigen presentation, cellular communication, phagocytosis, complement fixation and

other effector mechanisms will
be covered. Particular effort to explain the terminology will be

made. Standard techniques of cellular and humoral immunity will be performed and relevance to

clinical laboratories made. Discussion of how inflammatory / immune responses can be

measured (
e.
g.
flow cytometry, tissue culture) and applied to biomedical sciences eg organ

transplantation. Discussion of the causes and consequences of abnormal immune function,

neoplastic diseases and transplantation reactions together with their detection, diagnosi
s,

treatment and monitoring immunological techniques used in clinical and research laboratories,

the principles of the function and measurement of effectors of the immune response,

prophylaxis and immunotherapy.

The module will cover health and safety from

the perspective of dealing with biological agents

and will build upon the knowledge gained in stage 1. The framework of the teaching

will be to set risk and COSHH assessments within the framework of the institutional code of

practice for working with biol
ogical agents and the risks associated with such work. The

students will also be observed in their competency to perform basic biological and

microbiological techniques in a safe manner within the framework of the code of practice.


Blood science

The purpo
se of this module is to discuss some of the biomedical specialties involved in blood

sciences ie clinical biochemistry, haematology and transfusion science.

The principles and practice of biochemistry with reference to the clinical laboratory will be

cove
red, in particular, the approaches taken to analyse blood and other biological fluids to help

in the diagnosis of diseases. Biochemical investigations to test liver function (ALP, AST, ALT,

and bilirubin) as well as kidney function (electrolytes, urea, cre
atinine clearance) will be

introduced. In addition, the terms precision/accuracy, sensitivity/specificity, statistics, will be

explained in the context of the clinical laboratory, reporting and interpretation of results. Student

knowledge on the role of Qu
ality control/quality assurance, the importance of the sample

preparation and the logistics requirements in such high sample throughput laboratories will be

developed.

The principles and applications of spectrophotometric techniques (UV, fluorimetry, lumin
ometry,

nephelometry) to different assay or biochemical tests (enzymology, immunological and ligand

binding methods) will be covered. The use of separation techniques such as GC and LC to

25


University of Sunderland

May 2012

analyze clinical samples will be introduced.

The haematology section

of the module will cover the key concepts of haematopoiesis with

focus on the hierarchy of haematopoietic precursor cells and the relationships of various blood

cell lineages to each other. The students will gain understanding of the theoretical concepts
of

erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets development, function and the relevant physiological and

metabolic pathways. This section will also cover the structure and morphology of blood cells in

normal and disease conditions and classifies given examples o
f variations in erythrocytes and

leukocyte morphology as inclusions, shape changes, volume changes, colour changes and

developmental abnormalities. The students will be introduced to the systems involved in

maintaining haemostasis, as well as the productio
n, structure and morphology of platelets and

the characteristics of coagulation factors.

The students will acquire basic knowledge and skills in blood transfusion and

immunohaematology including the general characteristic, inheritance, development and gene
tic

features of major and other blood group systems, with focus on antigens and antibodies

detection of ABO and Rh systems and their clinical significance.

The module will provide the students with appropriate techniques of specimen collection,

handling an
d storage for haematological analysis and blood banking. The students will develop

practical experience and analytical skills in performing routine haematology procedures such as

full blood count (FBC), preparation, staining and microscopic examination of
peripheral blood

smears, leukocyte differential count, and reticulocyte count. The module will cover the

automated cell counting instrumentation and the quality assessment in the haematology

laboratory. The laboratory tests currently used to screen abnorma
lities of the haemostatic

system will also be covered in the module. The module will enable the students to understand

the significance of bone marrow examination in certain blood diseases and provide them with

the principles of bone marrow aspiration and
biopsy techniques. The students will also demonstrate
good understanding and competence in blood typing and cross
-
matching.
26


University of Sunderland

May 2012

DIVISION
MODULES
: PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE STAGE 2


Applied
physiological measurement and instrumentation

The aim of this module is to
ensure that the student understands the principles of physiological and
psychophysical measurements within
physiological s
ciences and is able to work safely within these
environments. The module also investigates the principles and applications of a wide r
ange of
physiological techniques, delivers descriptive methodology and application of digital signal
acquisition, storage and analysis.

The definition and basic concepts of electronic circuits

will be introduced: a
mplifiers
;

power supply;
gain;

dynamic rang
e;

single
-
ended
;

differential
;

CM
RR; internal impedance;

source impedances
;

impedance
-
matching
.
The effects of amplifier characteristics on the quality of the recorded signal,
and their influence on recording methodology will be covered.

The
operation, specification, advantages and limitations of filters will be taught covering

active,
passive, digital, frequency response, corner frequency,
bandwidth, advantages and

disadvantages
.


The problems around n
oise:

biological, non
-
biological,
random, deterministic, methods of noise
reduction (e.g. screening, buffer amplifiers, active cancellation, twisted pairs, filters, averaging),
signal
-
to
-
noise ratio, Fourier Analysis
, n
on
-
biological artefacts, electrical interference, electrodes
,

will be a
ddressed.

T
he principles of signal digitisation including
:

ac/dc, dc/ac, sampling theories, x
-
resolution, y
-
resolution, aliasing, sampling skew

will be introduced.
Computer acquisition
,
analysis of data,
storage and archiving

of data will be described.

Stu
dents will learn about the p
rinciples of calibration and maintenance of test equipment
,

adhering
to national and international standards.

T
he principles and methods of electrophysiological

techniques will be addressed: biological
generation of electrical f
ields; signal detection theory; electrodes; recording techniques,
electrophysiology measures

i.e. cochlear, visual, brain and nerve pathways
, b
iological, movement,
myogenic potentials, physiological factors ie pulse, respiration, sweat, sway, eye movement.


The underpinning theoretical
principles and applications o
f biomedical imaging techniques will be
taught including:

ultrasound;

X
-
ray
;

CT
;

MRI
;

isotopes
;

laser
;

biological hazards
; safety.


Pathophysiology of common cardiovascular and respiratory
conditions

This module will provide a deeper understanding of the normal structure and function of the
cardiovascular and respiratory systems. This will include the structure and function of blood cell
types and the pathways of blood clotting. Once the und
erpinning knowledge of the anatomy and
physiology of these systems has been discussed, the pathological conditions which relate to these

areas will be covered. This will include anatomical defects such as anatomical airway obstruction,
congenital heart de
fects and the effects of genetic mutations on the cardiac, vascular and
respiratory systems, for example Down’s Syndrome.

The major abnormalities of physiological control mechanisms in diseases of the cardiac vascular and
respiratory systems will be descri
bed including primary and secondary autonomic disorders which
may affect these systems.

The body’s responses to diseases of the cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep systems will be
studied at the level of cell, tissue and system so that a holistic unde
rstanding of the pathophysiology
of disease can be provided. These responses will concentrate on disorders of growth, tissue
responses to injury, cell death, inflammation, neoplasia, normal and abnormal immune responses,
atheroma, thrombosis, embolism and

infarction.

Common diseases of the cardiac, vascular and respiratory system including the epidemiology, public
health and psychosocial aspects of the following will be included
.





27


University of Sunderland

May 2012

Basic principles of ECG/BP measurement

In this module students will begin

the detailed understanding that underpins routine practical
techniques in cardiac investigations. The application of this learning to an understanding of heart
disease and how this can be assessed via ECG recording to American Heart Association standards
will
be emphasised. Interpretation of the ECG in terms of identifying cardiac disorders will be developed.

The anatomy and physiology of the heart underlying the generation of cardiac action potentials.

The clinical electrocardiography

The standard 12
-
le
ad electrocardiogram as a representation of the heart's electrical activity
recorded from electrodes on the body surface providing spatial information about the heart’s
electrical activity in three orthogonal directions: right to/from left; superior to/fro
m inferior;
anterior to/from posterior with each lead representing a particular orientation in space.

The basic components of the ECG and the lead system used to record the ECG tracings. P wave, QRS
complex, ST
-
T wave, U wave, PR interval, QRS duration, Q
T interval, RR interval, PP interval.

Recommended recording and measurement technique and development of a framework for
interpretation of Electrocardiograms. Recommendations of a standardised method in order to avoid
subtle abnormalities in the ECG tracin
g some of which may have important clinical significance
.

Measurement of blood pressure

Routine blood pressure measurements including the p
rinciples and limitations of range of recording
equipment used to measure blood pressure, analogue and digital device
s, device calibration,
selection of cuff size. Charac
teristics of recording equipment, t
he recommended measurement
techniques and the common errors in blood pressure measurement occur with the observer, the
equipment or the patient.
Factors affecting blood

pressure measurement
.

Consideration will be given to bl
ood pressure measurement
s in c
ertain groups of people

because of
age, disease states or other conditions which affect the

cardiovascular system

for example

children,
the elderly, obese subjects, pregn
ant women

and patients with cardiac arrhythmias because

when
cardiac rhythm is irregular there is a large variation in blood pressure from beat to beat.


Cardiac physiology ECG/BP

The Normal Electrocardiogram from birth to old age
.T
here is a wide range of

normal variability in the
12 lead ECG

and therefore a structured method of measurement
and correlati
o
n

of

the various ECG
findings with the particular patient's clinical status

interpretation is fundamental to a correct
diagnosis.

Research findings have i
ndicated that for example i
n some normal individuals, particularly
women, the T wave is symmetrical and a distinct, horizontal ST segment is present.
In children is

a
clear link between age and QRS duration, which increased linearly from about 1 year of ag
e to
adolescence. In the adults, the principal differences were an increased QRS duration in men
compared with women both in the standard and signal
-
averaged ECG. Upper limits of normal heart
rate also tended to be higher in women than in men in the two ad
ult populations. There are
significant electrocardiographic age trends in adult healthy populations from the third to the fifth
decade in QRS and T amplitudes (decrease with age) and direction (left axis shift with age) in
conventional electrocardiographic

leads, which flatten out after age 50. The decrease of amplitudes
is more pronounced in men than in women. Age trends of intervals are absent or small. However,
the incidence of premature supraventricular and ventricular beats increases with age.
Being
o
v
erweight accelerates the
se

age trends.

In the majority of
research
studies, the effect of age is more pronounced in populations with high
prevalence of coronary artery disease than in populations with low incidence. Coronary artery
disease, as long as the

resting electrocardiogram is normal, accelerates the age trends. The
frequency of ischemic response to exercise is greater, with more pronounced age trends, in
populations with high preval
e
nce of coronary artery disease. It is
thought

that the
electrocard
iographic age trends in asymptomatic populations are to a large extent due to latent
coronary artery disease.

Recognition of common and life threatening arrhythmias

The r
egulation of
normal
blood pressure

and blood volume.

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University of Sunderland

May 2012

The hormones that regulate blood

pressure including AVP, natriuretic peptides and the renin
-
angiotensin
-
aldosterone pathway. The integrated control of water & sodium metabolism which
leads to the control of blood volume & pressure. The balance of renal, vascular, behavioral, neural &
end
ocrine converging on the kidney which produces an integrated control of blood volume and
pressure homeostasis. The generation of hypertension occurs when this balance breaks down.

Hypertension

Primary and secondary hypertension. Incidence and causes of pri
mary hypertension including
genetics, high salt intake, obesity, tobacco, and alcohol. The role of hormones made in the kidney
and in blood vessels in the start and maintenance of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension
as a consequence of another di
sease, such as kidney disease, and certain hormonal disorders.

Hemodynamic Basis of Hypertension

The causes of the increase in arterial blood pressure by either an increase in
systemic
vascular
resistance

(SVR) or an increase in
cardiac output

(CO). The role of the
vascular tone

(i.e., state of
const
riction) of systemic resistance vessels and the
heart rate

and
stroke volume

in hypertension.



Incident rates of hyp
ertension and as the main risk factors for stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and
cardiac failure. Hypertension definitions including prehypertension. Normal and abnormal ranges
measurements of blood pressure.


Instrumentation, signal processing and imaging

The overall aim of the module is to ensure that the student understands

the

principles and
properties of the measurement techniques that underpin investigations in Cardiology, Vascular,
Respiratory and Sleep Sciences.

The functions, characteristics and saf
e use of e
quipment

will be emphasised. The a
pplication and
choi
ce of equipment

for the appropriate test will be considered in the light of risks and benefits to
the patient. The characteristics of a
mplifier
s

and
their
function

and how to address n
oise and
noise
reduction

issues will be considered
.
The o
peration, specifications, a
dvantages and limitations of
filters

will be discussed
.
Fluid dynamics will be described with an emphasis on fluid flow through
tubes,

Poiseuille’s Law
,

laminar and turbulen
t flow,

particularly with respect to

blood flow
.


Computer acquisition

and digitisation of physiological signals
,
their
storage and
analysis

will be
described.

The hazards and safe use of i
maging techniques including u
ltrasound,

x
-
ray, C
omputerised
Tomography,
Magn
etic Resonance Imaging and isotope use will be covered.

In particular the following measurement techniques will be emphasised:



Volume and flow measuring devices used to measure dynamic lung volumes and flows and
static lung volumes



Respiratory Gas Ana
lysis



Pulse oximetry



Airflow, respiratory effort, body position, sound during sleep



Electrocardiography



Blood pressure measurement


Applied physiological measurement and instrumentation

The aim of this module is to ensure that the student understands the
principles of physiological and
psychophysical measurements within the

physiological s
ciences and is able to work safely within
these environments. The module also investigates the principles and applications of a wide range of
physiological techniques, de
livers descriptive methodology and application of digital signal
acquisition, storage and analysis.

The definition and basic concepts of electronic circuits

will be introduced: a
mplifiers
;

power supply;
gain;

dynamic rang
e;

single
-
ended
;

differential
;

CM
R
R; internal impedance;

source impedances
;

impedance
-
matching
.
The effects of amplifier characteristics on the quality of the recorded signal,
and their influence on recording methodology will be covered.

29


University of Sunderland

May 2012

The operation, specification, advantages and limita
tions of filters will be taught covering

active,
passive, digital, frequency response, corner frequency,
bandwidth, advantages and

disadvantages
.


The problems around n
oise:

biological, non
-
biological, random, deterministic, methods of noise
reduction
(e.g. screening, buffer amplifiers, active cancellation, twisted pairs, filters, averaging),
signal
-
to
-
noise ratio, Fourier Analysis
, n
on
-
biological artefacts, electrical interference, electrodes
,

will be addressed.

T
he principles of signal digitisation in
cluding
:

ac/dc, dc/ac, sampling theories, x
-
resolution, y
-
resolution, aliasing, sampling skew

will be introduced.
Computer acquisition
,
analysis of data,
storage and archiving

of data will be described.

Students will learn about the p
rinciples of calibrati
on and maintenance of test equipment
,

adhering
to national and international standards.

T
he principles and methods of electrophysiological

techniques will be addressed: biological
generation of electrical fields; signal detection theory; electrodes; recording techniques,
electrophysiology measures

i.e. cochlear, visual, brain and nerve pathways
, b
iological, movement,
myogenic potentials, phy
siological factors ie pulse, respiration, sweat, sway, eye movement.

The underpinning theoretical
principles and applications o
f biomedical imaging techniques will be
taught including:

ultrasound;

X
-
ray
;

CT
;

MRI
;

isotopes
;

laser
;

biological hazards
; saf
ety.

Students will be introduced to the b
asic principles and methods of psychophysics, psychoacoustics
and
sound perception



Stimulus response



Detection threshold



Discrimination, resolution



Travelling wave theory



Tuning curves



Application to audiological me
asurements



pure tone audiometry



Acoustic reflexes



Loudness and intensity coding



evoked potential testing
.


Pathophysiology of auditory and vestibular systems

The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of the normal structure and physiological
function of the auditory and vestibular systems and of how pathological processes affect both. This
will provide the firm basis of understanding required in cli
nical practice and/or research. Lectures
will cover the gross anatomy of the ear proceeding to the detailed structure of the cochlear and
vestibular systems and of the relationship of structure and function in the transmission and
processing of external st
imuli from the periphery to the cerebral cortex. This will be followed by the
way in which pathological processes affect the structure and physiology of both systems, and of how
repair, regenerative and protective methods may ameliorate these affects.
The
pathology of hearing
and balance is developed in more detail. An emphasis is placed on developing an understanding of
current opinions of how pathologies develop (eg hyperacusis, tinnitus, Menieres
).
The module will
also provide information concerning the
normal embryological development of the auditory and
vestibular systems and how genetic defects may affect these processes.

The principles of signal processing by the sensory system. This will include the mechanisms
associated with sound transduction, the
mechanism of the detection of linear and angular
acceleration by the vestibular system and the role of this system in the integrated control of posture
and eye movements. The physiology of the upper respiratory tract will be considered both in terms
of voc
alization and resonance and its central control. The integrated control of the respiratory and
cardiovascular systems will be considered including the common pathologies that affect these
systems. Practical exercises will explore the microanatomy of the au
ditory and vestibular systems
and basic tests will be used to investigate the physiology of the sensory system.

30


University of Sunderland

May 2012

To facilitate the process of communication with hearing
-
impaired individuals, speech science is
introduced with emphasis on speech sounds and a
rticulation and the process involved in how
normal children learn to speak.

Normal developmental milestones in hearing in children including the development of

communication, speech and language, motor control and social development


in
troduction to speec
h production and speech perception in quiet and in the presence of

competing sounds. The development of speech perception and speech production during

first language acquisition. Experimental methods used for testing
speech perception in

infants and old
er children will be reviewed.

Explain the appropriate selection of screening

and hearing tests based on a child's chronological and developmental age.


Principles of a
udiological assessment

An introduction to the physics of sound. Definition of sound. T
he nature of a sound wave. Sound
generators. Features of periodic motion. Wavelength, frequency, propagation of a sound wave. The
effects of temperature on sound wave. The intensity

and spectra of sound waves.
Acoustics,
psychoacoustics
and psychophysics
of hearing.

The psychophysical methods and the psychophysics of hearing and perceptual effects

of deafness will be introduced. Models of pitch perception and frequency selectivity;


the

perception of loudness, masking, temporal processing, and the
perceptual effects of

binaural stimulation. The statistical basis of auditory discrimination and detection. The need for and
processes used in calibration of audiological equipment.

Clinical assessment of auditory function, appropriate selection of test s
trategy, test

procedures and
interpretation of results according to recommended clinical procedures

including BSA/BAA
recommended procedures. Test procedures include:



tuning fork tests



pure tone audiometry



uncomfortable loudness levels



Stenger test



ac
oustic admittance tests



speech audiometry



otoacoustic emissions and evoked response audiometry



Routine tests used in assessing balance disorder



Physiology and principles of normal balance function



Introduction to nystagmus



Methods of monitoring eye m
ovement during vestibular testing, including
electronystagmography and video nystagmography



Oculomotor testing



Static and dynamic position testing



Caloric testing



Basic ‘bedside’ testing and ’office’ testing



Common causes of balance disorders.


Proce
sses of audiological rehabilitation

The module develops
an introduction to the
psychological and sociological theories in

health.

It encompasses the developmen
t over the last decade of a
psychosocial approach to the

study of health and illness. The students will be introduced to the role of psychological and

social factors in the prevention of illness and the maintenance of good health, the treatment

of existing illness and the recovery from or adjustment to ongoing

illness/disability. Social

inequality issues in relation to ethnicity, gender and disability will be examined. The module

31


University of Sunderland

May 2012

will explore ways in which the social construction of health and the professionals and health

organisations can affect the care gi
ven to different social groups. Emphasis will be placed on

developing a critical approach to the concepts and theories of psychology and s
ociology

applied to health care with particular relevance to the consequences of hearing loss. This will

include an

understanding of the
psychosocial and communication implications of an

acquired hearing impairment on the individual’s everyday life
.

The

social relationships in

the context of health, illness and health care.
T
he perception of deafness in society and
deaf

culture.

D
evelopmental psychology and other factors which affect child development.

T
he principles and
application of a range of behavioural and objective tests as they pertain to hearing assessment in
children.

The process of adult aural rehabilitation including:



A patient centred relationship, the role of behavioural change in managing chronic
illness/disability, and the identification of the learning needs of patients



Particular needs of hearing impaired grou
ps (deafness vs. hearing impairment, dual and
multi
-
sensory impairment, communication disability, and tinnitus)



Communication skills of practitioners working with hearing impaired people



Communication disability and its impact on hearing impaired peoples
’ lives



Technological needs of hearing impaired people



Hearing impairment in the context of the WHO ICF



Goal setting and outcome measures in rehabilitation



32


University of Sunderland

May 2012

Appendix 3

Evaluation criteria for distance learners

plus responses

STEM project

Focus group re
sponses

210212


Which methods of online material did you prefer?

Organic Chemistry: words on screen
: difficult, level too high for self study, no structure

Orbital reference table: Words and animation
: good

Formulation: Animation and voice over:

good guidance and structure

Agar Plate: Agar plate: visual
: good interesting


Research Methods: PDF document
: would have printed off material although some would
have studied it online

Do you think that you could learn like this?

Yes but need a contact pe
rson to phone up and ask
questions. Would prefer blended learning , might have a problem with the chemistry.

What else would you like to see as part of a course?

Support structure, named contact, study skills,
IT help.

Would you prefer face
-
to
-
face or blen
ded?

Blended, weekly contact
but
doesn’t always have to be
face
-
to face.

How long would you spend studying a week?

Varied depending if family commitments or not.

Would you study at work or at home?

Freeman/QE
hospitals
might give day release:
Institute of
Human Genetics would give

half a day a week

If you studied at work would you be given the time to do it if it was all online?

Maybe in the
morning.

How much of your own time would you expect to spend studying?

2
-
4 nights.

Would you prefer a short course or

would you prefer a Foundation degree?

Like the short course to
build up confidence.

Have you studied before, if so to what level?

NVQ level 2/3 or Access course.

Is travelling to study a problem?

No
Sunderland
is
easy on the metro.

Would you be able to
come through the day, in block weeks or in the evening?

Lab would only
allow 2 people at a time to come through the day.

Any questions for me/us?

Start April or May and do short course for 6
-
12 months.



33


University of Sunderland

May 2012


Appendix 4

List of

employers and
steering group mem
bers


1.

Invited to meet with Karen Giles, Head of Organisational Development at the Freeman
Hospital, Newcastle. Invited to give a presentation to Heads of Department of Newcastle
hospital labs and discussed training needs. KG agreed to be on steering group
.

2.

Discussed proposal Jill Cassells NE SHA who agreed to be on Steering group.

3.

Invited to present

to the Heads of Organisational Development
at
the
Learning Strategy
Group at
North East
S
trategic H
ealth Authority

on 030611 the STEM project and
to ask for
them to suggest appropriate
members

for the steering group
.

Jill Cassells, Head of Education Commissioning, NESHA

Claire Ward, Health Innovation Education Clusters/Workforce Collaboration, NESHA

Head
s
of Organisational Development
:

Karen Giles,
Newcastle Hospital Trusts

Sue Richardson, North East Ambulance Service Trust

Alison McMurrough, Learning Manager, South of Tyne & Wear Hospitals Trust

Dennis Little, Workforce Development and Education Manager, Sunderland City Hospitals
Trust

Lyne McDona
ld, Gateshead NHS Trust

Karen Rochester, Northumberland Care Trust

Ed Young, Learning Development Manager, NESHA

Jacqui Gate, North Tyneside, Northumberland, Tyne & Wear Trust

Penny Laverick, Skills for Health

Paul Cummings, Head of Workforce,
County Durha
m & Darlington Trust

Jackie Kirsopp, Northumberland Healthcare NHS Trust

Roy Westhead,
Learning and Organisation Development Manager, Co. Durham & Darlington
Trust

Andrew Thacker, Assistant Director of Human Resources, South Tees Hospitals Trust

As a resul
t of th
e responses to the request the following people
agreed to sit on the project’s
Employer Steering Group.


Steering Group

membership

Jill Cassells, Head of Education Commissioning, NESHA

Lisa Thomas,
Neonatal Screening Laboratory
, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle

Gill Cresswell,

Life Sciences training lead NE SHA

Phil Johnson, Head of Biochemistry, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Gateshead

Gavin Cuthbert, Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle

Ed Brown, Audiology,
Sunderland City Hos
pitals Trust

Dav
id

Richley,
North of England Cardiovascular Network


North E
ast C
ardiovascular Network

Peter
M
ercer

Chair

David Richley Cardiac Physiologist

Dougie Muir Cardiologist

Martin Farrer Cardiologist

Derek Marshall Workforce Intelligence NE SHA


Regional Audiology Committee for Training Audiology Professionals

RACTAP

Ed Brown, Audiology,
Sunderland City Hospitals Trust

Joanne Close Head of Audiology University Hospital of North Durham

34


University of Sunderland

May 2012

Les Keith Head of Audiology queen Elizabeth Hospital

Anne Davi
es Head of Audiology James Cook University Hospital South Tees

Tom Davison Head of Audiology Freeman Hospital




North East Regional
Pathology
Workforce and Development group

Janette Bond

South Tyneside Foundation Trust Hospital

David Bottoms

NE Pathology Programme Manager

Christopher Leyland

Wansbeck Hospital Northumberland

Clinton Blackburn

Newcastle Hospital Trusts

Derek Stobbo Programme leader BSc Biomedical Sciences Northumbria University

Francine Duncan

North Cumbria Hospital Trusts

Tony

Gibson MSC Pathology Lead NE SHA

Lisa Thomas
Neonatal Screening Laboratory
, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle

Mike Carr

Wansbeck Hospital Northumberland

Phil Johnson Head of Biochemistry, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Gateshead

Tim Lang

County Durham and Darlington hospital trusts

Janice Tarn North Tyneside Hospital Trust

Stuart Montgomery North Tyneside Hospital Trust

Tina Porter
James Cook University Hospital South Tees

Alison McPherson South Tyneside Foundation Trust Hospital

Ottie O’
Brien Newcastle Hospital Trusts

Lianne Rounding NHS blood transfusion service

Keith Farrer Microbiology Sunderland City Hospitals Trust

Brian Lamb freeman Hospital Newcastle


Dissemination event march 28
th

2012

Joanne Close Head of Audiology University Hos
pital of North Durham

Phil Johnson Head of Biochemistry, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Gateshead

Gill Cresswell
MSC
Life Sciences training lead NE SHA

Bernard Groen MSC Lead NE SHA

Derek Marshall Workforce Intelligence NE SHA

Sue Long Physiological training le
ad NE SHA

C Ewing Royal Victoria Infirmary Newcastle

Karen Thompson Institute of Human Genetics, Centre for Life Newcastle

Michelle Elsender MLSA Biochemistry Dept, Freeman Hospital

Joanna McDonald Head of Cardiology
Sunderland City Hospitals Trust



Cogen
t

08.05.12

Christine Sakhardande

Science Technicians Programme Manager & Quality Manager

Helen Murray Life Sciences project Officer

Cogent SSC Ltd




Department of Health

March2012
-

on
-
going

Shirley Fletcher Chair of the Department of Health CF2 to 4 FD
Working Group


35


University of Sunderland

May 2012


Appendix 5

List of employees

on short course


Name

Role
: Support worker

Employer

Previous highest
qualification

Andrea Bulmer

Microbiology

Sunderland City
Hospital

NVQ 3

Neil Davidson

Haematology

Sunderland City
Hospital

NVQ 2

Karen
Delaney

Genetics

Institute of Human
Genetics Newcastle

NVQ 3

Christopher
Dunnington

Pathology

Queen Elizabeth
Hospital Gateshead

NVQ 3

Andrea Elliott

Genetics

Institute of Human
Genetics

NVQ 3

Michelle Elsender

Biochemistry

Freeman Hospital
Newcastle

HEFCE Access

Hailey George

Pathology

Queen Elizabeth
Hospital Gateshead

NVQ 3

Jennie Griffin

Cardiology

Freeman Hospital
Newcastle

NVQ 2

Angela Keers

Biochemistry

Queen Elizabeth
Hospital Gateshead

NVQ 2

Ian McAdam

Pathology

Queen Elizabeth
Hospital
Gateshead

NVQ 3

Clare Mills

Pathology

Sunderland City
Hospital

NVQ 2

Roger Moore

Genetics

Institute of Human
Genetics Newcastle

NVQ 3

Linda Snowdon

Microbiology

Sunderland City
Hospital

NVQ 3

Helen Sung

Genetics

Institute of Human
Genetics Newcastle

NVQ

Karen Watson

Cardiology

Freeman Hospital
Newcastle

NVQ 2

Susan Wilson

Microbiology

Sunderland City
Hospital

NVQ 3