PROJECT FINAL REPORT

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1



Boğaziçi University

Department of Management Information Systems



MIS 463 Decision Support Systems for Business





PROJECT FINAL
REPORT







CREATE YOUR SMARTPHONE MOSAIC







Project Team No:
3

Zeynep
AKIN

Ali İhsan HAVAN

Büşra KOTENOĞLU

Kadir ŞAHİN



Instructor
: Aslı Sencer
ERDEM









İstanbul
-

December
,
2011

2


Index

I. INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
.........

3

I.1 The Decision Environment

................................
................................
......................

3

I.2 Mission of Project

................................
................................
................................
....

5

I.3 Scope of Project

................................
................................
................................
.......

5

I.4 Methodology

................................
................................
................................
............

6

II. LITERATURE SURVEY

................................
................................
............................

7

II.1.Concept of philosophy of DSS

................................
................................
...............

7

II.2.Componen
t of DSS

................................
................................
................................

8

II.3.Types of DSS

................................
................................
................................
.......

10

II.4.Uses and Applications of AHP

................................
................................
............

11

II.5.Past AHP Examples

................................
................................
.............................

11

II.6.Smartphone Literature

................................
................................
..........................

12

II.7.Questionnaire and Interviews:

................................
................................
..............

16

III. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DSS

................................
................................
..............

27

III.1. DSS Architecture


Criteria Tree

................................
................................
.......

27

III.1.1 AHP Criteri
a Calculation

................................
................................
.................

28

III.2. Technical Issues

................................
................................
................................
.

36

III.3. Model and Algorithms

................................
................................
.......................

37

III.3.1Data Source and Flow Mechanisms

................................
................................
..

41

III.4. User Interface and Reports

................................
................................
................

42

III.4.1.Welcome Page:

................................
................................
................................

44

III.4.2.Smartphone selection
-

Filter Screens:

................................
.............................

45

III.4.3.General Comparison:

................................
................................
.......................

46

III.4.4.Technical Comparison:

................................
................................
....................

47

III.4.5.Multimedia Standard Comparison:

................................
................................
..

48

III.4.6.Style comparison:

................................
................................
............................

49

III.4.7.Social Networking Options:
................................
................................
.............

50

III.4.8.Operating System Speed Comparison:

................................
............................

51

III.4.9.Application World Richness:

................................
................................
...........

52

III.4.10.Alternative Style Comparison:

................................
................................
.......

53

III.4.11.Result Page:

................................
................................
................................
...

54

III.5 What
-
if Analysis

................................
................................
................................
.

55

III.6 TESTING

................................
................................
................................
............

56

III.7 ERROR MESSAGES

................................
................................
.........................

59

I
V. ASSESSMENT

................................
................................
................................
.........

61

V. CONCLUSION

................................
................................
................................
..........

62

V
I
. MASTER PLAN:

................................
................................
................................
.....

63

VII. REFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
........

64

Appendix 1:

................................
................................
................................
.....................

67

Appendix 2:

................................
................................
................................
.....................

69

Appendix 3:

................................
................................
................................
.....................

70

Appendix 4:

................................
................................
................................
.....................

71

Appendix 5:

................................
................................
................................
.....................

79


3


I. INTRODUCTION


I.1 The Dec
ision Environment


Nowadays, many people use smartphones and benefit from its services and applications.
Because of growing demand for smartphones, almost all classical phone manufacturers
started to develop smartphones. In the market of smartphones, there

are countless
brands and models.


In such environment, it is very difficult to choose an appropriate smartphone for
personal use. People find themselves in a very complicated market and can not make the
right choice. One of the biggest problems is that pe
ople choose a smartphone which will
not meet their needs because of technical limitations. Another problem is that
smartphones may not be appropriate to multimedia usage or gaming. This will now
satisfy people who wanted to spent free times playing games i
n his or her business
travels.


There is so much information to compare and decide which smartphone is the most
appropriate to users’ needs and many people do not have adequate knowledge about
what is going on in mobile technology. For some reasons, they
are not supposed to
know everything. If they can point out their needs correctly, best solution in the market
can be offered.


Within the current environment, customer is supposed to deliver his or her needs
correctly to the supplier. He or she must decide

which options and features of
smartphones are beneficial for his/ her own interest. He or she may decide on brand,
color or screen size. Even price range can be a constraint for a user. With the use of
such a DSS system, users will be able to point out th
eir constraints and interests, and
then system offers the best solution that will meet the constraints and satisfy their needs
and interests.


On the other point of view, this system will be beneficial for suppliers by pointing out
the customers’ needs and

interest. This will give the opportunity of producing,
manufacturing or importing of smartphones that is demanded most.


It is very important for both parties to make good choices and make a profitable
contract. Because of the nature of smartphones and th
eir prices, replacing the
smartphone with the new one
costs

high. According to the researches, average
replacement time for mobile phones is 2.5 or 3 years.
1

Making a bad choice will result
in high cost or continues user dissatisfaction.


In this DSS, user
s will be able to point out their needs to the system, and system will
give the best solution for this time period. In addition to this the system will be able to
offer smartphones hat will be introduced in near future.





1

http://www.cur
-
cuna.com/tr/cep/cep0086.html

4


Pointing meaningless, misleading or

inappropriate is one of the biggest bo
ttlenecks of
the system. If can
not
the

deliver correct needs, system is vulnerable to offer not the best
solution. In addition to this, outdated database of smartphones is another bottleneck.
System’s database must be

always updated and include latest technologies.


Current level of goal attainment:


Within the current system, users are supposed to search all smartphone models and find
the best appropriate one to his or her interests and needs. But it is almost impossi
ble to
follow up all new technologies and technical specifications. Even though a person has
the knowledge of everything about smartphones, comparing these features and technical
specifications will be very time consuming.


The sensitivity of the decision
to certain input parameters and risks:


Smartphone market is very competitive in these days. It is very important to make right
choice and buy the smartphone that will serve many years. It can be very costly to select
the not best one. Replacement costs ca
n be high and user dissatisfaction appears in this
situation.


For example, giving the right input parameters like multimedia, social networking, etc.
but forgetting to say “e
-
mail server” will most likely to have problems in the near
future. Like in this

scenario, deciding on constraints is very important and risky. Also,
giving so much information and not offering space to the system in order to be able to
offer a product is problematic.


The decision is also very sensitive to price range. Because that
most smartphone
categorized into different groups, price range will most likely to exclude numerous
products. Price range is another very important input parameter for decision.


The significance of the problem and the necessity of a computerized informati
on
system for decision support:


With the use of technology, computers are able to support our decisions by taking
inputs. In this scenario, people are not able to compare all possible choices by
themselves. Even though they have enough knowledge about sma
rtphones, it is almost
impossible to have enough time to compare all the technical stuffs.


It can be very helpful for people to compare smartphones according to users’ needs and
interest, and then offer some options with the scores. This will reduce the
time that is
spent on research and money that is spent on wrong choices.


In such a system that offer appropriate smartphones,




Users are able to eliminate all other options that are not matched with their
needs.



Users can compare the offered products.



Us
ers can also see trends among their segment (such as age, income, education,
etc.)



Suppliers can do market searches according to usage rates and trends.

5



I.2 Mission of Project


Mission:



The mission is to provide systematic service to customers in respe
ct of the most
appropriate smartphone purchases for personal usage.


Goals:

To integrate a computerized system into the business and respond to the expectations in
a better way by:

















Increasing/Decreasing

GOALS


























customer satisfaction


























efficiency and effectiveness of the
smartphone searching process































the transparency of the mobile
technical technology options































awareness of
the replacement time
























disclosure user rates and trends


























wrong
-
bad choices / disinformation
























Selecting time and effort


























Cost associated with purchasing

















Figure
1

It shows the main objectives and goals of the smart phone selection system.


Objectives:



Find the optimum smartphones in the system to provide real
-
time customer
satisfaction tool.



Having a datab
ase for future informing & analysis to support decision
-
making.



Find the market search values for the highest couple within the customer profile
and determined smartphone.

I.3 Scope of Project


This program will help customers to evaluate the best smart ph
one device options
according to customers’ important criteria. These evaluations will focus on matching
their life style, easy usage, phone performance etc... Before doing this, we are planning
to create a database of the system which is based on surveys b
y performing Smartphone
users. Also, we are planning to do these surveys periodically such as 3 months in order
to hold our database updated. When customer enters searching criteria, system will
6


generate an outcome which is the best matches based on custom
er searching options. In
addition, system will offer the best device based on matching criteria according to the
survey’s results that are performed the approximately same answers. Hence, customer
can see the behaviors of the users who answered as the same

way. Moreover, system
will offer a few options, not exactly one device. So, customer will have a chance to
evaluate devices among each other. On the other hand, our project is going to work on
just one database. For new smart phones, we will have limited
information for the first
time. System also will not include all the phones.


I.4 Methodology


To be able to support decision makers to find best alternative that fulfills their criteria
and needs, we determined
the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as our

methodology in
computerized system.


A large number of criteria that may differ from one person to another and the difference
of ranking these criteria among people used that decision support system makes us to
use AHP model as multi
-
criteria decision mak
ing. With the help of AHP method, we
can use both qualitative and quantitative criteria in decision making so that decision
makers can be matched with the ultimate smartphone models that best satisfy their
criteria. The proper alternative is reached by cho
osing and ranking a number of various
sub
-
decisions according to decision makers’ priorities.


In our decision support system, the first step is to arrange the set of criteria for
evaluating the alternatives and the information about smartphone options. In

order to
determine that data in our database system, we intend to conduct a survey among people
who use smartphones as a user. While conducting survey, we plan to make literature
review about smartphones, android operating system and reactions of people f
or
smartphones and their usage rate and trends. When we decide the criteria and
alternatives, the second step is to develop a database with the chosen criteria and
alternatives. We plan to make research on web and ask people who use smartphones to
be able
to find detailed information about smartphones and android operating systems.














7


II. LITERATURE SURVEY

II.1.
Concept of philosophy
of DSS



“Create your smartphone mosaic” Project is a Decision
Support System project. Due to the fact that we
first want
to explain the identification of DSS,
we begin with
its
architecture and relevant issues regarding DSS projects.

Decision support systems are an application of Herbert
Simon model.

That have evolved from two main areas of
research

the theoret
ical studies of organizational
decision making
(Simon, H.A., 1960
) conducted at the
Carnegie Institute of Technology during the late 1950s
and early 1960s and the techni
cal work carried out at MIT
in the 1960s (Keen & Scott, 1978).

The model is a compute
r
-
based system
designed to help decision makers use
data, knowledge and communications
technology to identify problems and
make decisions to solve those
problems. Actually, .the DSS basically
helps the information system in the
intelligence phase where the

objective
is to identify the problem and then go
to the design phase for solution. The
choice of selection criterion varies
from problem to problem. It is,
therefore, required to go through three
phases
again and again

till a
satisfactory solution is foun
d.

In today’s business environment, DSS
are
commonly

understood to be
computerized management
information systems designed to help
business owners, executives, and
managers resolve complicated
business problems and/or questions.

DSS provides analytical mod
els or
tools for analyzing large quantities of
data and supportive interactive queries
for middle managers who encounter
unstructured and semi
-
structured
decisions.


The four different stages in
decision
-
making process are
defined
as
intelligence, design,
choice

and
implementation

by Gorry and Scott

Figure
2

DSS Vision


Figure
3

DSS identifier


Figure
4

DSS Architecture

8


Morton
(
Gorry & Scott, 1971
). They also used Simon’s intelligence

as a search tool for
problems
, design

as a improvement tool of possibilities

and choice identification

as an
analysis

process of all possibilitie
s and choosing one for implementation

of decision
-
making processes.



Source:
www.WordPress.com
,
www.hearne.com.au
, Encyclopedia Britannica.Inc


As the name suggests DSS repr
esents systems that assists decision
-
making. DSS tends
to be used in planning, analyzing alternatives and trial and error search for solutions.
Such systems are generally operated through terminal based interactive dialogues with
users. They incorporate a
variety of decision models and thus are capable performing
“what if” analysis for managers.

(Philippakis, A.S,

1988)


II.2.
Component of DSS


Components of DSS have various identities which differ

from project to project
.
Meanwhile, we can show some

example
s in terms of how to define the word as
(Keen
1978) define DSS

components

as
:


The elements of DSS include a database, model base and software providing interactive
dialogue facility for the manager. The data in the database typically is a combination of
m
aster files (internal corporate data) and data from external sources.


The second component of the DSS is a library of models to manipulate and analyze the
data in the desired ways. The model base might include econometric models to forecast
demand by indu
stry and simulation models of the corporation.


A user interface is the third component. Through this, the user can communicate with
the DSS. The physical interface generally consists of a terminal hooked up to the
mainframe computer, either directly or by

telephone. Microcomputers with modems are
being used ever more frequently for this interface. These elements are illustrated in the
figure below:


Figure
5

DSS Elements

DSS goes one step further to a management information system

(MIS) as DSS support
decision making. DSS used MIS is describe in the figure below:

9



Figure
6

DSS and MIS connection

DSS can be differentiated from MIS in terms of its processing capabilities. Whereas,
MIS processes data to conve
rt it into information; DSS processes information to support
the decision making process of a manager.


What are the design elements in DSS user interface?


Decision support systems have some unique design elements, but many design elements
in a DSS are fo
und in other types of applications. For example, a pivot table is a
common design element in a data
-
driven DSS or business intelligence application.
Charts and graphs are found in many types of applications and especially in model
-
driven and data
-
driven DS
S. Generic graphical elements often included in DSS are
windows, menus, radio buttons, check boxes and icons.

(Power, 2010)



Color is often recommended as a means of enhancing a user
-
interface design and color
is an important component in the feel of the
interface.


In general, the following
guidelines related to the use of color are appropriate for building DSS:




Do not allow color to be the only way your system conveys any specific
information. Augment the use of color with other cues that can be used
by

people who cannot discern the color difference. Include numerical
values in addition to color codes, provide cross
-
hatching on top of color,
or make sure that the colors you choose are perceived as substantially
lighter or darker than each other.



Where yo
ur computer hardware and software permit, allow the user to
customize an application's use of color. Changing colors can compensate
for some people’s color vision deficiencies. In some systems, colors that
cover an area, such as a region on a map, can be r
eplaced by
monochrome patterns such as dots, stripes, and cross
-
hatching.



Use light pastel colors in screen designs. They create fewer annoying
reflections than do dark colors. This is especially true in an office
environment with fluorescent lights. As a
result, try to use light colors to
cover large areas of the screen. Reserve darker colors for smaller "spot"
usage.








10




The Ideal Characteristics and Capabilities of DSS



E. Sue Weber
and Benn
R.
Konsynski

(1987
-
1988)
propose a set
of functional
req
uirements
for DSS.













II.3.
Types of DSS

Categorization of DSS is also different in the literature among researches. Different
perspectives are recognized throughout its time line.



1.

Status inquiry system:

the number of decisions in the operational

management
and same at the middle management is such that they are based on one or two
aspects of a decision
-
making situation. It does not call for any elaborate
computations, analysis, choice, etc. for decision
-
making. If the status is known,
the decisio
n is automatic. i.e., the status and solution is unique relation.

2.

Data analysis system:

these decision systems are based on cooperative analysis,
and use of a formulae or an algorithm. But, these processes are not structured
and, therefore vary. The cash f
low analysis, the inventory analysis and the
personal inventory systems are examples of the analysis systems. The use of
simple data processing tools and business rules are required to develop this
system.

3.

Information analysis system:

in this system, the d
ata is analyzed and
information reports are generated. The reports might be having exemptions as a
feature. The decision makers use these reports for assessment of the situation
for decision
-
making. The sales analysis, the account receivable system, the
ma
rket research analysis, the MRP systems are examples of this system.

4.

Accounting systems:

these systems are not necessarily for decision making but
they are desirable to keep track of the major aspects of the business as a
function. The contents of these sy
stems are more data processing leading to
formal reporting, with exemptions, if necessary. These systems account items
such as cash, inventory, and personnel and so on and relate it to a norm or
norms developed by the management, for control and decision.


Figure
7

DSS Capabilities

11


5.

Model based systems:

these systems are simulation models or optimization
models for decision making. These decisions, generally, are onetime and
infrequent and provide general guidelines for operation or management. The
product mix decision, the material m
ix, the job scheduling rules, and the
resource or asset or facilities planning system.


According to these types of DSS “Create your smartphone mosaic” project is based
on
data

analysis system
tool as a type.

In our project, system is based on the use
of A
HP
formulation

to find out best selection smartphone for personal use.


The

Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

is a structured technique for organizing and
analyzing

complex decisions
. Based on

mathematics

and

psychology
, it was developed
by

Thomas L. Saaty

in the 1970s and has been extensively studied and refined since
then.


II.4.
Uses and Applications of AHP


(
F
orman, Ernest H.; Saul I. Gass
2001),

Decision situations to which the AHP can be
applied include:



Choice
-

The sele
ction of one alternative from a given set of alternatives, usually
where there are multiple decision criteria involved



Ranking

-

Putting a set of alternatives in order from most to least des
irable



Prioritization

-

Determining the relative merit of members of a set of
alternatives, as opposed to selecting a single one or merely ranking them



Resource alloca
tion

-

Apportioning resources among a set of alternatives



Benchmarking

-

Comparing the processes in one's own organization with those
of other best
-
of
-
breed organizations



Quality management

-

Dealing with the multidimensional aspects of quality
and quality improvement



Conflict resolution

-

Settling disputes between parties with apparently
incompatible goals or positions (
Saaty, T.L. &
Peniwati, Kirti 2008)
.


Based on above applications of AHP, Smartphone selection system will use basically
ranking and priori
tization application area.


II.5.
Past AHP Examples


Some uses of AHP

are

discussed in the

recently,

these have included:




Deciding how best to reduce the impact of global

climat
e change

(Berrittella,
M.; A. Certa, M. Enea, P. Zito 2007)



Quantifying

the overall

qua
lity

of

software systems

(
Microsoft Corporation
)

(McCaffrey, James 2005)



Select
ing

university faculty

(
Bloomsb
urg University of Pennsylvania
)

(Grandzol, John R. August 2005)



Deciding where to locate

offshore manufacturing plants

(
University of
Cambridge
)

(Atthirawong, Walailak; Bart McCart
hy September, 2002)

12




Assessing

risk

in operating cross
-
country

petroleum pipelines

(
American
Society of Civil Engineers
)

(Dey, Prasanta Kumar Novemb
er 2003)



Deciding how best to

manage U.S. watersheds

(
U.S. Department of Agriculture
)

(de Steiguer, J.E.; Jennifer Duberstein, Vicente Lopes October 2003)




II.6.
Smartphone Literature


Smartphone usage is new
trend among young people
and in business world. It is
very common to use
smartphone in business
world. This affected the
sale of smartphone sales in
a positive way.
(Charles
Arthur, 2011),

“In the first
three months of this year,
just under half of all the
45m mobile phones sold in
western Europe fell into
that category


able to
browse the web, send

and
receive email, and run custom
-
written

apps.”

Smartphones will keep growing in

sales approaching the billion
-
plus levels of
total handset sales before this decade is done," says Tomi Ahonen, a former Nokia
executive who now has his own mobile ind
ustry consultancy.”


(Ericca Swallow, 2011)
,

Another article displays the usage of the smartphone among
different user groups.



37% of adults and 60% of teens admit they are highly addicted to their
smartphones.



81% of smartphone users make calls every day
compared with 53% of regular
users.



23% of teenagers claim to watch less TV and 15% admit they read fewer books
as a result of their smartphone use.



51% of adults and 65% of teens say they have used their smartphone while
socializing with others.



23% of ad
ults and 34% of teens have used their smartphones during mealtimes.



22% of adult and 47% of teens admitted using or answering their smartphone
while in the bathroom.



58% of adult males owned a smartphone compared with 42% of females.



Among teenagers, 52% o
f females use smartphones compared with 48% of
males.



The majority of adults (32%) identified Apple’s iPhone as their favorite device,
while the majority of teens (37%) prefer the BlackBerry.


Figure
8

Smart phone usage

13


With this widespread use, some new applications came into the ma
rket. Different types
of applications are developed by the developers. Charles Arthur defined this situation
(Charles Arthur, 2011)

“All the things you can now do with a smartphone would have
seemed like science
-
fiction only a decade ago: translate signs,
translate words, take
voice input and search the web, recognize a face, add another layer to reality showing
you the quickest way to a tube or restaurant or the history of your immediate
surroundings, show you where your friends are in real time, tell you
what your friends
think of a restaurant you're standing outside, show you where you are on a map,
navigate you while you drive, contact the Starship Enterprise.


Social Networking

is another area which benefited from widespread usage. (Charles
Arthur, 2011
) “The element of personalisation and intimacy takes smartphones beyond
what we've had before. Our mobile phone used just to be a repository of our phone
contacts, some photos and texts. Now it's our emails as well, our photos, our Twitter and
Facebook ac
counts (and, by proxy, friends), plus all those apps and games that we've
downloaded to give it our own personal experience.”


Other than social networking,
Multimedia

functions another criteria for users.
(Ingrid
Lunden, 2011),

“Listening to music (15.7 p
ercent) only grew by 0.5 percent; and
playing games was even less growth, seeing only the smallest trickle of growth of 0.1
percent to 23.2 percent.”
(Alexander Wolfe, 2008),

“Jozwiak points to a long list of
iPhone security features implemented after the
company listened to enterprise IT pros.
Those include Exchange support, industrial
-
grade VPN and Wi
-
Fi security, and Cisco
IPsec VPN support.” Under multimedia criteria,
Camera

is also another option.
(Charles Arthur, 2011),

“..The mass market consumer wil
l increasingly find the
smartphone is 'good enough' for most PC types of uses


similar to how the
cameraphone was good enough to replace most cheap consumer cameras, and the clock
on the phone replacing wristwatches, and so on.”


Operating System

and
We
b
-
Browser

is affecting todays buying decision of the
customers.
(Alexander Wolfe, 2008)
,

“Having a browser that makes that data more
handheld
-
accessible than it has ever been
is why the iPhone is the big game
-
changer in the mobile apps
ecosystem”.
(Jacqui
Ch
e
ng, 2011)
,


Cisco recently predicted that there
will be 788 million mobile
-
only
Internet users globally by 2015 while
mobile
data traffic will increase by a

factor of 26 between now and then.





“…Just over a third of
American adults own a smartphone of
some kind, with many preferring to use it as their primary connection to the Internet.”
(Aaron Smith, 2011),
“Android is
the most common smartphone platform, followed by
iPhone and Blackberry devices.” “Mobile phones are a main source of internet access
for one
-
quarter of the smartphone population.”



Figure
9

Smartphone operating System

14


For the showing the
usage and operating system related
graphs are indicated

as below:




Figure
10

Smart phone MB Usage


Using a smartphone can be considered as one of the most significant parts of the
individual’s life because people can do many things thanks to their smartphones. A new
trend is shoppin
g by smartphones.
(Dan Butcher, 2011)

“More than half of

smartphone
owners are using their devices to enhance their shopping experience by comparing
prices, finding store
location
s and checking
for discounts…”

While the smartphone
image is changing
rapid
ly, there is a
question arising for
smartphone owners
which is how
smartphone users
describe their phones?
(Aaron Smith, 2011)
” In
its first standalone
measure of smartphone
ownership, the Pew
Internet Project finds that
one third of American
adults


35%


own smartphones. The Project’s May survey found that 83% of US
adults have a cell phone of some kind, and that 42% of them own a smartphone. That
translates into 35% of all adults”



Figure
11

Smartphone data usage

15


Although people are using their smartphone text messaging and controll
ing their e
-
mails, they are strongly using the other specific capabilities of their phones especially
following news that means Social Network
.( Steve Outing , 2010)

“Text messaging and
checking e
-
mail are the most frequent uses of smartphones, which of co
urse are simple
tasks capable of being executed even on older

feature phones
. But young adults who
own smartphones do use adva
nced features, and three
-
quarters of them use their devices
for following news. Students don’t fully utilize the newest smartphone features at the
level that we had expected.
These powerful handheld
computing devices are, for
now, not overly taxed by their

young owners. “.


Although people from different
age groups are using the
smartphone, their activities on
their smartphones related with
their interest and smartphone
meet their needs in different
and comman
aspects
.(BBC,2011)

” On
mobiles, it said that 5
8% of
smartphone owners were male
and 42% female.

Among those teenagers (12
-
15
year
-
olds) surveyed, the trend
was reversed with girls
accounting for 52% of
smartphone use and boys
making up the remaining 48%.

However, Apple's iPhone was a
favourite device
for 32% of adults, among teens its popularity was dwarfed by the
Blackberry, which 37% of young people identified as their preferred brand. Many of
those taking part in Ofcom's survey confessed to being obsessed with their smartphone.
37% of adults and 60%

of teenagers described themselves as "addicted".


While smartphones are developing in different and new aspects, some of the
specifications (especially
Multimedia
and

Applications
) of the smartphones are very
strong for point view of the users.
(Eleanor D
avie, 2011)”

Our research pointed at three
emerging trends, strongly supported by the view and opinions of the interviewees we
met in L.A. These were: Mass adoption of smartphones across social divides. Expansion
in the use of free apps and services, with
alternative revenue models emerging.
Innovative combinations of services often used for critical needs such as employment
and housing, rather than leisure or gaming.

While shopping behaviors are changing form offline to online, a new trend of shopping
is s
hifting computer to mobile because it becomes very popular and easy for people to
surf on the net by using their smartphones. (Leena Rao , 2011)“Smartphones are
influencing purchases across all channels with 76% purchasing in store, 59%
Figure
12

Smart phone usage area

16


purchasing online v
ia a computer and 35% purchasing on their phones.

27% of
smartphone purchases were made through a mobile website and 22% were made
through apps. Smartphone shoppers spent a median of $300 on purchases made on their
smartphones in the past year.

Entertainm
ent, electronics and apparel items lead as the most popular purchased items.
Google

reports that 71% of users search on their smartphones because of an ad they
saw, whether from traditional media, online ads or mobile ads and 82% of users notice
mobile ads
. And 42% of those who notice mobile ads click on the ad, 27% contact the
business, 35% visit the website and 49% purchase”.

People are realizing the benefits and capabilities of the smartphones, and they are
changing their phones with smartphones because
it has a great positive effects on the
individuals’ life especially faster communication, better information sharing, greater
functionality, flexible working etc… connection aspects
.(Nathan Olivarez & Giles
-

Los
Angeles Times Nielsen research group, 2011)

“From March to May, 55% of new
mobile phones purchased were smartphones, raising the devices' market share in the
U.S. to 38%. Over the same three
-
month period a year earlier, just 34% of those who
bought a new mobile phone chose a smartphone over less
-
ca
pable standard cellphones”.


II.7.
Questionnaire and Interviews:


We prepared a questionnaire for both smartphone users and smartphone non
-
users to
learn more about their opinions and gain first
-
hand information in the light of age,
income level and gender
demographic as a customer profile. In this way, we analyze
that which customer profile select which smartphone and according to which features.
The criteria we wanted to analyze include technical properties, multimedia features and
application world in ter
ms of entertainment and business preferences. Please find the
questions asked in the questionnaire as
Appendix
-
1.

Our sample is 93 people and the
following are the results of our questionnaire:



1) To

create
customer profile

as an intelligence part of our

project


1a.Age:









This question measures the customers’ profile in terms of age. %60 of responses
indicates the dominant age range which is 22
-
26.


17


1b.Gender:




According to survey, the gender of the customers is nearly range of female as %49 a
nd
range of male as %51.


1c.Income Level:


Finally, to draw the customer profile, we conduct income level in the survey. The
results show that major income level is less than 1500 TL in light of %52.

1d.Education



Lastly but not unimportant, education
level reflects the university under graduate which
is 67 responses and the second is high school which is 13 responses.





18


1e.Do you use smartphone?




As we evaluate above, we conduct this survey to the smartphone users and smartphone
nonusers. This cha
rt represents that %73 of the people use smartphone and %27 of the
people don’t use smartphone.



2) To

draw the importance of the technical properties of smartphone for users


2a. The size of screen affect my purchasing decision


As the technical proper
ties, %56 of people
agrees

that the size of screen affects their
purchasing decision. Because of these responses, we select main display
sub
-
criteria

of
the technical properties as main criteria.


2b. The screen pixel is so important and affects my purchas
ing decision



In this question, the majority of people response that they agree with the importance of
the screen pixel. Also, that question is a source of the main display as a
sub
-
criteria

of
the technical properties as main criteria in our dss project
.


19


2c. I prefer the
smartphone has keypad feature.


As you can see above, the answers of this question are various among the alternatives.
For the support of our
style main criteria
, we observe the results.


2d.

I prefer the smartphone has Query keypad.



As you can see above, the answers of this question are various among the alternatives
and similar to the previous question. Due to this reason, for the support of our
style
main criteria
, we observe the results.


2e.

I think, the usage of the touchscre
en smartphone is difficult.


In order to create customer profile
s
, we
evaluated

the results of this question as our
S
tyle

main criteria.


20


2f. Battery life is important for me.



This question measures the signifance of the battery life. It is also impor
tant in our
project in respect of
battery life sub
-
criteria

of the technical proporties as main
criteria.


3) To

draw the importance of the multimedia features of smartphone for users


3a. High resolution of video recording is important for me:


High reso
lution of video recording as a sub
-
criteria of multimedia features indicates that
majority of people agree with the significance of video recording.



3b.
Automatic zoom in my smartphone camera is important for me.



This question is the main source of the

main camera sub
-
criteria of multimedia
applications as main criteria in smartphone selection system because of the various
between agreement and neither agreement nor disagreement.


21


3c.

I Think, internal memory is so important for smartphone.




Internal

memory has significant impact on the
technical properties main criteria

alternatives for customers. As you observe the results, %45 of the customers agree with
this importance.


3d.

Radio in my smartphone is so important for me
.



That question shows t
he effectiveness of music
playback sub
-
criteria

on the
multimedia main criteria.


3e.
I use video calling frequently.



Video calling is not so important for the customer because their answers show that
disagree with importance as %28 of disagreement.






22


3f.

The quality of playing music is so important for me.



One of the most important key figures for the music playback sub
-
criteria in the multi
media main criteria. Results show that people agree with
that sub
-
criterion

in the
percentage of %47 and %38
.


3g.

Optical zoom is crucial for me.



Optical zoom feature is not so much important for users. Most of them answer this
question with neither agree nor disagree.



4)To draw the importance of the application world of smartphone for users


4a.

The numbe
r of downloadable application is important for me.



In order to draw the importance of the application world of smartphone, we conduct this
question and the number of downloadable applications is seen as an evaluation feature
of the application world.


23


4
b.
I think, the quality of application is more important than the number of application.




In order to draw the importance of the application world of smartphone, we conduct this
question and the number of quality of downloadable applications is seen as a
n
evaluation feature of the application world.


4c.

The number of free downloadable application affects my purchasing positively.



To show the effects of the application world of smartphone, we ask this question and
the number of free downloadable applic
ations is seen as an evaluation feature of the
application world
.



4d.
The usage of the non free application is crucial for me.


The results of this question show that people agree with the importance of the easiness
of the applications that are purchased
. % 32 people neither agree nor disagree with this
question because of that, we cannot say this feature is very critical for consumers.




24


4e.

Business applications are more important for me.



As a main criteria called Application world, we use business
application as a subcriteria
of application world main criteria with the respect of this question’s result. 33 people
verify that business world application is more important than other applications.


4f.

I connect frequently social network in my smartphon
e. i.e. Facebook or Twitter


The result of this question has very importance because majority of people decided to
agree totally that they connect to social networks such as
F
acebook or
Twitter with

their
smartphones. As a result, we made
social network

a
s main criteria and
Facebook,
Twitter, Foursquare and Main S
ocial

Networking A
pplication

as sub
-
criteria.



5) To

draw the importance of the business application world of smartphone for
users


5a.

In m
y smartphone, I use frequently
mail applications.



Th
e usage of e
-
mail application on smartphones is very crucial feature for people
because with the improvements, connection speed has increased. People put importance
to usage of e
-
mail service which %41
agrees

with this feature.

25


5b.

Virtual Private Network
applications are not important.




With the respect of this question’s result, %48 of people neither agree nor disagree with
the unimportance of VPN, we use existence data on multimedia main criteria.



5c.

Frequently, I use banking operations in my smart
phone.


We do not use the data of the banking operations on smartphones because disagreement
option is more selected by readers.



5d.

I think, there is no security problem for banking operations.



People do not take into confidence about security of ba
nking operations via using
smartphones. The majority of people disagree with the non
-
existence of security
problems so we evaluate the data above on application world main criteria.




26


5e.

I use agenda to organize my plans.



Generality of people agree wi
th the importance of agenda on smartphones and they use
it in order to organize their plans. This information help us in multimedia main criteria.


5f.

I use calendar to my meetings and other activities




5g.

I think, note and reminder are not so cruci
al.



This question is asked to take information about importance of notepad and reminder
features. % 34 of people disagree with that the notepad and reminder features are not
important for them.








27


Daily Response Answer of Our Survey


III. DEVELOPME
NT OF THE DSS

III.
1. DSS Architecture


Criteria Tree




Figure
13

Criteria Tree of Smartphone Selection system
28


Application World
Richness
Multimedia
Standards
Operating System
Speed
Social Networking
Options
Style Score
Technical
Specification
Application World
Richness
1.00
3.00
4
7
7
6
Multimedia Standards
1/3
1.00
4
7
7
6
Operating System Speed
1/4
1/4
1.00
5
5
4
Social Networking
Options
1/7
1/7
1/5
1.00
3
1/2
Style Score
1/7
1/7
1/5
1/3
1.00
1/4
Technical Specification
1/6
1/6
1/4
2
4
1.00
Sum
2.036
4.702
9.650
22.333
27.000
17.750
Application World
Richness
Multimedia
Standards
Operating System
Speed
Social Networking
Options
Style Score
Technical
Specification
Application World
Richness
1.00
3.00
4.00
7.00
7.00
6.00
Multimedia Standards
0.33
1.00
4.00
7.00
7.00
6.00
Operating System Speed
0.25
0.25
1.00
5.00
5.00
4.00
Social Networking
Options
0.14
0.14
0.20
1.00
3.00
0.50
Style Score
0.14
0.14
0.20
0.33
1.00
0.25
Technical Specification
0.17
0.17
0.25
2.00
4.00
1.00
Application World
Richness
Multimedia
Standards
Operating System
Speed
Social Networking
Options
Style Score
Technical
Specification
Priority
Vektor(Average)
Ax
Ax/x
Application World
Richness
0.491
0.638
0.415
0.313
0.259
0.338
0.409
2.881
7.043
Multimedia Standards
0.164
0.213
0.415
0.313
0.259
0.338
0.284
2.041
7.198
Operating System Speed
0.123
0.053
0.104
0.224
0.185
0.225
0.152
1.028
6.745
Social Networking
Options
0.070
0.030
0.021
0.045
0.111
0.028
0.051
0.310
6.100
Style Score
0.070
0.030
0.021
0.015
0.037
0.014
0.031
0.196
6.272
Technical Specification
0.082
0.035
0.026
0.090
0.148
0.056
0.073
0.453
6.217
Sum
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
6.596
lmax
0.119
CI
0.09611545
CR
Consistent
Result
III.1.1
.
AHP

Criteria Calculation

1)
Main
Criteria Calculation


Step 1:
User

enters the values
of his/her priorities based on
main criteria within the
system. Then, system
calculates the sum of the
columns.



Step 2:
System divides
priority values by column
sums. Then, system finds the
Priority Vector by taking
average of each r
ow.


Step 3:

System multiples
“Priority Vector matrix” with
user defined “priority
matrix”. Then, system
reaches “Ax matrix”. After
that, in order to reach lmax,
system divides “Ax” by “x”
and takes average of Ax/x
matrix. Then, to calculate CI,
system
calculates the formula
CI= (lmax
-
n)/ (n
-
1). (Where
n= number of criteria).
Finally, system calculates the
CR dividing CI by
Table
1

Main Criteria Calculation

Table
2

Main Criteria Calculation

Table
3

Main Criteria Consistency Calculation

29


# of Bus.
Appl.
# of entert.
# of games
# of themes
# of Bus. Appl.
1.00
2
7
6
# of entert.
1/2
1
3
2
# of games
1/7
1/3
1
1/2
# of themes
1/6
1/2
2
1
# of Bus.
Appl.
# of entert.
# of games
# of themes
# of Bus. Appl.
1.000
2.000
7.000
6.000
# of entert.
0.500
1.000
3.000
2.000
# of games
0.143
0.333
1.000
0.500
# of themes
0.167
0.500
2.000
1.000
Sum
1.810
3.833
13.000
9.500
# of Bus.
Appl.
# of entert.
# of games
# of themes
Prior Vector
Ax
Ax/x
# of Bus. Appl.
0.553
0.522
0.538
0.632
0.561
2.290
4.081
# of entert.
0.276
0.261
0.231
0.211
0.245
0.988
4.037
# of games
0.079
0.087
0.077
0.053
0.074
0.296
4.004
# of themes
0.092
0.130
0.154
0.105
0.120
0.484
4.019
Sum
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
4.035
lmax
0.012
CI
0.013
CR
Consistent
Result
value 1,24 which derived from Saaty’s book table.


Step 4:

If CR value is less than 0.1, it means that priorities that are defined
by user are consistent. Otherwise, user must define his/her priority values.


2)
Sub criteria Calculation for Application World


Step 1:
User enters the values of his/her priorities based on sub criteria
within the system. Then, system calculates the sum

of the columns.






Table 2.2
-
Step 2:
System divides priority values by column sums.
Then, system finds the Priority Vector by taking average
of each row.




Table 2.3
-
Step 3:

System multiples “Priority Vector matrix” with user
defined “priority matrix”. Then, system reaches “Ax matrix”. After
that, in order to reach lmax, system divides “Ax” by “x” and takes
average of Ax/x matrix. Then, to

calculate CI, system calculates the
formula CI= (lmax
-
n)/ (n
-
1). (Where n= number of
criteria). Finally, system calculates the CR dividing CI by
value 0,9 which derived from Saaty’s book table.




Step 4:

If CR value is less than 0.1, it means that priorities
that are defined by user are consistent. Otherwise,
user must define his/her priority values.

Table
4

Sub criteria Calculation Application World

Table
7

Sub criteria Calculation Application World


Table
5

Sub criteria Calculation Application World


Table
6

Sub criteria Consistency Calculation Application World


30


Wi-Fi
range
Main Camera
Pixel
Video Recording
Resolution
Music Playback
Supported
Formats
Priority Vector
Ax
Ax / x
Wi-Fi range
0.536
0.580
0.484
0.400
0.500
2.104
4.209
Main Camera Pixel
0.268
0.290
0.387
0.333
0.320
1.354
4.236
Video Recording
Resolution
0.107
0.072
0.097
0.200
0.119
0.484
4.060
Music Playback
Supported Formats
0.089
0.058
0.032
0.067
0.062
0.248
4.037
Sum
1
1
1
1
1.000
4.136
lmax
0.045
CI
0.050
CR
consistent
Result
3)
Sub criteria C
alculation for Multimedia Standard
s

Wi-Fi
range
Main Camera
Pixel
Video Recording
Resolution
Music Playback
Supported
Formats
Wi-Fi range
1
2
5
6
Main Camera Pixel
1/2
1
4
5
Video Recording
Resolution
1/5
1/4
1
3
Music Playback
Supported Formats
1/6
1/5
1/3
1

Table
8

Sub criteria calculation for Multimedia standards

Wi-Fi
range
Main Camera
Pixel
Video Recording
Resolution
Music Playback
Supported
Formats
Wi-Fi range
1.000
2.000
5.000
6.000
Main Camera Pixel
0.500
1.000
4.000
5.000
Video Recording
Resolution
0.200
0.250
1.000
3.000
Music Playback
Supported Formats
0.167
0.200
0.333
1.000
Sum
1.867
3.450
10.333
15.000

Table
9

Sub criteria calculation for Multimedia Standards





Table
10

Sub criteria Consistency calculation for multimedia standards

31


4)
Sub cri
teria Calculation for Operating System Speed


OP speed
Web browser
speed
OP speed
1
8
Web browser
speed
1/8
1

Table
11

Operating System Speed Calculation


OP speed
Web browser
speed
OP speed
1.000
8.000
Web browser
speed
0.125
1.000
Sum
1.125
9.000

Table
12

Operating System Speed Calculation


OP speed
Web browser
speed
Priority Vector
Ax
Ax/x
OP speed
0.889
0.889
0.889
1.778
2
Web browser
speed
0.111
0.111
0.111
0.222
2
2
lmax
0
CI
0
CR
Consistent
Result

Table
13

Operating system Consistency Calculation




32


5)
Sub criteria
Calculation for Social Network Options


Facebook
Access
Methods
Twitter
Access
Methods
Foursquare
Access
Methods
Instant Mess.
Options
Facebook Access Methods
1.00
2.00
8.00
6.00
Twitter Access Methods
1/2
1.00
4.00
3.00
Foursquare Access Methods
1/8
1/4
1.00
1/2
Instant Mess. Options
1/6
1/3
2.00
1.00

T
able
14

Social Network Options Calculation

Facebook
Access
Methods
Twitter
Access
Methods
Foursquare
Access
Methods
Instant Mess.
Options
Facebook Access Methods
1.000
2.000
8.000
6.000
Twitter Access Methods
0.500
1.000
4.000
3.000
Foursquare Access Methods
0.125
0.250
1.000
0.500
Instant Mess. Options
0.167
0.333
2.000
1.000
Sum
1.792
3.583
15.000
10.500

Table
15

Social Network Options Calculation

Facebook
Access
Methods
Twitter
Access
Methods
Foursquare
Access
Methods
Instant Mess.
Options
Prior Vector
Ax
Ax/x
Facebook Access Methods
0.558
0.558
0.533
0.571
0.555
2.240
4.034
Twitter Access Methods
0.279
0.279
0.267
0.286
0.278
1.120
4.034
Foursquare Access Methods
0.070
0.070
0.067
0.048
0.063
0.254
4.004
Instant Mess. Options
0.093
0.093
0.133
0.095
0.104
0.416
4.010
Sum
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
4.021
lmax
0.007
CI
0.008
CR
Consistent
Result

Table
16

Social Network Options Consistency Calculation


33


6)
Sub criteria Calculation for Techn
ical Specifications

CPU speed
Internal Memory
Capacity
Main Display
size
Battery Life
CPU speed
1.00
3.00
7.00
9.00
Internal Memory
Capacity
1/3
1.00
3.00
6.00
Main Display size
1/7
1/3
1.00
4.00
Battery Life
1/9
1/6
1/4
1.00

Table
17

Technical Specifications Calculation

CPU speed
Internal Memory
Capacity
Main Display
size
Battery Life
CPU speed
1.000
3.000
7.000
9.000
Internal Memory
Capacity
0.333
1.000
3.000
6.000
Main Display size
0.143
0.333
1.000
4.000
Battery Life
0.111
0.167
0.250
1.000
Sum
1.587
4.500
11.250
20.000

Table
18

Technical Specifications Calculation

CPU speed
Internal Memory
Capacity
Main Display
size
Battery Life
Priority Vector
AX
Ax/x
CPU speed
0.630
0.667
0.622
0.450
0.592
2.537
4.285
Internal Memory
Capacity
0.210
0.222
0.267
0.300
0.250
1.056
4.228
Main Display size
0.090
0.074
0.089
0.200
0.113
0.460
4.065
Battery Life
0.070
0.037
0.022
0.050
0.045
0.181
4.029
Sum
1
1
1
1
1.000
4.152
lmax
0.051
CI
0.056
CR
Consistent
Result

Table
19

Technical Specifications Consistency Calculatio
n

7)Sub cr
iteria Priority vector

34


Main Criteria
Sub Criteria
Iphone 3gs
Iphone 4s
Nokia e7
Sum
ıphone3gs
iphone 4
Nokia e7
Sum
CPU Speed
600
1000
680
2280
0.263
0.439
0.298
1.000
Internal Memory Capacity
256
512
256
1024
0.250
0.500
0.250
1.000
Main Display Size
3.5
3.5
4
11
0.318
0.318
0.364
1.000
Battery Life
300
200
540
1040
0.288
0.192
0.519
1.000
Wi-Fi Range
35
70
70
175
0.200
0.400
0.400
1.000
Main Camera Pixel
3
8
8
19
0.158
0.421
0.421
1.000
Video Recording Resolution
1080
1080
720
2880
0.375
0.375
0.250
1.000
Supported Music Formats
11
9
10
30
0.367
0.300
0.333
1.000
Style Score
Style Score
91
77
88
256
0.355
0.301
0.344
1.000
Facebook Access Methods
2
2
2
6
0.333
0.333
0.333
1.000
Twitter Access Methods
2
2
2
6
0.333
0.333
0.333
1.000
Foursquare Access Methods
2
2
2
6
0.333
0.333
0.333
1.000
Instant Messaging Options
2
2
2
6
0.333
0.333
0.333
1.000
Operating System Speed
90
81
89
260
0.346
0.312
0.342
1.000
Web Browser Speed
90
81
89
260
0.346
0.312
0.342
1.000
# of Business Apps.
516
600
200
1316
0.392
0.456
0.152
1.000
# of Entertainment Apps.
1219
1500
600
3319
0.367
0.452
0.181
1.000
# of Games
7665
7700
1247
16612
0.461
0.464
0.075
1.000
# of Themes
2822
2822
960
6604
0.427
0.427
0.145
1.000
Technical Specification
Multimedia Standards
Social Networking
Options
Operating System Speed
Application World
Richness































Table
20

Priority Vector

35


8) Results

and General View of Scores


Style Score
0.031
# of Business
Applications
# of
Entertaintme
nt
# of Games
# of Themes
Wi-Fi range
Main Camera
Pixel
Video
Recording
Resolution
Music
Playback
Supported
Formats
OP speed
Web browser
speed
Facebook
Access
Methods
Twitter
Access
Methods
Foursquare
Access
Methods
Instant
Mess.
Options
Style
CPU speed
Internal
Memory
Capacity
Main Display
size
Battery
Life
0.561
0.245
0.074
0.120
0.500
0.320
0.119
0.062
0.889
0.111
0.555
0.278
0.063
0.104
1.000
0.592
0.250
0.113
0.045
Iphone 3GS
0.392
0.367
0.461
0.427
0.200
0.158
0.375
0.367
0.346
0.346
0.333
0.333
0.333
0.333
0.355
0.263
0.250
0.318
0.288
Iphone 4S
0.456
0.452
0.464
0.427
0.400
0.421
0.375
0.300
0.312
0.312
0.333
0.333
0.333
0.333
0.301
0.439
0.500
0.318
0.192
Nokia e7
0.152
0.181
0.075
0.145
0.400
0.421
0.250
0.333
0.342
0.342
0.333
0.333
0.333
0.333
0.344
0.298
0.250
0.364
0.519
Sum
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
Application World Richness
Multimedia Standards
Operating System Speed
Social Networking Options
Technical Specification
0.073
0.409
0.284
0.152
0.051

Table
21
General View of Scores


Step 1:

System creates result table by collecting priority vectors together.


Style
0.031
Iphone 3GS
0.348
Iphone 4S
0.331
Nokia e7
0.320
Sum
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.312
0.342
0.333
0.429
0.333
0.303
0.073
0.395
0.452
0.153
0.218
0.346
0.333
0.267
0.398
0.385
Application World
Multimedia
Operating System
Social Network
Technical Specification
0.409
0.284
0.152
0.051

Table
22

Last scores of each smart phones


Step 2:
System takes sum of the multiplied values of phone score and sub criteria’s Priority Vector values. After that, system creat
es a new table
which contains score of the phones and main criteria Priority V
ector values.

Iphone 3GS
0.324
Iphone 4S
0.404
Nokia e7
0.273

Table
23

Final Comparsion


Step 3:

System multiplies main criteria Priority Vector values with score of the phones, and then takes their sum. Finally, system co
mpare the results
of each phone, and the phone which has

largest value is appropriate based on the users priority definitions.

36


III.
2
.

Technical Issues


We will use Visual Basic
2

programming language for coding. It will provide an object oriented environment and
allow us to develop our project separated betwe
en team members.


F
or the database system, we will use Microsoft SQL Server 2008.
3






2

Visual Basic

(VB) is the

third
-
generation

event
-
driven programming language

and

integrated development environment

(IDE) from
Microsoft

for
its

COM

programming model. Visual Basic is designed to be relatively easy to learn and use
.

3

Microsoft SQL

Server

is a

relational database server
, developed by

Microsoft
: It
is a software product whose primary function is to store and
retrieve data as requested by other software applications, be it those on the same computer or those running on another compu
ter across a network
(including the Internet).

37


III.
3
. Model and Algorithms


Database Design










Figure
14

Database Design


38



0
Smartphone
Selection System
User
Personal Information
Filter Criteria
Criteria and Weights
Smartphone Selection System
Context Diagram
Smartphone Information
Price Dealer
Latest Price Information
Smartphone Info
Price Information
Segmented Smartphone Info

Figure
15

Context Diagram

39


Smartphone Selection System
Level
0
User
Personal Info
1
Save Personal
Info
Get Segmented Smartphone
2
Get
Segmented
Smartphone
D
1
-

Smartphone
Get Smartphone
Smartphone Info
Display Smartphone
Filter Criteria
3
Save Filter
&
Other Criteria
Criteria and Weights
3
Find
Smartphone
D
1
-

Smartphone
Get Filtered Smartphones
Filtered Smartphones
Criteria and Weights
User
Smartphone
Price Dealer
Get Smartphone Price Info
Latest Price ınformation
Price Information

Figure
16

Level O diagram

40


Use Case Diagram

Filter Smartphones
Calculate AHP Values
Find Smartphone
User
<<include>>
<<include>>
Find Segmented Smartphone
<<include>>
Price Dealer
Find Latest Price
<<include>>

Figure
17

Use Case Diagram






41




III.3.1
Data Source and Flow Mechanisms


We collected smartphones and thei
r technical specifications from expert sites.
These expert sites such as
www.letsgomobile.org
,
www.maxicep.com
, and
www.mobileti
sim.com

provides latest smartphones in the market and their
technical specifications. For price information, we collected our data from
trusted web sites such as
www.hepsiburada.com
,
www.hizlial.com

and
www.teknosa.com.tr
. In the market you can find much lower prices but trust is
a big issue about these sites. Sometimes vendors can put lowest price in the
market, but when you try t
o buy one of them, you realize that the item you
requested is out of stock. In order to eliminate these marketing strategies, we
used trusted web sites and price vendors.

For segmented results, we conduct an online survey among users to gather
their pers
onal information and smartphone preferences. We use this
information to show segmented results according to user’s age, income and
education level.


Priority values for main criteria and sub criteria are en
tered by the user in the
system as illustrated in
above screenshot.


Also user is asked to compare styles of the alternatives. This is similar to
criteria comparison and user enters values according to his/her personal
preferences.





Figure
18

Screen shot of Genel Comparison Page

Figure
19

Screen Shot of Alternative

Style comparison Page

42



III.
4. User Interface and Reports


Users will provide some inputs to

the system. These inputs are
:

Age, Gender, Income and Education. These inputs will be used to provide segmented results. According to this
information, System will provide most selected smartphone among categories. Other than these inputs,

U
ser also
provi
de
s

his/her priorities
according to main and sub criteria. These will be used in AHP calculations.


In the end, System will provide a smartphone which is appropriate based on
his/her priorities for the user. Other than that, system also gives most
selecte
d smartphones among user groups according to personal information
of the user. Lastly system gives the price information of the smartphone that
is listed based on AHP calculations.


Graphical user interface design called GUI, is used for displaying the
inf
ormation and objects in the system as a visual feedback to users. Easy to
use, graphical capabilities, interactive human
-

machine interface and user
friendliness must be very important poin
ts while creating a DSS
system.
These requirements should be satisfi
ed by system developer and system designer. Apart from these
issues, there are additional considerable attributes that are taken into account in order to meet the user’s needs. The attri
butes of presented
information are;




Clarity:

The content of presented

data should be expressed accurately and without delay.



Discriminability:

The displayed information can be set apart accurately.



Conciseness:

Users should not be overloaded with hugely amount of information.



Consistency:

A unique design should be conformed

to

expectations of user.



Detectability:

Attention of user should be pointed towards information required.



Legibility:

Information should be easy to read.



Comprehensibility:

The meaning of data should be clearly understandable, interpretable, and recogniza
ble.


43


We designed our graphical user interfaces in our system according to attributes and criteria above. In welcome sheet, we want

to make a clear and
ease to understand frame so we put only an image, a heading, a label that includes the explanation of ou
r system and two button, namely “start”
and “exit”. We wrote the explanation of each sheet on the bottom of the page because of the fact that user may not understand

what she should do.
Additionally, we gave default values on personal information and smart
phone information page to clarify what it means and how it is filled by
customers. The error messages in the system are very clear and have some explanation that what user should do to continue the

system
appropriately. We took attention of the size, shape

and colour of the buttons. They are made in the same size, shape and colour at the bottom of
the page. Navigational buttons
and calculation

buttons were kept separate according to their functionality so
that user does

not fail to find where
the buttons ar
e. “Filter page” button are put all of the frame because user may want to return filter page in order to fill the information

again and
we use “Reset” button if user want to reset the filled information on the frame. We used labels to write explanations on

each frame, user cannot
change the content of explanation and put
a

“caution image” near the label in order to draw attention. We made some buttons inactive if they are
not used in that frame but we did not hide them because user can be aware of that butt
on. In the result frame, we clearly provide all of the
information about the results of user. We took the related telephone image in order to give visual information about the resu
lted smartphone.
Addition to that telephone, other related telephone result
are shown and a pie chart are shown to take more attention to the result. We gave the
price link to each telephone so that user can click the link and take the price information
about the related smartphone. Finally, we put “What
-
if analysis” button to pro
vide
analysis about how sensitive our criteria when we change
their values.


We made a lot of iterations to be able to meet the best requirements for the user. Iteration
is made by changing and reevaluating all of the buttons, labels, images and texts
a
ccording to their size, functionalities, shapes, positions and codes that provides their
usage. It is an undeniable fact that the additional iteration improves the quality of the
user interface. However, some changes as iterations in
a

GUI design might not

cause
improvements after all because the changes can be wrong for that design so the true
usability curve for a certain system cannot be as smooth as the curve given as the graph.



This graph shows the importance of the iteration for the best usability o
f the system.
With the help of this information, we made some number of iteration for our GUI design
and at the
end;

we reached the best design for our system and for the requirements of
user.



Figure
20
-

Usability and Iteration

44


III.4.1.
Welcome Page:



The first page shows us that wher
e user is able to open that system in her/his computer. In the right side page is a welcome page which introduce the
system to the user.


Figure
21

First page

of Smartphone selection system.



45


III.4.2.
Smartphone selection
-

Filter
Screens:

These page
s

are the
filter

pages of the
system. Left

one is divided two parts which first part record the user
demographic

information in order to use
segmented result part of the system and second part records
the smartphone brand and types
pr
eferred

by user. But this
part is optional as user can observe in the explanation par
t

of
the page.


If user select
s

more than brand or type in the

first page of the
filer pages
s/he will be lead the second page by next button for
selection at least 3, at
most 7 alternatives among them.



Figure
22

Filter Pages of Smartphone selection system

46


III.4.3.
General Comp
aris
on:

This page is illustrated for general main comparison that which one is more significant among other main criteria.

In this way user is able to evaluate
smartphone according to the main criteria priorities
like importance

of multimedia standards or the importance of social networking
in buying
decision making processes.


Figure
23

General Comp
arison Page of Smart Phone Selection system
.



47


III.4.4.
Technical Comparison:

This page provide an oppurtunity to user in the light of comparison for techn
ical specification sub criteria namely, CPU speed or battery life.


Figure
24

Technical Specifications
Page of Smart Phone Selection system.

48


III.4.5.
Multimedia Standard Comparison:

In this page user can
express

her / his preferences multimedia standards in respect sub criteria such as wi
-
fi or main camera. That priority values wil
l
reflect which one is more important than other.


Figure
25

Multimedia Standards Comparison Page of Smart Phone Selection system.

49



III.4.6.
Style comparison:

This page
is
inactive because we get data from users according

to

the st
yle comparison
among
smartphone
s

which
are

selected

in
filter

page by user.

If
the
next administrator would like to add some sub criteria for style
, s
/he will be able to use that style
portion

of the system.


Figure
26

Style Sco
re Page of Smart Phone Selection system.

50




III.4.7.
Social Networking Options:

In that page user can show
the social

networking options preferences among some alternatives such as facebook or twitter.


Figure
27

Social Network Opti
ons Comparison Page of Smart Phone Selection system.

51



III.4.8.
Operating System Speed Comparison:

I
n this page user can e
xpress her/his preferences in terms of the operating system speed and web browser speed.


Figure
28

Operatins

System Speed Comparison Page of Smart Phone Selection system.



52



III.4.9.
Application World Richness:


This page is the last page of last criteria and user is able to fill in the blanks with sub criteria evaluations


Figure
29

App
lication World Richness Page of Smart Phone Selection system.

53



III.4.10.
Alternative Style Comparison:


This page indicates the alternative style comparison for selected smartphone by user in the
fi
l
t
er
page.


Figure
30

Alternative

Style Comparison Page of Smart Phone Selection system.
54


III.4.11.
Result Page:


The

Smartphone selection system result page indicates the most appropriate smartphone in respect of the user’s criteria preferenc