Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science ...

tenchraceΛογισμικό & κατασκευή λογ/κού

14 Ιουλ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

501 εμφανίσεις


One Stop Shop For Educators

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student
Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are available by using the Search Standards
feature located on GeorgiaStandards.Org.


Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8


Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 1 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

Unit: Food and Cooking
Differentiated Task
Moving on Up: Modeling Phase Change

Subject Area: Physical Science
Grade: 8

Standards (Content and Characteristics):

S8P1. Students will examine the scientific view of the nature of matter.
c. Describe the movement of particles in solids, liquids, gases, and plasma states.

S8CS1. Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and
skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand
how the world works.
a. Understand the importance of—and keep—honest, clear, and accurate records in
science.

S8CS5. Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring
scientific and technological matters.
b. Understand that different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies)
can be used to represent the same thing.

S8CS9. Students will understand the features of the process of scientific inquiry.
Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices:
f. Scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance the process of scientific
inquiry.

Supporting Content Standard:
S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy.
b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy.
Enduring Understandings:

• Energy is involved in chemical and physical changes.
• As particles are exposed to increasing levels of energy, their speed of movement
increases and they will experience a change of phase.




One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Essential Question:

• How do rock candy and rock salt illustrate the characteristics of liquids, solids, and
solutions?

Pre-Assessment:
Chalk Talk is a means of determining what students know about a topic. A large circle is drawn
on the board or on a large piece of butcher paper with a topic in the center. Students are then
asked to write everything they know about phases of matter and phase change. Everyone must
write something and sign their initials by it. This way, the teacher knows who wrote what and
can use this to clear up misconceptions and to determine students’ current level of knowledge.

 
BASIC INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED
Outcome/
Performance
Expectation



 
Students will
create a
demonstration that
confirms their
understanding of
how energy is
involved in
phase change and
how the movement
of particles is
different in solids,
liquids, gases, and
plasmas. Students
should be allowed
choice of method
but the use of
technology or
manipulatives is
highly desirable.

Students will
create a
demonstration that
confirms their
understanding of
how energy is
involved in
phase change and
how the movement
of particles is
different in solids,
liquids, gases, and
plasmas. Use of
technology or
other simulation is
expected.
 
Students will create
a demonstration that
confirms their
understanding of
how energy is
involved in
phase change and
how the movement
of particles is
different in solids,
liquids, gases, and
plasmas. Use of
technology along
with hands-on or
interactive
demonstrations is
expected.

Performance
Task:
(Detailed
Description)

Teacher role?


Student role?
 
See page four of this
task document.


See page four of this
task document.

See page six of this
task document.
See page four of this
task document.


See page four of this
task document.

See page six of this
task document.
See page four of this
task document.


See page four of this
task document.

See page six of this task
document.
Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 2 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved


One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Resources



http://academic.pgcc.edu/~ssinex/gas_velocity.xls

http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html

Another useful illustration of molecular motion can be found at
ChemConnection's very dynamic Molecules in Motion Java Applet at
http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/Java/molecules
ht
tp://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/
http://www.openoffice.org/
Educational Technology Training Center
(for
more information, see: http://www.ga-edtech.org/
). ETTC staff can also
provide in-class demonstrations, i.e., modeling how students should use
tech-related resources.
http://www.tripletsandus.com/80s/tv_theme_wav.htm
)

Homework/
Extension

 
1) Have students investigate plasma and describe its characteristics.
2) Teacher Note: This task is useful for tying S8P1c to S8P1b, S8P1d and
S8P1e. Make rock candy and describe the changes that are occurring in
molecular motion at each stage of the candy-making:
a) Boil 1 cup (237 mL) of water in a beaker.
b) Add 2 cups of sugar (474 mL) and dissolve.
c) Suspend in the hot liquid a clean piece of string that has been
dipped in sugar. Leave in a quiet place. (NOTE: A clean paper
clip can be attached to the end of the string as a weight. The string
can be tied to a pencil and the pencil laid across the top of the
beaker to keep the string in the center of the liquid.)
d) Leave several days.
NOTE: Warn students about lab safety, especially about hot objects.
3) Investigate how molecular motion in gases varies with temperature and
mass by entering temperatures and masses of molecules at
http://academic.pgcc.edu/~ssinex/gas_velocity.xls
. First, keep the
temperature constant and vary the molecular mass. Then, keep the
molecular mass constant and vary the temperature. (NOTE:
Temperatures
are in Kelvin. Kelvin temperatures are equal to the Celsius temperature
plus 273.)
Then answer these questions
a) Does every molecule of a given substance move at the
same velocity? Explain your thinking about this.
b) How does velocity of the particles in a given substance
vary with temperature? Can you explain why?
c) How is velocity at a given temperature affected by mass? Why?

 
Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 3 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved


One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Instructional
Task
Accommodations
for ELL
Students:
Make a task list for the student using basic vocabulary that includes all the
required tasks to be completed in the analytical activity.
Students may need one to one assistance, or an assigned partner to help
create a product that illustrates the changes in molecular motion as heat is
applied.
Instructional
Task
Accommodations
for Students with
Specific
Disabilities:
Students with attention deficits may find it difficult concentrate on an
activity to the end. They may begin an activity, become bored or
frustrated. Provide the student with samples of completed products.
Frequently monitor individual progress and provide feedback that will
motivate the student to complete the task.
Instructional
Task
Accommodations
for Gifted
Students:


Pretend you are a water molecule. Write a story that describes a day in your
life. Be sure to include how you look and what you do as temperature
changes.
or
Imagine a world where molecules are hired for specific job roles. Some
will be solids, others liquids, some gases, and a very select group, plasma.
Assume the role of a "boss" who wants to educate newly hired molecules
as to how they will be expected to perform on the job. Create a brochure
(using the free resource My Brochure Maker
at
http://www.mybrochuremaker.com/mybrochuremaker-fun.html
) that
outlines how an enterprising molecule can work its way up to the Plasma
Level of molecular employment.

















Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 4 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved


One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
PROCEDURE:

General Teacher Instructions:

Teacher Note: These
demonstrations can be in a
variety of formats. The three
methods given here are
suggestions and incorporate the
use of a variety of online
software. It is recommended that
this is a great time for students to
engage in using technology to
model a scientific concept.
However, it is essential that the
teacher try out these resources
and become familiar with their
use before introducing them to
the students as possible means of
creating their demonstrations.
Distribute the directions for the
use of these programs as needed
by the students as they choose
their method for demonstrating
the concepts.

In differentiating by ability, the
teacher encourages students to
use the suggested technology,
and then provides appropriate
support. The teacher scaffolds
the students’ learning based on
students’ level of ability with the
content and the technology.


Introduction:
Introduce the concept of molecular motion using the
Harcourtschool States of Matter animation website at
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/

This site shows the increase in motion of particles as a solid
is heated and changes phase to a liquid and finally to a gas.
Another useful illustration of molecular motion can be found
at ChemConnection's very dynamic Molecules in Motion
Java Applet at
http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/Java/molecules
In addition,
make a set of mechanical models of the molecular motion of
solids, liquids, and gases. Place B-B’s in a sealed Petri dish
to illustrate each phase. This can be displayed on an overhead
projector or with a document camera.
Teacher Note: Make sure the Petri dishes are sealed, so that
students will not handle the BBs.

Practice:
Students can make a simple model from bouncy balls and
large clear plastic bottles or they may be challenged to create
other models.

The Task:
Next, instruct students to make a model that demonstrates the
change in molecular motion as water is heated and goes
through the phase changes from solid to liquid to gas.

Three suggested ways to create multimedia demonstrations:
1. Using a multimedia resource (Open Office, available
at http://www.openoffice.org/
, is particularly useful
and free if students or teachers do not have access to a
commercial program), students can create a slide with
8 circles (“molecules”). Make a copy of this slide to
create a second slide; in the second slide, however,
you should move each “molecule” slightly. Then this
second slide should be duplicated. In this third slide
the circles should be moved some more. (Note:
Molecules should be moved in a straight line path.)
This process should be repeated until 8 slides are
made, with each slide having the circles in slightly
different positions. If the circles reach the boundary
of the slide, they should start bouncing back in the
Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 5 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved


One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
next slide. Then the presentation can be animated by
selecting “Slide Transition” from the “Slide Show”
drop down menu at the top. On the right, there is an
“Advance Slide” section, where you should deselect
“On Mouse Click” and instead select “Automatically”
and set the time for one second. When the
presentation is played, it will create an animation of
the motion of gas molecules. Students can use a
similar technique to model the motion of liquid
molecules and solid molecules.

2. Students can create a similar animation by drawing a
series of “molecules” pictures using a drawing
program (Paint, for example). The pictures should
show the progressive movement of molecules. Each
picture should be saved as a .gif. The free program
unfreez (downloadable at
www.whitsoftdev.com/unfreez/
) can then be used to
create an animated gif to illustrate molecular motion.

3. Students can use a freeware program developed by
MIT known as Scratch (http://scratch.mit.edu/
) to
create this animation. Note: Teachers and/or students
who need assistance learning or using Scratch and
similar technology resources can contact instructional
technology specialists from their local Educational
Technology Training Center
(for more information,
see: http://www.ga-edtech.org/
). ETTC staff can also
provide in-class demonstrations, i.e., modeling how
students should use tech-related resources.

[NOTE: The Jeffersons’ theme song Movin’ On Up can be
downloaded for free from several websites as wav files (such
as http://www.tripletsandus.com/80s/tv_theme_wav.htm
)
and would make a great musical background to play while
students display their models.]
Materials Needed:

Optional for activity: b-b’s or balls, container
For extension: Water, sugar, measuring device, hot plate,
string, paper clip.
Safety Precautions: Remind students that b-b’s are not to be thrown or put in
their mouths.



Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 6 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved


One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Task with Student Directions:

The basic assignment is the same
for all students. The way in
which students choose to address
the task can vary. The teacher’s
role is to support each group at
the appropriate level. Some
groups will need more support
and scaffolding while other
groups may be able to work very
independently.
Taking the class to the computer
lab to explore these options
would be time well spent.

(Can be copied and pasted to create a student handout)

Moving On Up

The scenario:
Yum! It's spaghetti time! You have just made your famous
and delicious spaghetti sauce, but you still need to cook some
pasta to complete the dish. You get out the pasta and turn on
the faucet, only to discover that the city crew is working on
the water pipes and has turned off the water! Using what you
know about how matter behaves, you immediately think of a
way to solve this problem. You grab the ice from the freezer
and plop it in the pot and start the heat. You watch the ice
melt into liquid water, and finally it boils. Your idea worked!
The pasta is cooked.

Have you ever wondered what is happening to water at the
molecular level? Today you will create a demonstration
of the changes in the molecular motion of solids, liquids, and
gases- those same changes that happen every time you boil
water.

Demonstrate molecular motion in solids, liquids, and gases.
You may use one of the following techniques, or develop
your own method for creating the demonstration. Your
group should write a proposal explaining how you plan
on demonstrating molecular motion and submit it to your
teacher. After approval, create your demonstration and then
present it to your classmates.

You may choose to do one of these methods of creating the
demonstration using the computer, or you may develop your
own method.

1. Using a presentation program, create a slide with eight
circles. Make a copy of this slide to create a second
slide; in the second slide, however, you should move
each “molecule” slightly. Then this second slide
should be duplicated. In this third slide the circles
should be moved some more. (Note: Molecules should
be moved in a straight line path.) This process should
be repeated until 8 slides are made, with each slide
having the circles in slightly different positions. If the
circles reach the boundary of the slide, they should
Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 7 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved


One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Physical Science  GRADE 8  Food and Cooking
07-26-07  Page 8 of 8
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

start bouncing back in the next slide. Then the slides
can be animated by selecting “Slide Transition” from
the “Slide Show” drop down menu at the top. On the
right, there is an “Advance Slide” section, where you
should deselect “On Mouse Click” and instead select
“Automatically” and set the time for 1 second. When
the slide show is played, it will create an animation of
the motion of gas molecules. Students can use a similar
technique to model the motion of liquid molecules and
solid molecules.
2. Create an animation of molecular motion in the three
states of matter by drawing a series of “molecules”
using Paint or a similar drawing program. The pictures
should show the progressive movement of molecules.
Each picture should be saved as a .gif. The free
program unfreez (downloadable at
www.whitsoftdev.com/unfreez/
) can then be used to
create an animated gif to illustrate molecular motion.
3. Use the free downloadable program from MIT
called Scratch to illustrate molecular motion.