THE GREAT T2 PHYSICS COMMON ASSESSMENT STUDY GUIDE
Contents:
1.
Exam Breakdown
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 1
2.
Studying and test

taking strategies
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 2
3.
Big Ideas from Each Topic
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 3
a.
Unit 4
–
Momentum
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 3
b.
Unit 5
–
Energy……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 3
c.
Unit 6
–
Thermodynamics
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………P
age 4
d.
Unit 7
–
Electrostatics
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 5
e.
Unit 7½

Uniform Circular Motion
……………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 5
f.
Cumulative Topics
–
Kinematics and Universal Gravitation
…………………………………………………………..Page6
4.
Table of var
iables and standard units
5.
Common conversions
The Common Assessment Breakdown:
45 multiple choice, 90 minutes (2 minutes / question)
2 Free Response questions
, 45 minutes
o
1 lab

based
o
1 cumulative
Multiple Choice Breakdown by Topic:
Unit
Topic (Objectives)
# of
Questions
4
–
Mom敮瑵m
4.1
: Momentum
4.2
: Impulse
4.3
: Conservation of Momentum
6
5
–
䕮敲Ey
5.1
:
Types of Energy and their Transformations
5.2
: Conservation of Energy
6
5.3
: Work
5.4
: Power
6
6
–
周敲moTyn慭i捳c
6.1
: Methods of Heat Transfer
6.2:
Laws of Thermodynamics
6.3
: Energetic Properties of Matter
6.4
: Specific Heat, Latent Heat, and Thermal Equilibrium
6
7
–
䕬散瑲WV瑡W楣i
5.1
: Electric Charge
3
5.2
: Coulomb’s Law
4
5.3
: Electric Fields
5.4
: Electric Potential and Work
4
7½
–
啮楦o牭⁃楲捵污l Mo瑩on
7½.1
: Tangential Velocity and Centripetal Acceleration
7½.2
: Applications of UCM
4
CUMULATIVE REVIEW
1.1
: One

Dimensional Kinematics
3.2
: Universal Gravitation
6
Studying Strategies:
Principle 1: Manage Your Time!
I recommend
studying physics for an hour per night (including weekends) each day from now until the Common
Assessment. That gives you five evenings to review

one night per unit on the exam.
Principle 2: Focus!
How do you study best? Do you best study alone or with
others (be honest with yourself about how much work you get
done with friends or significant others!)? Do you prefer to study while listening to music, collaboratively working with
others, or in a silent environment? Determine your ideal studying style and
find a way to maximize this studying! Don’t
study at your computer where Facebook or Twitter can distract you! Don’t study in front of the TV
!
Whether you
hibernate in your room, sit at your kitchen table, head to the library, or claim a table at Starbuck
s, eliminate distractions.
Determine where you’ll study, when you’ll study, who you’ll study with, and stick to it!
Principle 3: Be Tactful!
Don’t try to study
everything
at once. It’s overwhelming, and you won’t be as successful! Pick one major unit or t
opic to
study each day, and only review that topic. You’ll be more focused, and get more practice on a specific objective. A
common strategy I used while studying in college was figuring out what I didn’t know, reviewing that first, and leaving
the concept
s I knew easily for last. How you can apply this strategy right now:
1)
Review your past exams and end

of

unit reflections
; 2) i
dentify your weakest topics
; and 3) f
ocus your studying
on those topics.
Principle 4: Keep your brain calm!
Your brain operates better when you’ve had a good night’s sleep. Experts recommend 8 hours. Your realistic physics
teacher who spent far too many late nights at the library cramming for finals recommends a
minimum
of 6 hours.
Furthermore,
don’t study anyth
ing the day of the test!
Don’t stress yourself out cramming during lunch right before the
Common Exam. Use that time to alleviate some stress: eat a healthy lunch, get some exercise at activity time to increase
endorphins and lower stress levels, listen to
music to focus yourself, and just come into the test with a positive attitude.
A calm, collected, and ready

to

problem

solve mind can make all the difference after a long week of testing!
Test

Taking Strategies:
Principle 1:
Go with What You Know!
There
will be problems that you don’t have any idea how to solve right away. There will be problems that you look at
and you feel as though you can solve it in your sleep. Solve those easy problems first! Each problem
—
no matter the
difficulty level
—
is worth the
same amount of points on the multiple choice section. Solving simpler problems you
definitely can solve first and skipping the ones you find challenging will help boost your self

esteem early in the test, and
maximize your score.
Principle 2:
If all else
fails part 1: GUESS!
There will be problems that you look at and they seem foreign. If you rack your brain and can’t determine the concept
the question is assessing, a great strategy before you just bubble a random answer is to GUESS. Identify your
G
ivens.
Identify your
U
nknowns.
Look for the
E
quation corresponding to the variables you know and the one you want.
S
ubstitute and
S
olve!
Principle 3: If all else fails part 2: guess!
There’s five minutes left of the test, and you have 12 unanswered questions.
AH! At this point, pick one remaining
question you feel most comfortable with to try and work through, but before you finish that one question, guess and
bubble answers for the rest! There’s no penalty for guessing on Common Assessments, and while I want 1
00% of you to
finish with time leftover to check your answers and then take a nap, I know that may
not be realistic for everyone. So
make sure at the end of the test, no question goes unanswered.
Principle 4: Never give up. Never surrender
!
Attempt all
problems, and never settle for “I don’t know,” or “I don’t care.” Especially on Free Response, you receive
partial credit for correct setup, equations, and even units! Even if you feel like you don’t understand a problem, work
your way through! It’s traini
ng your brain

just keep at it!
Major Topics, the Big Ideas, and Practice Problems
This section is to help you study by objective. After you identify your weakest topics, use this guide to
review most
important concepts
.
Then study problems on your
notes
a
nd from homework
on that topic (all copies of filled in notes
will be posted online at
http://ypsephysics.wordpress.com
),
a
nd then complete the practice problems
on the 2011

12 T2
Common Assessment
and re

ta
ke exams
on your own
(all solutions will also be posted online at the URL above)
. If you
still struggle with the practice problems, check out online tutorials from
https://www.khanacademy.org/scie
nce/physics
(great for AP Level 4 or AP Level 5 problems!)
or
http://physicsclassroom.com
!
Unit 4: Momentum
Topic:
4.1
Momentum
The Big Ideas
Momentum is how difficult an object is to stop
Momentum = Mass x Velo
city
Problems to work:
7
Topic:
4.2
Impulse
The Big Ideas
Impulse is an object’s
change in momentum
Impulse = final momentum
–
楮楴楡i mom敮瑵m
Impulse = mass x change in velocity = force x time
Problems to work:
29, 31
Topic:
4.3
Conservation of
Momentum
The Big Ideas
Any time an object
collides
with another object, this involves conservation of momentum
Momentum lost by one object is gained by another object
The impulse one object experiences is equal and opposite to the impulse of the other obje
ct
The total momentum is the same before and after the collision
When two objects stick together, or
collide perfectly inelastically
, they have the same final
velocity
Problems to
Work:
5, 21, 23
Unit
5
:
Energy
Topic:
5.1
–
Types
of Energy
The Big
Ideas
Energy is the ability of an object to do work
Potential gravitational energy is energy an object has due to
height
Potential elastic energy is energy an object has while being
stretched
or
compressed
Kinetic energy is energy an object has due to
motion
The sum of an object’s kinetic and potential energies is its total mechanical energy
Problems to
Work:
13 (step 1),
22, 30, 33
Topic
5.2
–
䍯n獥Vv慴aon o映
䕮敲Ey
The Big Ideas
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed to other
types of energy
When work is not done (i.e. lifting or pushing an object) and heat is not released (i.e.
friction), the total mechanical of an object is constant
Change in energy of an object is equal to the heat absorbed plus work done on the object
Problems to
Work:
10, 16, 23,
24
, 44
Topic
5.3
–
坯rk
The Big Ideas
Work is an object’s
change in energy
when heat remains constant
When an object is accelerated by an outside force, work = change in kinetic energy
When an object is lifted, work =
change in potential energy
Problems to
Work:
26, 28, 34
Topic
5.4
–
Pow敲
The Big Ideas
Power is the
rate
at which energy is used
Power = force x velocity = work / time
Problems to
Work:
34, 43
Unit
6
:
Thermodynamics
Topic:
6.1
–
Methods of Heat
Transfer
The Big Ideas
Conduction is the transfer of heat through the collisions of particles, most often in
solids
Problems to
Work:
6, 20, 40
Convection is the transfer of heat through the expansion of particles, most often in
liquids
and
gases
Radiation is the transfer of heat through
waves
directly from energy sources
Topic:
6.2
–
周攠
L慷猠o映
周敲ToTynam楣i
The Big Ideas
The Zeroth
Law of Thermodynamics states that when a hot object placed next to a cool
object, heat will transfer from the hot object to the cool object until they reach
thermal
equilibrium
(the same temperature)
The First Law of Thermodynamics is the Law of Conservat
ion of Energy
o
To change the internal energy of an object, it can either absorb or release heat, do
work, or have work done on it
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is the Law of Entropy.
o
Entropy is the amount of disorder in a system
o
High entropy makes it
harder to do work, making engines less efficient
o
Entropy in the universe is always increasing
The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that as an object approaches absolute zero, its
entropy will become zero; however, nothing can reach this temperature since
objects must
always have some kinetic energy
Over one or more
cycle
s
of an engine, its change in internal energy equals zero:
o
0 = Q
absorbed
+ W + Q
released
Problems to
Work:
26, 38
Topic:
6.3
–
䕮敲E整楣i
P牯p敲瑩eVf
M慴a敲
The Big Ideas
Solids have
the lowest entropy and lowest energy
Gases have the greatest entropy and greatest energy
When substances are increasing temperature, they are increasing kinetic energy
When substances are changing phase, they are increasing potential energy
Problems to
W
ork:
2, 3
Topic:
6.4
–
印散楦楣⁈敡eⰠ
L慴anW⁈敡琬湤
周敲T慬
䕱E楬楢物rm
The Big Ideas
Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a substance by 1
°
C
Latent heat is the amount of energy required to change the phase of 1 g
of a substance
o
Fusion = solid
汩qu楤
o
Vaporization = liquid
g慳
For a system exchanging heat with its surroundings, the heat lost by the system is gained by
the surroundings until the two reach thermal equilibrium
Problems to
Work:
8, 13 (2
nd
step), 15
, 39
Unit 7: Electrostatics
Topic:
7.1
–
Electric Charge
The Big Ideas
Charge is an imbalance of protons and electrons
o
More electrons than protons = negative
o
More protons than electrons = positive
Like charges repel; opposite charges attract
Conductors transfer charge easily and have a large number of free electrons
Insulators do not transfer charge easily and have a small number of free electrons
When charging via friction, electrons move from a less electronegative object to a more
electrone
gative object
When charging via conduction on objects of equal size, electrons diffuse from the more
negative object to the less negative object until the two have even charge density
Problems to
Work:
24, 52, 53
Topic:
7.2
–
Coulomb’s Law
The Big
Ideas
Electrostatic forces are directly proportional to charge and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance separating them.
Problems to
Work:
45, 46, 47
Topic:
7.3
–
䕬散E物r⁆楥汤V
The Big Ideas
Electric fields are to electrostatic forces
as acceleration is to gravitational forces
Electric field is the force per unit charge a positive charge would experience in a space
Electric field lines point from positive charges to negative charges
Electric field lines indicate the direction a positiv
e charge would experience a force
A greater density of field lines indicate a stronger electric field
Problems to
Work:
48, 49
Topic
:
7.4
–
䕬散E物r⁐oW敮瑩慬
慮T⁗o牫
The Big Ideas
Problems to
Work:
50, 51
Electric potential is the energy per unit
charge a positive charge would experience in a space
Equipotential lines run perpendicular to electric field lines
Unit 7½: Uniform Circular Motion
Topic:
Centripetal
Acceleration and
Tangential
Velocity
The Big Ideas
Centripetal acceleration changes t
he direction of an object’s velocity
Centripetal acceleration always points toward the center of a circle
Tangential velocity always points in the direction an object would fly off a circle
Problems to
Work:
1, 12, 18,
41
Review:
Topic:
3.2
–
Universal
Gravitation
The Big Ideas
Gravitational force is an object’s
weight
The gravitational force is directly proportional to object’s masses and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance between them
Gravitational forces are always
attracti
ve
Problems to
Work:
14, 19, 35,
36
Topic:
1.1
–
One
Dimensional
Kinematics
The Big Ideas
Displacement, velocity, and acceleration are
vectors
that have both magnitude and direction
Distance and speed are
scalars
that do not have direction
Velocity is
the rate of change of displacement. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
Problems can be solved using a dv
i
v
f
at table
Problems to
Work:
1, 34, 54,
55
Common Variables, their Symbols, and Standard Units
Variable
Symbol
Unit
Time
t
Seconds
(s)
Displacement
d
Meters (m)
Velocity
v
Meters / Second (m/s)
Acceleration
a
Meters / Second
2
(m/s
2
)
Mass
m
Kilograms (kg)
Force
F
Newtons (N)
Momentum
p
Kilograms*meters per second (kg m/s)
Impulse
J
Kilograms*meters per second (kg m/s)
Energy
KE, PE
Joules (J)
Work
W
Joules (J)
Heat
Q
Joules (J)
Power
P
Watts (W)
Charge
q
Coulomb (C)
Electric Field
E
Newtons / Coulomb (N/C)
Electric Potential
V
Volts (V)
Common
Metric
Conversions
cm
m: divide by 100
km
m: multiply by 1000
g
kg: divide by 1000
kN
N: multiply by 1000
kJ
J: multiply by 1000
µ
C
C: multiply by 10

6
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