Database & Management Systems

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13 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Database & Management Systems


Today Information has a value. Information can be efficiently managed with databases & Database Management Systems
(DBMS). This report is about databases & DBMS.


Database has been in use since the early

days of computing and it has been one of the common tools in the business sector. Every
person is using databases with or without his/her knowledge. A database is an information set with a regular structure. DBMS
is used to
manage databases.


ew decades ago, the business organizations had recognized the importance of managing the key resources such as raw materials
and labor. But now in the information age, "Information" has moved to its rightful place as a key resource in business field.

The d
is the best solution to manage those information. The database is an information set with a regular structure. Charles Bachma
n was the
pioneer in this field, who developed the first database model. The database model that we use today is simply an
evolution of the earlier
models such as two key model, network model, hierarchical model, flat model, relational model and object
oriented model. Relational
Database model is the first formal database model and it is the most widely used database model. Th
e main concept of Relational Database
model is to representing data as mathematical relations.

Databases can be categorized as Centralized and Distributed databases. Centralized databases can be divided in to two main
categories. They are Personal Databas
es and Client / Server Databases. The address book in your email client software is an example of
Personal Database. Online library facility where you (you are the client here) can search a certain book title using the data
base on library
(i.e. server) is
an example for Client / Server Databases. In a centralized database, there is only one database present and it is on a single

computer. Distributed databases store portions of database in multiple machines in a computer network. For example in the Uni
Student's information is in one computer, and the course information is in another computer but both are interconnected. Dist
databases are more efficient but not cost effective for small organizations.

Database Management System (DBMS) is a co
mputer program (or more typically, a collection of them) designed to manage a
database and run operations on the data, requested by numerous users. There are many types of DBMS such as Navigational DBMS,

Relational DBMS, Multidimensional DBMS, Object
ted DBMS and Associative DBMS. The Relational DBMS are the most widely
used DBMS.

DBMS consists of a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage and retrieval (The process of accessing
information.) of data in a database etc. It contr
ols the security & integrity (The accuracy, quality or condition of data) of a certain database.
A good DBMS may provide graphical user interface (GUI), support for query languages such as SQL (Structured Query Language),
automatic report generation tools
etc. The Oracle,
, PostgreSQL, DB2, Informix, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Access &
SQLite are among the most well known Relational DBMS. Irrespective of the DBMS, the special attention should be paid on the a
of data, the security & backups

(To restore the database in a case of failure) by the database administrator (
person who is responsible for
the environmental aspects of a database)

A few advantages of using databases and DBMS are as follows. D
ata can be shared, can reduce the redundan
cy of data,
inconsistency can be avoided, transaction support can be provided, integrity can be maintained and ease of computer software

Future development of databases and DBMS may concern on following functionalities. Ability to manage comp
lex data types
such as Multidimensional Data. “Universal Servers” based on object
relational DBMS can conqueror the Internet by providing access to
millions of the users at the same time more efficiently. Content
addressable storage where users can scan a
photograph, and have the
computer search for closest match to that photo. Intelligent DBMS (With Artificial Intelligence) with support for natural lan
Therefore untrained users find it easy to use. Most of these technologies are under development, w
here some of above technologies are
used in some organizations like Security Departments, Aerospace Technology Research Centers.


Information has become a critical factor in a business zone. A good, stable, secured database and a DBMS has becom
e one of the
major requirements of most of the organizations. Not only the business organizations but also the computer applications that
we use in day
to day life uses database. Relational Database model & the Relational DBMS are more efficient and widely



MySQL is the best Relational DBMS around, when compared with the efficiency, cost and security. It is a free open source
software, therefore any one can use it without a cost. Oracle is another good DBMS with more enhanced features
like support for
multimedia data types.


Wikipedia (Free Encyclopedia) <

McFadden J.A., & Hoffer F.R., Modern Database

MySQL Network Knowledge Base <

IBM Developer Works <

Oracle Technology Network <

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