Study Guide, Lec exam 2


11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Micro 2

Study Guide

Exam Two

Elements of Microbial Nutrition, Ecology and Growth (Chapter 7)

Know the steps in binary fission. Understand the concepts of generation time, doubling time, exponential
and geometric growth. Know how to calculate the size of

a population over time and how to do a viable
plate count. Understand the concept of a growth curve and the importance of the lag, log, stationary and
death phases. Know bacterial counting techniques such as turbidity measurements and total cell counts,

well as the limitations of each method.

Expected Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 7
12, 14
19, 21, 22

Multiple choice questions:

1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14,

15, 16

Writing to Learn questions

1, 4, 7

Microbial Metabolism (Chapter 8)

Know why cell
s require enzymes. Be able to define the terms metabolism, anabolism, catabolism, enzymes,
catalysts, substrate, simple enzyme, conjugated enzyme, holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactors, coenzymes,
active site, exoenzyme, endoenzyme, constitutive enzyme and ind
uced enzyme. Know the checklist of
enzyme characteristics (table 8.1). Be able to discuss energy of activation in terms of what it is and different
ways of overcoming the energy barrier.

Expected Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 7

Multiple choice que
stions: 1

Microbial genetics (Chapter 9)

Understand the terms genome, chromosome, gene, replication fork, Okazaki fragment, genotype, phenotype,
codon, anticodon, promoter, intron, exon . Know the relative sizes of plasmids, bacterial and eukaryotic
genomes. Know the general structure of the bases of RNA and DNA, including which are purines and which
are pyrimidines. Understand the base pairing rules and how the bases are held together. Know what an
antiparallel arrangement is. Know the difference

between replication, transcription and translation. Know
the function of the enzymes helicase, primase, DNA polymerase III, DNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase,
ligase and gyrase. Know the differences between leading and lagging strand synthesis. Understa
nd the
relationship between DNA sequence and protein function. Know the difference between RNA and DNA
and the different type

of each found in the cell. Understand the process of protein synthesis and how to read
the genetic code. Know how transcriptio
n and translation differ between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Be
able to compare an inducible and repressible operon and know the examples covered in class Know what a
mutation is and how they arise. Know the different type of mutations including point,
missense, nonsense,
silent, back, substitution and frameshift. Know which types of mutations are most serious and why.
Understand genetic recombination in bacteria including conjugation, transformation and transduction.

Expected Learning Outcomes: 1


Multiple choice questions: 1
3, 15

Writing to Learn questions
: 1

Critical thinking: 3,
5, 8, 9

Genetic engineering (Chapter 10)

Know the overall purpose of genetic engineering. Be able to give three examples of genetic engineering in
tion. Understand how DNA can be cut, separated by size (using gel electrophoresis) .and isolated in the
laboratory. Know how the polymerase chain reaction works and why a specific type of DNA polymerase is
needed for it. Know what a DNA fingerprint is a
nd how one is constructed. Know what a plasmid is and
what it is used for. Know
in general

how to isolate a gene.

Expected Learning Outcomes: 1
9, 11, 14,

Multiple choice questions: 1, 2,

Writing to Learn questions
a, 6

Physical and
chemical control of microbes (Chapter 11)

Understand the problems of contamination and the relative resistance of various microbial organisms and
forms. Know the definitions of and differences between sterilization, microbicidal agents, microbistatic
ts, germicides, disinfectants, antiseptics, sanitation and degermation. Understand the concept of
microbial death and the factors which influence it. Know the mode of action of each physical and chemical

in class. Understand the concer
ns to be aware of when choosing a method of microbial
control. Know the different ways heat can be used as an agent of microbial control, including the relative
advantages and disadvantages of each method. Know how cold, desiccation, radiation and filtra
tion work to
inhibit microbial growth. Understand the appropriate use of chemical microbicides and the factors that
influence their effectiveness. Know the appropriate uses, advantages, disadvantages and examples for each
of the chemical control agents d
iscussed in class, including chlorine, phenols, alcohols, hydrogen peroxide,
surfactants, heavy metals, aldehydes, ethylene oxide, dyes, acids and

Expected Learning Outcomes: 1
9, 11

Multiple choice questions: 1
4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 16

Writing to
Learn questions
: 1

Drugs, Microbes, Host (Chapter 12)

Understand the terminology of chemotherapy, including what is meant by prophylaxis, antibiotics, synthetic
drugs, and the difference between broad and narrow spectrum drugs. Know the characteristi
cs of an ideal
antimicrobic drug (table 12.1). Know the f

major mechanisms of drug action as well as the examples of
each given in class. Know the major advantages and disadvantages of each of the following anti
penicillins, cephalospor
ins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin,
vancomycin, rifamycin, the bacillus antibiotics, fosfomycin and synercid, sulfonamides, and
flouroquinolones. Also know the major characteristics of the drugs used to treat i
nfections by fungi,
parasites and viruses. Know the three major categories of drug side effects as well as the examples given in
class. Know the factors that are involved in selecting an antimicrobial agent, including the advantages and
disadvantages of e
ach type of susceptibility testing as well as how to apply the results of such testing. Know
how to calculate the therapeutic index of a drug and what this number means. Understand how drug
resistance is acquired and the major mechanisms of drug resistan
ce. Know how natural selection is related to
drug resistance. Know the problems spawned by the increasing use of antimicrobics.

Expected Learning Outcomes:

Multiple choice questions: 1
9, 11, 12
6, 10

Writing to Learn questions