Section 3.5: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

73 εμφανίσεις

Cop
y
ri
ght

© 2012

N
e
l
son

E
duca
ti
on
L
t
d.

Chap
t
er

3: At
o
m
s

3.5
-
1


Sect
i
o
n
3
.
5:

A
t
o
m
i
c

S
t
r
u
ct
u
r
e

a
n
d t
h
e

P
e
ri
od
i
c

T
a
b
l
e

Tu
t
ori
a
l

1
:

Writing E
l
ec
tro
n
ic

Con
f
igur
a
ti
o
ns,

p
a
ge

1
6
6

1.
S
t
e
p

1:
F
r
a
n
c
ium

h
a
s

87
e
le
c
trons.

S
t
e
p

2:
Assi
g
n
e
l
ec
trons

using

the

a
u
fb
a
u prin
c
ip
l
e
:

The

f
ull

e
le
c
tron

c
onf
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on f
o
r
a
n

a
tom

of the

e
lem
e
nt f
r
a
n
c
ium

is as
f
o
l
l
ows:

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
3
d
1
0
4
s
2
4
p
6
4
d
1
0
4
f
1
4
5
s
2
5
p
6
5
d
10
6
s
2
6
p
6
7
s
1
.

I
t
m
a
y

a
lso be
w
ritten in orbital fil
l
ing
o
r
d
e
r:

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
6
5
s
2
4
d
1
0
5p
6
6
s
2
5
d
10
4
f
1
4
6
p
6
7
s
1

2.
Th
e
re
a
re

19

e
le
c
trons

in
t
his elem
e
nt. The

e
le
m
e
nt
i
s po
t
a
ss
i
um,

K.

3
.
S
t
e
p

1:
D
e
te
r
m
i
ne

the

noble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
ece
di
n
g

si
l
icon.

I
t
i
s N
e
o
n.

S
t
e
p

2:
Add the

a
ddi
t
ional
e
le
c
trons to
t
his noble

g
a
s.

N
e
on h
a
s 10

e
le
c
tr
o
ns.
S
i
l
icon h
a
s 14
e
le
c
trons.
The

sh
o
rth
a
nd

e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
f
i
g
u
ra
t
i
on f
o
r
a
n
a
tom

of sil
i
c
on is
a
s

follows:


[
N
e
]

3
s
2
3p
2
.

4.
S
t
e
p

1:
The

ma
g
n
e
si
u
m

ion h
a
s 10
e
le
c
trons.

S
t
e
p

2:
Assi
g
n
e
l
ec
trons

using the
a
u
fb
a
u prin
c
ip
l
e
.

The

e
l
e
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on f
o
r

a

m
a
g
n
e
sium
ion, M
g
2+
, is as
f
ol
l
ows:

1s
2

2
s
2

2p
6
.


Tu
t
ori
a
l

2
:

Writing E
l
ec
tro
n
ic

Con
f
igur
a
ti
o
ns

Us
i
ng t
h
e

P
e
riod
i
c

T
a
bl
e
,

p
a
ge

17
0

1.
T
i
(s)

is el
e
ment 22
a
nd

r
e
sides in pe
r
iod 4, w
h
e
r
e

the 3d o
r
bi
t
a
ls of the
a
t
oms a
r
e

b
e
i
n
g

f
i
l
led.

S
ince

Ti
i
s the s
ec
ond of

the

3d
e
lem
e
nts,
i
ts atom must

h
a
ve two 3d
e
le
c
tr
o
ns.

I
ts el
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
2

or

[
A
r
]

4
s
2
3
d
2
.

Al(s)

is el
e
ment 13
a
nd
r
e
sides in

p
e
riod 3,
w
h
e
re the 3
p
o
r
bi
t
a
ls of the
a
t
o
ms a
r
e

b
e
i
n
g

f
i
l
led.
S
ince

Al is the
f
irst of the

3
p
e
lem
e
nts,
i
ts atom must

h
a
ve

1
3
p
e
le
c
t
ron.

I
t
s co
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on is

1
s
2

2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
1
or

[
N
e
]

3
s
2
3
p
1
.

2.
The

nobl
e

g
a
s i
m
med
i
a
te
l
y

p
r
e
c
e
di
n
g
35
B
r is
1
8
A
r
. The

shorth
a
nd

e
le
c
t
r
on
c
onfigu
ra
t
i
on of

35
B
r is
[
A
r
]

4
s
2
3
d
1
0

4
p
5
.

The

noble

g
a
s i
m
medi
a
t
e
l
y

pr
e
ce
di
n
g

43
Tc

is

36
K
r
.

The

shorth
a
nd
e
l
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

43
Tc
is

[
K
r
]

5
s
2
4
d
5
.

The

noble

g
a
s i
m
medi
a
t
e
l
y

pr
e
ce
di
n
g

83
B
i
i
s
54
X
e
.

The

shorth
a
nd
e
l
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

83
B
i
is

[
X
e
]
6
s
2
4
f

14
5
d
1
0
6
p
3
.

The

noble

g
a
s i
m
medi
a
t
e
l
y

pr
e
ce
di
n
g

59
P
r is
5
4
X
e
. The

shorth
a
nd
e
l
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

59
P
r
is

[
X
e
]
6
s

2
4
f

3
.

The

noble

g
a
s i
m
medi
a
t
e
l
y

pr
e
ce
di
n
g

96
Cm
i
s

8
6
R
n. The

shorth
a
nd
e
l
e
c
tron

c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

9
6
Cm
i
s

[
R
n
]

7
s
2
5
f
8
.


The

shorth
a
nd
e
l
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
ons of

35
B
r,

43
T
c
,
83
B
i,
5
9
P
r,
a
nd
9
6
C
m
a
r
e

a
s follows:

35
B
r:
[
A
r
]

4
s
2

3
d
1
0
4
p
5
;
43
T
c
:
[
K
r
]

5s
2
4
d
5
;

8
3
B
i:

[
X
e
]6
s
2

4
f

1
4

5
d
1
0

6
p
3
;
5
9
P
r:

[
X
e
]6
s

2

4
f

3
;

9
6
Cm:

[
R
n
]

7
s
2

5
f
8


S
ec
tion
3
.5

Q
u
es
tio
n
s
,

page

1
7
2

1. (a)

The

p
e
riodic

table

blocks
a
nd the
c
o
r
r
e
spo
n
ding

orbitals
a
r
e

a
s foll
o
ws:

s
block
(
s
o
r
bi
t
a
l
s
)
,

the
p
block
(
p
o
r
bi
t
a
ls),
t
he
d
block
(
d
o
r
bi
t
a
ls),

a
nd the
f
block
(
f
o
r
bi
t
a
ls).

(b)
The

posit
i
on on the p
e
riodic

table

h
e
lps

y
ou
d
e
rive the
e
l
ec
tron
c
o
n
f
i
gur
a
t
i
on of

a
n
e
l
e
ment
f
r
om the position of the

e
lem
e
nt
i
n the p
e
riodic

ta
b
le b
eca
u
s
e

the p
e
riodic

t
a
ble is
a
r
ra
n
g
e
d in
t
o
e
le
c
tron
e
n
e
r
g
y

le
v
e
ls
th
a
t a
r
e

sor
t
e
d
b
y

the su
b
l
e
v
e
l
s and

o
r
bi
t
a
l
t
y
p
e
s
t
h
a
t a
r
e

o
c
c
upied
b
y

the

e
le
c
trons of

a
n
e
lem
e
nt.

Cop
y
ri
ght

© 2012

N
e
l
son

E
duca
ti
on
L
t
d.

Chap
t
er

3: At
o
m
s

3.5
-
2




(
c
)

The

a
u
f
b
a
u prin
c
ip
l
e

stat
e
s that el
ec
trons
o
cc
up
y

low
e
st

e
n
e
r
g
y

o
rbit
a
ls firs
t
. Hund

s rule
stat
e
s that el
ec
trons

a
re

n
ot pai
re
d with
i
n subl
e
v
e
l

o
r
bi
t
a
ls un
t
il

eac
h subl
e
v
e
l orbit
a
l has

a
t
l
ea
st
one

e
le
c
tron.

(d)
The

order i
n which o
r
bi
t
a
ls a
r
e filled is det
e
rm
i
n
e
d
b
y

s
t
a
rting with
t
he

low
e
st en
e
r
g
y

o
rbit
a
l
a
nd
c
ont
i
nuing

to h
i
g
h
e
r

e
n
e
r
g
y

orbitals.
W
h
e
r
e

the
r
e

a
re

orbitals of

si
m
i
la
r
e
n
e
r
g
y

a
ll

the
subl
e
v
e
l orbit
a
ls
m
ust contain
a
t
l
ea
s
t one
e
l
e
c
tron

b
e
fo
r
e

a

se
c
ond

e
le
c
t
ron

ca
n be

a
dd
e
d to one
of

the suble
ve
l o
r
bi
t
a
ls.

2.























3. (a)

Cr:
[
A
r
]4
s
3
d
5
, the
r
e

a
re

6 un
p
a
ir
e
d

e
le
c
tro
n
s;
C
u:
[
A
r
]
4
s
1
3
d
1
0
, the
r
e

is

1 unp
a
ir
e
d
e
l
e
c
tron
(b)
Th
e
se

unp
r
e
dict
e
d
e
l
ec
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
ons o
c
c
ur

b
eca
u
s
e

the
a
tom

is
m
o
r
e

stable

w
h
e
n the
hi
g
h
e
r

e
n
er
g
y

3
d
o
r
bi
t
a
ls

a
re h
a
l
f filled or

f
i
l
led t
h
a
n wh
e
n the 4
s
o
r
bi
t
a
ls
a
re

f
ul
l
y

f
i
l
led.

4.
S
i has 14
e
le
c
trons. T
h
e

f
ull

e
le
c
tron

c
onf
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

S
i
i
s

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
2
.

Ga

h
a
s 31
e
l
e
c
trons. The

full
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n of
G
a

is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
3
d
1
0
4
s
2
4
p
1
.
As h
a
s 33
e
le
c
t
rons. The

full
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n of
A
s is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
3
.
Ge

h
a
s 32
e
l
e
c
trons. The

full
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n of
G
e

is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
2
.
Al h
a
s 13
e
le
c
trons. T
h
e

full
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n of
A
l
i
s

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
1
.

C
d h
a
s 48
e
le
c
trons. The

full
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n of Cd is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
6
5
s
2
4
d
1
0
.
S

h
a
s 16
e
le
c
trons. The

f
ull

e
le
c
tron
c
onf
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

S

is 1
s
2

2
s
2

2
p
6

3
s
2

3
p
4
.

S
e

h
a
s 34
e
le
c
trons. T
h
e

full
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n of
Se is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
4
.

5.
Cu h
a
s 29
e
le
c
trons.
T
he

noble

g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
ece
di
n
g

it

is

18
A
r
. The

shorth
a
nd
e
l
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

Cu is

[
A
r
]

4
s
1
3
d
10
.

O h
a
s 8
e
le
c
t
rons.
T
he

n
o
ble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
e
c
e
ding

it

is

2
H
e
. The

shor
t
h
a
nd
e
le
c
tron
c
o
nfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

O is

[
H
e
]

2
s
2

2
p
4
.

L
a

h
a
s 57
e
l
e
c
trons. The

noble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
ece
di
n
g

it

is

54
X
e
. The

shorth
a
nd
e
le
c
t
ron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

L
a

is

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
4
f
1
.

Y h
a
s 39
e
l
ec
t
rons.
T
he

n
oble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
re
ce
di
n
g

it

is

36
K
r
. The

sh
o
rth
a
nd
e
le
c
t
ron
c
on
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

Y is

[
K
r
]

5
s
2
4
d
1
.

B
a

h
a
s 56

e
le
c
trons. T
h
e

noble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
ece
di
n
g

it

is

54
X
e
. The

shorth
a
nd
e
le
c
t
ron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

B
a

is

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
.

Cop
y
ri
ght

© 2012

N
e
l
son

E
duca
ti
on
L
t
d.

Chap
t
er

3: At
o
m
s

3.5
-
3


Tl h
a
s 81
e
le
c
trons. T
h
e

noble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
ece
di
n
g

it

is

54
X
e
. The

shorth
a
nd
e
le
c
t
ron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

Tl is

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
4
f
1
4
5
d
1
0
6
p
1
.

B
i has 83
e
l
e
c
trons. The

noble g
a
s i
m
medi
a
te
l
y

p
r
ece
di
n
g

it

is

54
X
e
. The

shorth
a
nd
e
le
c
t
ron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

B
i
i
s

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
4
f
1
4
5
d
1
0
6
p
3
.

6.
(
a)

Z
n is
i
n p
e
riod 3,

wh
e
re

the
3
d

o
r
bi
t
a
ls a
r
e

b
e
ing

f
i
l
led.

T
h
e

last
e
l
e
c
tro
n in
Z
n
e
n
t
e
rs the

3
d
o
r
bi
t
a
l.

(b)

I

is
i
n p
e
riod 5,
w
h
e
r
e

the
5
p
o
r
bi
t
a
ls a
r
e

b
e
i
n
g

f
i
l
led.

T
h
e

last
e
le
c
tron

in

I

e
n
t
e
rs the

5
p

o
r
bi
t
a
l.

(
c
)

B
a

is
i
n p
e
riod 6,
w
h
e
re the 6
s
o
r
bi
t
a
ls a
r
e

b
e
i
n
g

f
i
l
led.

T
h
e

last
e
le
c
tron

in
B
a

e
nt
e
rs the

6
s

o
r
bi
t
a
l.

7. (a)

The

th
i
rd
e
l
e
ment in G
r
oup 15 is in pe
r
iod 4

is a
r
s
e
nic, As. T
h
e

e
x
p
ec
ted

g
roun
d
-
state
e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
f
i
g
u
ra
t
i
on of

a
n
a
tom

of in the third
e
l
e
ment in G
r
oup 15 is

[
A
r
]
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
3
.

(b)
Elem
e
nt nu
m
b
e
r 116

is
i
n p
e
riod 7

is Uuh. The

e
x
p
ec
ted g
r
oun
d
-
state

e
le
c
tron

c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on
of

a
n
a
tom

of
e
l
e
ment n
u
mber

116 is

[
Rn]

7
s
2
5
f
1
4
6
d
10
7
p
4
.

(
c
)

An

e
lem
e
nt wi
t
h 3 u
n
p
a
ir
e
d 5d
e
l
e
c
trons h
a
s

a

filled 6s o
r
bi
t
a
l, so
i
s in
p
e
riod 6
a
nd f
o
l
l
o
ws
Xe

in
t
he

p
e
riodic

tab
l
e
.

This el
e
ment is tant
a
lu
m
, T
a
.

The

e
x
p
ec
ted

g
r
ou
n
d
-
state

e
l
e
c
tron
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of tant
a
lum

is

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
4
f
14
5
d
3
.

(d)
The

h
a
l
o
g
e
n

with el
e
c
trons in
t
he

6p
a
to
m
ic
o
rbit
a
ls
i
s

a
statin
e
, As. The

e
x
p
ec
ted

g
round
-

state

e
le
c
tron

c
onf
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

a
statine

is

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
4
f
1
4

5
d
1
0
6
p
5
.

8.
(
a)

The

l
i
g
htest h
a
l
o
g
e
n is
F
, whi
c
h h
a
s 9 e
l
ec
t
r
ons.

The

f
ull

e
le
c
tron

c
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on f
o
r

F

is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
5
.

(b)
The

a
ns
w
e
r
c
ould
b
e

K, Rb,
C
s, or
F
r.
F
o
r
e
x
a
mp
l
e
,
t
he

f
ull

e
le
c
tron
c
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on f
o
r

a
n
a
tom

of K is 1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
1
.

(
c
)

The

g
r
oup 13
e
le
m
e
nt
i
n the s
a
me p
e
riod
a
s
S
n

is

I
n. T
h
e

full
e
le
c
tron

c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on f
o
r

a
n
a
tom

of

I
n is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
10
4
p
6
5
s
2
4
d
1
0
5
p
1
.

(d)
The

non
-
met
a
l
l
ic

e
l
e
ments in G
r
oup 14
a
re C,

S
i, and
Ge
.

An
a
tom

of C h
a
s 6 el
ec
t
rons.
T
he

f
ull

e
l
e
c
tron
c
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

C is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
2
.

An
a
tom

of Si h
a
s 14
e
l
e
c
tro
ns. The

f
ull

e
l
e
c
tron

c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

S
i
i
s

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
2
.

An
a
tom

of
G
e

h
a
s 32
e
l
e
c
trons. The

f
ull

e
l
e
c
tron

c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

G
e

is

1
s
2
2
s
2
2
p
6
3
s
2
3
p
6
4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
2
.

9. (a)

B
o
ron h
a
s 5 e
l
ec
tr
o
ns.


Cop
y
ri
ght

© 2012

N
e
l
son

E
duca
ti
on
L
t
d.

Chap
t
er

3: At
o
m
s

3.5
-
4






(
b
)

S
i
l
icon h
a
s 14
e
le
c
tr
o
ns.
















(
c
)

M
e
r
c
u
r
y

h
a
s

80
e
l
e
c
trons.








































10. (a)

A
r
s
e
n
i
c

ca
n
h
a
ve

a

c
h
a
r
ge

of

-
3

a
nd
+
3
b
e
c
a
use those

c
o
n
fi
g
u
r
a
t
i
ons h
a
ve

no unp
a
i
r
e
d
e
le
c
trons
a
nd
h
a
ve

c
omp
l
e
te
l
y

filled o
r
bi
t
a
l
s
,
e
.
g
.,

A
s
3
+

:

[
A
r
]

4
s
2
3
d
1
0
; A
s
3
-

:

[
A
r
]

4
s
2
3
d
1
0
4
p
6
.
As
2
+

i
s un
st
a
ble b
eca
use
i
t

v
a
len
c
e

orbital is p
a
rtial
l
y

f
i
l
led

As
3+
:
[
A
r
]

4
s
2
3
d
10
4
p
1

(b)
P
b
2
+

h
a
s a p
r
ob
a
ble
c
onfi
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

[
X
e
]

6
s
2
4
f
1
4
5
d
1
0

b
eca
use the

a
tom

is
m
o
r
e

stable
w
h
e
n
the
e
nt
i
re

d
block is fil
le
d.

(
c
)

A
g

h
a
s
a
n
e
l
e
c
tron
c
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
on of

[
K
r
]

4
s
1
4
d
1
0
. A
g
1
+

o
cc
u
r
s wh
e
n
a
n

e
le
c
tron is
l
ost f
r
om
the 4
s
o
r
bi
t
a
l be
ca
u
s
e the

a
tom

is
m
o
r
e stable

wh
e
n there

a
re

no unp
a
i
r
e
d
e
l
ec
trons.
Cop
y
ri
ght

© 2012

N
e
l
son

E
duca
ti
on
L
t
d.

Chap
t
er

3: At
o
m
s

3.5
-
5