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New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

2011
Instructor’s Manual

1

of
20

Computer Concepts

Chapter Four: Operating Systems and File Management

A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching
experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter
summary.



This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in
blue

that you see in the
textbook.

Under each heading you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the
section, Figures and Boxes found in the section (if any), Teac
her Tips, Classroom Activities, and
Lab Activities.

Pay special attention to teaching tips, and activities geared towards quizzing
your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within
the software.



In addition
to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources CD also contains PowerPoint
Presentations, Test Banks, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience.



For your students:

Our latest online feature, CourseCasts, is a library of weekly po
dcasts designed to keep your
students up to date with the latest in technology news.

Direct your students to
http://coursecasts.course.com
, where they can download the most recent CourseCast onto their
mp3 play
er. Ken Baldauf, host of CourseCasts, is a faculty member of the Florida State
University Computer Science Department
,

where he is responsible for teaching technology
classes to thousands of FSU students each year. Ken is an expert in the latest technology

and
sorts through and aggregates the most pertinent news and information for CourseCasts so your
students can spend their time enjoying technology, rather than trying to figure it out. Open or
close your lecture with a discussion based on the latest Cours
eCast.


Table of Contents

Chapter Objectives

2

Section A: Operating System Basics

3

Section B: Today’s Operating Systems

5

Section C:
File Basics

8

Section D: File Management

10

Section E: Backup Security

14

Glossary of Key Terms

1
9


New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

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Chapter Objectives

Students will have mastered the material in Chapter
Four

when they can

answer the following
questions
:



What are system resources?



How do multitasking, multithreading,
and multiprocessing

work?



What is a memory leak?



When do users in
teract with the
operating system?



How do GUIs differ from command line
interfaces?



What happens during the boot process?



Which operating systems are typically
used on personal computers,

on servers,
and on handheld devices?



What is a virtual machine?



Do
operating systems put limits on the
names that can be

used for files?



W
hat is a file specification or path?



What is a native file format?



Are there guidelines for managing files
so that they are easy

to locate and back
up?



What happens behind the scenes wh
en a
computer stores a

file?



How do I devise a backup plan?



What is the best backup device?



How does backup software work?



How do restore points, bare
-
metal
restore, disk imaging,

virtual machines,
boot disks, and recovery disks relate to

bac
kup?

READING ASSIGNMENT FASTPOLL T/F QUESTIONS:

040100

An operating system manages a computer’s resources such as the processor, RAM, and
storage space. (Answer: True) (185)

040200

Multithreading

provides process and memory management services that

allow
two or more
tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously.

(Answer: False) (186)

040300

GUI stands for “graphic usability icons.” (Answer: False) (189)

040400

A bootstrap program is a popular type of application software. (Answer: False) (192)

040500

Duri
ng a computing session, the operating system is executed from RAM. (Answer: True)
(193)

040600

The Windows kernel is the same as the Mac OS kernel. (Answer: False) (195)

040700

Macs featured a graphical user interface before PCs. (Answer: True) (198)

04080
0

Boot Camp is a dual boot utility for Macs. (Answer: True) (199)

040900

Mac files have a data fork and a resource fork. (Answer: True) (200)

041000

Fedora, Mandrivia, and SUSE are Linux distributions. (Answer: True) (201)

041100

A disk partition is basica
lly a folder. (Answer: False) (205)

041200

A file specification is also called a path. (Answer: True) (206)

041300

Windows Explorer is a file management utility. (Answer: True) (216)

041400

Disks are formatted into tracks and sectors. (Answer: True) (218)

041500

Time Machine is synchronization software used for backup on Macs. (Answer: True) (226)

041600

To repopulate a new hard disk from an incremental backup, you have to first restore a full
backup. (Answer: True) (228)

041700

A boot disk contains a compl
ete copy of your computer’s hard disk as it existed when the
computer was new. (Answer: False) (229)


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SECTION A: OPERATING SYSTEM BASICS

SECTION A OPENER QUESTION:

042100

A computer handles many tasks simultaneously. Which one of the following refers to the
processor’s ability to handle multiple tasks, rather than the operating systems ability to do so?

a.

Multi
-
core

b.

Multitasking

c.

Multithreading

d.

Multiprocessing

(Answer: a)

Ope
rating System Activities

(184)

LECTURE NOTES



Students have difficulty understanding operating systems and their functions. Explain that
a

computer purchased without an operating system is nothing more than a box with hardware
components. The operating syst
em software makes the connection with the hardware to display the
Windows desktop.



Stress that the operating system software does not have the capability to create a letter or a
spreadsheet. It is the controller of the hardware and the application environm
ent.



Use Figure 4
-
6 to introduce the Control Panel. The Control Panel presents a good overview of the
tasks of an operating system.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
1, Figure 4
-
2, Fi
gure 4
-
3, Figure 4
-
4, Figure 4
-
5
, Figure 4
-
6


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have

students perform an Internet search and see what information they can find
about operating systems. What operating systems are available? Can they find good descriptions of
how operating systems work?

What are the pros and cons of each type of OS?



Quick
Quiz:

1.

The
_________
interacts with application software, device drivers,

and hardware to m
anage a
computer’s resources. (Answer:
operating system
)

2.

Within a single program, _________

allows multiple parts, or threads, to run simultaneously.
(Answer: multith
reading
)

3.

True/False: An operating system’s multiprocessing capability supports a division of labor among
all the processing units. (Answer: True
)

User Interfaces

(189)

LECTURE NOTES



Show as many different operating systems as you can, focusing on the user
interface.



Show how to perform a typical task in a command
-
line OS and how to perform the same task in a
GUI.



Demonstrate how to display a list of files, start a program, or copy a file.



Use the demonstration computer to show how Windows or Mac OS use t
he various desktop
elements like icons, windows, and menu bars to facilitate the user experience.

New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

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Discuss the ways in which the myriad options available to a user of a given application are
presented via these mechanisms, and discuss how the user is, to a

large degree, allowed to work the
way he or she wants to, because of the many different ways that exist to perform a function.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
7, Figure 4
-
8, Figure 4
-
9, Figure 4
-
10, Figure 4
-
11, Figure 4
-
12


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: After

outlining the characteristics of each OS, ask students to debate the merits of
two or more operating systems.



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) _________

is the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers
communicate. (Answer: user interface
)

2.

A(n)

_________

user interface requires users to type commands. (Answer: command
-
line
)

3.

True/False: All of the popular operating systems use graphical user interfaces. (Answer: True
)

The Boot Process

(192)

LECTURE NOTES



Review the six major events that occur during the boot process.



Discuss why the operating system cannot simply be left in memory, even with the advent of
EEPROM.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
13



TEACHER TIP

If possible, use a classroom computer to demonstrate the
boot process.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project:

Use Windows Task Manager to view a list of the processes that are being executed
by the microprocessor on the computer in your classroom.



Quick Quiz:

1.

The _________

provides essential operating system s
ervices, such as memory management and
file access.

(Answer: kernel)

2.

True/False: A GUI provides a way to point and click a mouse to select menu options and
manipulate graphical objects that are displayed on the screen.

(Answer: True)

3.

_________

provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks,
jobs, or programs to run simultaneously.

a.

Multitasking

b.

Multithreading

c.

Networking

d.

Multiprocessing

(Answer: a.)

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SECTION B: TODAY’S OPERATING SYSTE
MS

SECTION B OPENER QUESTION:

042200

Today’s popular operating systems include Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, and
Google Chrome. Each has strengths as weaknesses that are important to understand. Which of the
following statements is correct?

a.

Google
Chrome is built on the Windows kernel, so it is ideal for netbooks because it has
good resistance to malware.

b.

If you don’t like the user interface for Windows but want to run the vast variety of
Windows software, you can install Linux.

c.

Linux and Mac OS hav
e a reputation for being more stable than Windows.

d.

Windows includes software called Boot Camp that allows PCs to boot into different
operating systems, such as Mac OS, Linux, Chrome, and Android.

(Answer: c)

Microsoft Windows

(194)

LECTURE NOTES



Discuss Fi
gure 4
-
15.



Explain that
Windows has a long history as a leading operating system.



Review the changes that have occurred
in operating systems
over time and discuss the impact these
changes have had on personal computing
.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
14, Figure 4
-
15,
Figure 4
-
16


TEACHER TIP

Discuss the prevalence of Windows with students. Note that m
ore than 80% of all PCs are running
Windows. Is this a good thing? Many computer viruses take advantages of weaknesses in the Windows
operating system

that

are not a threat to computers running UNIX or

Linux.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask students to discuss their experiences with Microsoft Windows. Why do they
think Windows is so popular? What are the strengths and weakness
es

of Windows in the
ir
opinions? What are their opinions about the Vista software? Do they like/dislike it and why?



Quick Quiz:

1.

Microsoft Wind
ows is installed on more than _________
% of the world’s personal computer.
(Answer: 80)

2.

True/False: The number and variety of programs

that run on Windows are unmatched by any
other operating system. (Answer: True
)

3.

True/False: Windows has been criticized for two major weaknesses: reliability and security.
(Answer: True
)


LAB ACTIVITY

The New Perspectives Lab “Managing Files” deals with i
ssues that relate to this section of the textbook.
You might want to go through the lab during class time if you have a computer with a projection
device. Or, assign this lab for students to do outside of class.

New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

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Mac OS

(197)

LECTURE NOTES



Compare Mac OS vs. Windows.



Ask students whether they use the Mac or Windows OS. Discuss the differences from a user
perspective.



Introduce the dual boot. A major recent innovation has been the ability of the Mac OS X on an Intel
Mac to run both software
designed for the Macintosh and software designed for Windows. What
are the implications of this development? Do you expect it to have a significant impact in this area?


TEACHER TIP

For emphasis, as an in
-
class demonstration, set up two computers
side
-
by
-
side and run the Mac OS on one
and Windows on the other. Let students explore each to determine their opinions of the operating systems.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
17,
Figure 4
-
18, Figure 4
-
19, Figure 4
-
20


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask student
s to identify themselves as Mac or PC users. Divide students into
groups according to their responses and ask them to debate the pros and cons of each system.




Quick Quiz:

1.

____________ refers to the ability to work with products designed for prior
-
generati
on
hardware or software. (Answer: Backward compatibility
)

2.

True/False: Mac OS X has a reputation for being a difficult
-
to
-
use operating system. (Answer:
False
)

3.

True/False: Mac OS X on an Intel Mac offers the ability to run Windows and Windows
application so
ftware. (Answer: True
)


UNIX and Linux

(201)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain that

Linux is a free operating system.



Visit a Linux Web site, or if you have access to a computer running Linux, show students how to
perform

some tasks. Use it as a jumping
-
off point for a discussion of
o
pen
s
ource programming.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
21


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

True/False: UNIX and Linux are the same
operating system
. (Answer: False
)

2.

True/False: Linux is designed for
mainframes. (Answer: False
)

3.

True/False: UNIX developed a good reputation for dependability. (Answer: True
)

DOS

(202)

LECTURE NOTES



Describe DOS.

New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

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While

discussing operating systems, distinguish between desktop and server operating systems. The
charts below
emphasize the unique features of the different types of operating systems available:

DESKTOP OS

OUTSTANDING FEATURES

DOS

One of the first operating systems;
command
-
line user interface

Mac OS

Designed by Apple computers; graphical
user interface

Windows 95

Features multitasking and networking
capabilities

Windows 98

Similar to Windows 95, but with increased
disk and memory management

Windows Me

Similar to Windows 98, but with more
features for the home user, including
multimedia support

Window
s 2000

Increased security features; ability to
support specialized applications

Windows XP

Redesigned structure and interface,
improved safety and recovery tools, greater
support for multimedia and networking

Windows Vista

Enhanced security, more
flexible file
management, more powerful search
capabilities, and live icons that show
document thumbnails


SERVER OS

OUTSTANDING FEATURES

Linux

Variation of UNIX; used as a server OS for
microcomputers and minicomputers;
available as freeware

Novell

Developed for microcomputer networks;
typically used by network managers

UNIX

Designed as a minicomputer OS, now
popular for all sizes of network and Web
servers; makes use of both command
-
line
and graphical interfaces


TEACHER TIP

If possible,
demonstrate DOS on a classroom computer. Ask students their thoughts about DOS. Does this
operating system seem like a foreign concept to them or are they familiar with it?


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
22


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2011
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have students search
the Web for information about DOS and report their
findings. Can they find good reason
s

to be familiar with DOS?



Quick Quiz:

1.

DOS stands for _________
. (Answer: Disk Operating System
)

2.

True/False: DOS is still a relevant, frequently

used operating system. (A
nswer: False
)

Handheld Operating Systems

(202)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain the physical limitations of PDAs
that
dictate the features of their operating systems.


TEACHER TIP

If you have a PDA, use it to demonstrate the operating system. What features are simil
ar to those of
Windows and Mac OS? Which features are different?


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
23

SECTION C: FILE BASICS

SECTION C OPENER QUESTION:

042300

Suppose a friend sends you a file called Twain.dll. From the file name, what can you
deduce?

a.

That it is a word
processing document, probably about Mark Twain.

b.

That you should be able to open it using Microsoft Word.

c.

That the file extension makes it a virus.

d.

That it is a support program file, perhaps part of the device driver for your scanner.

(Answer: d)

File Names

and Extensions

(204)

LECTURE NOTES



Review
the rules for naming files
.



Discuss different file extensions.



Show the Open and Save As dialog boxes in applications such as Microsoft Word, Paint, WordPad,
and PhotoShop. Click the Files of type list arrow to sh
ow the formats the application can open and
which ones they can save. Some applications convert file formats when you use the Save As
command and choose a different file type.




TEACHER TIP

File naming conventions differ by operating system. Have students

start by learning the conventions only
for the operating system they use in your school labs, then build on their knowledge for other operating
systems. Trying to memorize rules for all the operating systems at one time may be difficult for a novice
user.


TEACHER TIP

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Finding files with specific names and specific folder locations is difficult for students. Have students save a
file in Microsoft Word and then try to find the folder location. Most students do not look at the Save In
drop down box when
saving files.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
24, Figure 4
-
25


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Group Activity: Divide the class into two groups and challenge the groups to list as many file
extensions as they can think of or find on classroom computers. Which group can list the mo
st?



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) _________ is an optional file identifier that is separated from the main file name by a
period. (Answer: file extension
)

2.

True/False: Each operating system has a unique set of file
-
naming conventions. (Answer: True
)

3.

True/False: Reserved

words cannot be used as file names. (Answer: True
)

File Directories and Folders

(205)

LECTURE NOTES



Directories and subdirectories are a troublesome concept for many students.
To explain, use the
cardboard box analogy: e
ach directory is a box
; e
ach box ha
s a name. Boxes can contain papers
(files) or folders (subdirectories).



Once

students understand the idea of directories, explain that files are not physically stored in a
structure that reflects the directory tree.



Although some people like to use a dir
ectory analogy in which each directory is like a slice of a pie
or disk, the files in a directory are not necessarily stored in a certain physical area of the disk. The
directory structure is a logical model that helps us think about the organization of fi
les on a disk.



Describe file specifications.


TEACHER TIP

File size becomes especially important when disk space is limited. The file date becomes important when
you are tracking work and want to make sure you have the most recent copy of a file. Compare
file sizes of
Word documents to Paint files and explain why the sizes vary.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
25, Figure 4
-
26


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have students research why the main hard disk drive is usually referred to as drive
C.



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) __
_______

is a section of a hard disk drive that is treated as a separate storage unit.
(Answer: disk partition
)

2.

True/False: The main directory is called the base directory. (Answer: False
)

3.

_________

is usually measured in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes. (An
swer: File size
)

File Formats

(207)

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LECTURE NOTES



Explain that most programs, such

as Microsoft Office,

automatically add the extension to the file

name.



Review the reasons given on page 209 for files failing to open as expected. This is a common source
of frustration for new users of computers,
for example, when they

receive an e
-
mail attachment

for
which no

application
on their computer
can open the file.



Using an application such as Microsoft Excel or Access, show students how to convert a file using
the Save As dialog box and using the Export command on the File menu. Compare these two
methods and discuss when to use one or the other.


TEACHER TIP

Remind

students to be careful when renaming files
,

and remind students of the implications in changing a
file extension.
Demonstrate this by h
av
ing

students use a file in one format, such as My File.bmp, and
rename it so it has a different file extension, such a
s My File.doc. Ask them to try opening the renamed file
in Paint and then in Word and discuss what happens and why.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
27, Figure 4
-
28, Figure 4
-
29, Figure 4
-
30, Figure 4
-
31, Figure 4
-
32


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project:
Have students
find a specific folder and list three file

names with different
extensions. Students should note the folder name as well as the files.



Quick Quiz:

1.

A fil
e is a named collection of _________

that exists on a storage medium, such as a disk, CD,
DVD, or tape.

(Answer: data)

2.

True/False: A file

name extension is an optional file identifier that is separated from the main
file

name by a comma, as in Help,com.

(Answer: False)

3.

The maximum length of a file

name using current versions of Windows is _______.

a.

8
-
character file

name plus an extension of 3 characters or less

b.

31 characters

c.

255 characters

d.

256 characters

(Answer: c.)

SECTION D: FILE MANAGEMENT

SECTION D OPENER QUESTION:

042400

Before donating your computer to a charitable organization, you can make sure your
personal data cannot be accessed from the hard disk by:

a.

Deleting any files that contain personal data.

b.

Deleting files containing personal data and then emptying the Recycle

Bin or Trash.

c.

Deleting all the files and folders on your computer’s hard disk.

d.

Deleting all files and folders and then using file shredder software.

(Answer: d)

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Application
-
based File Management

(212)

LECTURE NOTES



D
emonstrate how to use the Open and Save
As
dialog boxes in a typical Windows application. Take
time to show all the information the Save
As
dialog box provides

location for the file, file name,
and file type

or use Figures 4
-
33 and 4
-
35.



M
ention that many

programs allow you to set a default folder location to save files. Give an example

of this.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
33, Figure 4
-
34, Figure 4
-
35


TEACHER TIP

The best way to understand how to manage files using the Open, Save, and Save As commands in a
Windows application is to have students perform these tasks themselves. If possible, let students work in
the lab to create a short document about file basics, f
or example. Have them save the file on a
CD or zip
drive

with a name such as File Basics.doc and close the document. Then ask them to open the File Basics
document, add information about managing files, and use the Save As command to save the document as
F
ile Basics and Management.doc.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have
students
write a brief explanation of the difference between Save and Save
As.



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) __________ is a piece of information that describes a file. (Answer: file tag
)

2.

True
/False: You can name a file and specify its storage location in the Save As dialog box.
(Answer: True
)


LAB ACTIVITY



Refer students to the New Perspectives Web site for a Student Edition Lab called “Managing Files.”

File Management Utilities

(214)

LECTURE
NOTES



Explain that f
ile management utilities help you manage files by providing a “big picture” of the files
on your computer.



Explain that a
lthough file management utilities vary from one operating system to another, they
rely on the same basic principle
s.



As students become familiar with the concepts of device letters and folders, they will be able to
navigate through most computer systems.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
36

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CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

_________

utilities
give you the big picture of the files
you have stored on disks. (Answer: File
management
)

2.

True/False: You can change the way the Windows file management utility shows files. (Answer:
True
)


File Management

Metaphors

(215)

LECTURE NOTES



Use Figure 4
-
37 to show how drives, folders, and files fit

the tree metaphor.



A
sk students if they have developed any metaphors for themselves to help them understand how to
organize or find files.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
37, Figure 4
-
38


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have students sketch the file structure
they will use for their personal files.



Quick Quiz:

1.

What are two metaphors typically used for storage on personal computers? (Answer: Filing
cabinet, tree
)

Windows Explorer

(216)

LECTURE NOTES



Discuss what Windows Explorer looks like as a program.

On
a

demonstration computer, show the
Windows Explorer window, pointing out the two panes and explaining what they show. The left
pane shows the big picture view of the computer’s hierarchy of storage devices and folders. If you
click a folder in the left pane
, for example, the right pane shows the folders and files in the selected
folder.



Discuss m
oving, copying, and renaming files and folders in Windows Explorer. Make sure students
understand that a file’s true name includes its path as well as the individual

file

name; demonstrate
this in Windows Explorer by creating files with identical file

names and extensions, but store them
in folders with different names.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
39, Figure 4
-
40


TEACHER TIP

Point out the Details pane and explain how this can

help identify and distinguish poorly named files, saving
time that would’ve been spent opening and perusing the file to identify it.

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CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have students open and explore Windows Explorer.



Quick Quiz:

1.

True/False: You can
rename files in Windows Explorer. (Answer: True
)

2.

True/False: You can copy files in Windows Explorer. (Answer: True
)

3.

True/False: You cannot delete files in Windows Explorer. (Answer: False
)

File Management Tips

(217)

LECTURE NOTES



Review each tip with the
class. Go around the room and ask students to explain why he or she
thinks the item is important.



Ask for examples of errors or file disasters that could be attributed to ignoring these tips.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
41


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Ha
ve students
examine their own computers and figure out which of the
guidelines for
file management

listed on pages 217
-
218 they are following and which they are not.
What can they do to deal with the situations in which they are not following the guideline
s?

Physical File Storage

(218)

LECTURE NOTES



Emphasize to students that even when a disk is defragmented, the physical organization is still not
equivalent to the conceptual organization. Although a directory analogy in which each directory is
like a slice

of a pie or disk works as a logical model, all the files in a directory are not necessarily
stored in the same physical area of the disk. A logical model is not meant to accurately reflect the
physical organization of the disk itself.



Explain that a
lthou
gh a disk is physically laid out in tracks and sectors, a cluster is the smallest unit
accessible by most microcomputer operating systems. In Windows, a cluster is composed of two
sectors.



Use Figure 4
-
42 to show what an operating system does when it forma
ts a disk.



Some s
tudents may skip

over Figure 4
-
44 without studying it thoroughly.
S
pend some time talking
about it. The main point is that the index file tracks the location of files on disks. Help your students
see how the file Jordan.wks is stored in different sectors.



Demonstrate how to defragment a disk. Start the Disk Defragmenter tool, use the Details view to
explain what Windows is doing as it defragments, and then let it run for the length of the class. At
the end of your class session, examine the progress or resu
lts of the defragmentation.



Discuss what
happens when a file is deleted
.

Is it really deleted, or can it be recovered? Show
students how to use the Recycle Bin folder to find files that they have deleted. Show how to erase
files from the Recycle Bin, and
discuss file shredder software that truly eradicates data from your
disk.




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TEACHER TIP

Remind students that defragmenting disks might be done at the end of the business day or overnight to
avoid use of the computer.


TEACHER TIP

Th
e conceptual model of f
olders and files does not reflect the physical reality of the way in which files are
stored on a disk. Students may confuse this statement with the explanation of fragmentation discussed later
in the section. Remind students that random
-
access storage allo
ws files to become physically divided up all
over a disk’s surface. Although this does not mean that the file itself becomes unreadable, it does make it
harder for a drive to read the file efficiently. The process of defragmentation helps to organize the d
isk by
rearranging the files on the disk so that they are stored in contiguous clusters
.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
42, Figure 4
-
43, Figure 4
-
44, Figure 4
-
45


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project:
Have the students draw a diagram of the hierarchy of the folder str
ucture of their
own PC, if they have one. Students should compare their results with other students.



Quick Quiz:

1.

File management utilities often use some sort of storage _______ to help users visualize and
mentally organize the files on disks and other
storage devices.

(Answer: metaphor)

2.

True/False: The pane on the left side of the Windows Explorer lists each of the storage devices
connected to your computer, plus several important system objects, such as My Computer, My
Documents, My Network Places, and

the Desktop.

(Answer: True)

3.

When working with Windows Explorer, you can select noncontiguous files
by
holding down
the _______.

a.

Ctrl key and click
ing

each of them

b.

Al
t key and clicking each of them

c.

Shift key and clicking each of them

d.

mouse

and pressing the down arrow key

(Answer: a
)
SECTION E: BACKUP SECURITY

SECTION E OPENER QUESTION:

042500

Copying important data files from your computer’s hard disk to an optical disk or flash
drive is a simple way to back up data. It is n
ot a total backup solution, however. Why not?

a.

You cannot restore these files to a new hard disk without the activation codes.

b.

The backup is bootable, but it won’t start your computer if the hard disk fails.

c.

You have not backed up your programs or your pers
onal settings.

d.

You have not backed up the restore points needed to reconfigure the Windows Registry for
a new hard disk.

(Answer: c)

Backup Basics

(222)

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LECTURE NOTES



Use
Figure 4
-
48 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each backup device.



Review external hard disks and their advantages in the backup process.
Point out that one of the
reasons that they are so useful is that th
ey can be stored in a secure location, such as a safe, or a
fireproof vault.



Disaster can happen to anyone. Refer to
the following table to show how easily data can be
destroyed:




Factor


Unintentional
data loss


Inaccurate
data

Intentional
data loss or
damage

Operator error

X

X


Power failure,
surge, or spike

X



Damaged
hardware

X



Natural disasters

X



Computer virus



X

Trojan horses



X

Worms



X




Emphasize the importance of a plan. Refer students to Figure 4
-
46 to help them formulate a backup
plan for themselves. Suggest a schedule for backups, e.g., every other Friday, or just before lab.



Explain
that many users rely on network backup. Network backup can be as easy as copying a
valuable file to a folder on a shared drive on your server. While this protects your important data
against the failure of your own personal computer, it might not protect y
ou against a network
failure, or a disaster such as a fire in your building, for example.



Review
I
nternet backup sites.


TEACHER TIP

Another form of Internet backup is simply to e
-
mail a file to a friend, or to your own Internet e
-
mail
account such as a G
mail account. Any form of backup is better than none!


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
46, Figure 4
-
47, Figure 4
-
48


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CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask the class if anyone has ever been the victim of a data disaster, such as
mistakenly copying an old version of a

document over a new version, losing data on a hard drive, or
having a virus wipe out files
.

What could’ve been done to prevent the loss?



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) _______ stores files needed to recover data that’s been wiped out by operator error,
viruses, or har
dware failures. (Answer: backup
)

2.

True/False: Your backup schedule depends on how much data you can afford to lose. (Answer:
True
)


File Copies and Synch
ronization

(224)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain file synchronization and discuss the advantages that it offers.



Discuss the kinds of files which are important to backup using Figure 4
-
49.



Describe how to restore files from a backup.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
49


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask the class what types of files they currently back

up and onto what
medium
.

Using Figure 4
-
49

to aid the discussion, ask if their backups are as complete as they should be
.



Quick Quiz:

1.

File

synchronization
is
sometimes referred to as

_________. (Answer:
mirroring
)

2.

True/False:
To copy important files manually, you can use t
he Copy and Paste

commands.
(Answer: True)

System Synch
ronization

(226)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain how
system synchronization differ from file synchronization
.



Discuss how system synchronization works using the
Time Machine

program as an example.



Discuss how to

restore from system synchronization.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
50


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Ask students to research the System Restore feature of Windows. How does it
compare with the Time Machine program of
Mac OS X
?



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) _________

system backup

includes every file from the computer’s primary storage
.

(Answer:
full
)

2.

True/False: You should only be concerned with backing up data files you create. (Answer: False
)


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File and System Backup (227)

LECTURE NOTES



Demonstrate a backup.
Use the

backup software supplied with Windows, or another backup
software.



Go over the pros and cons of full backups vs. differential backups, where only those files that were
added or changed since your last full backup session are backed up.



Explain the purpo
se of a boot disk.



Discuss the reasons for having a recovery disk and how to get a recovery disk.



Discuss the backup of the Windows Registry.



Explain how to use restore points in Windows.


FIGURES



Figure 4
-
51
,
Figure 4
-
52, Figure 4
-
53


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Have students write a paragraph comparing and contrasting full, differential, and
incremental backups.



Quick Quiz:

1.

A
(n)

_________
is a removable storage medium containing

the operating system files needed to
boot your computer without

accessing the hard disk.

(Answer:
boot disk
)

2.

A
(n)

_________
is a snapshot of your computer

settings.

(Answer:
restore point
)

Bare
-
Metal Restore and Virtual Machines (230)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain what is meant by a
bare
-
metal restore.



Discuss the advantages a
nd disadvantages of disk imaging.



Discuss how virtual machines can be in making backups.



Review the suggestions for Windows users given on page 231.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion:
Ask students to share their disaster stories about lost files and n
o backups. If you
have any disaster stories of your own, tell them. Do all students make backups, or do some prefer to
live dangerously?



Quick Quiz:

1.

A
(n)

_________
is a bit
-
by
-
bit copy of the data

from all sectors of a disk.

(Answer:
disk image
)

2.

True/False: Windows

users can depend on Time Machine

to make easy
-
to
-
restore backups on an
external hard drive.
(Answer: False
)


LAB ACTIVITY

The New Perspectives Lab “Backing up Your Computer” deals with issues that relate to this section of
the textbook.

You might want to go through the lab during class time if you have a computer with a
projection device. Or, assign this lab for students to do on their own.



WHAT DO YOU THINK?

043100


Should a computer virus distribution sentence carry the same penalty

as manslaughter?

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a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure


043200

Should it be a crime to steal a copy of computer data while leaving the

original data in place
and unaltered?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure


043300

Should hackers be sent to jail if they cannot pay restitution t
o companies

and
i
ndividuals who
lost money as the result of a prank?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure


043400

Do you think that a hacker would make a good consultant

on computer

security?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure



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Glossary of Key Terms



Android OS, 203



Backup, 222



Backup software, 227



Backward compatibility, 198



Bare
-
metal restore, 230



Boot disk, 229



Boot process, 192



Bootstrap program, 192



Button, 190



Cluster, 219



Command
-
line interface, 189



Data fork, 200



Defragment
ation utility, 221



Desktop, 189



Desktop operating system, 188



Dialog box, 191



Differential backup, 227



Directory, 206



Disk image, 230



Disc mastering, 219



Disk partition, 205



DOS, 202



Dual boot, 199



FAT32, 219



File Allocation Table, 219



File date, 206



File
extension, 204



File format, 207



File header, 207



File management utilities, 214



File shredder software, 220



File size, 206



File specification, 206



File synchronization, 224



File system, 219



File tag, 212



File
-
naming conventions, 204



Folder, 206



Formatting,

218



Fragmented files, 221



Full backup, 227



Full system backup, 226



Graphical user interface, 189



Icon, 189



Incremental backup, 228



iPhone OS X, 203



Kernel, 192



Linux, 201



Linux distribution, 201



Logical storage model, 215



Mac OS, 197



Master File Table,
219



Memory leak, 187



Menu, 190



Menu bar, 190



Microsoft Windows, 194



Multiprocessing, 186



Multitasking, 186



Multithreading, 186



Multiuser operating system, 187



Native file format, 209



NTFS, 219



Operating system, 184



Packet writing, 219



Palm OS, 202



Path, 20
6



Physical storage model, 218



Recovery disk, 229



Reserved words, 205



Resource, 185



Resource fork, 200



Restore point, 230



Ribbon, 190



Root directory, 206



Sectors, 218



Server operating system, 187



Single
-
user operating system, 187



Subdirectory, 206



Submenu,
191



Symbian OS, 202



Taskbar, 190



Toolbar, 190



Tracks, 218



UNIX, 201



User interface, 189



Virtual machine, 199



Window, 189



Windows Explorer, 216

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Windows Mobile OS, 203


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