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Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004

Middle School Curriculum

Unit 17: Biotechnology


Lesson 4: Genetic Engineering

STUDENT OBJECTIVES



1. Explain genetic engineering



2. Describe a procedure of genetic engineering



3. Identify the process of DNA Fingerprinting



4. Comp
lete the lab(s)


5. Explain how genetic engineering is applied in agriculture


6. Cite examples of genetic engineering uses in agriculture


Agriculture QCC:
…………………………………………………………………..20, 24

Language Arts QCC:
……………………………………………...……………..6
-
16, 44



7
-
20, 40


8
-
20, 41

Science QCC:
……………………………………………...…………………….….…

6
-
1


7
-
1, 10, 11



8
-
1


REFERENCES

National Council for Agricultural Education.
Biotechnology for Plants, Animals and


The Environment
. “Genetic Engineering” Texas A&M University.

http://services.juniata.edu/ScienceInMotion/bio/la
bs/Biotech/DNA Profiling.doc

The Biotechnology Education Project.
An Introduction to Biotechnology
. St Louis,


Missouri.

Lee, Jasper S. and Diana L. Turner.
Introduction to World: Agriscience and Technology
.


Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc.

http:
//nesen.unl.edu/methods/biodemo.html#demo1


EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES, MATERIALS

Construction paper, glue, staples, scissors, and worksheet for lab(s)

PowerPoint presentation


TERMS TO FAMILIARIZE YOUR STUDENTS WITH

DNA Fingerprinting

Restriction sites

Restricti
on enzymes


Teaching Procedure

A.

Introduction

DNA fingerprinting is mostly used in crime cases where the courts need to find
out who did the crime. Fingerprinting involves running a segment of DNA in an
agarose gel and looking at the results to see who d
id it. The victim’s DNA and the
Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004

suspects’ DNA are all included on the agarose gel and based on the pattern seen,
one can tell who did the crime and now will do the time. More than one hundred
acres of genetically engineered crops are in the world today. So
me of these crops
include soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola.


B.

Motivation

1. Understand the concept of DNA fingerprinting

2. Do the lab for “Paper Gene Splicing”

3. Submit accurate results for the lab

4. Completion of the “Horse and Foal” worksheet


C.

Discussion

1.

Question: What is genetic engineering?


Answer:
Also called recombinant DNA technology or gene manipulation.
Two major techniques in genetic engineering; 1) genes are engineered into
organisms such as microbes (bacteria) for mass
-
productio
n and 2) insertion of
select genes into organisms to improve their genotype. For plants and animals
we use tissue culturing to increase the number in bulk quantity.


2.

Identify the procedure of genetic engineering.


Answer:
1) Isolating genes: Put the ge
ne on a map, scientists know the
restriction sites around it and cut it from DNA. This is useful to isolate short
genes. 2) Recombination: Gene is linked to larger section of modified
bacterial DNA. 3) Transformation: Combined plasmid/gene DNA inserted
int
o target cell. When bacteria and plasmid are mixed they are given a shock
to make them permeable. Transformation adds genes to the whole organism.
4) Screening: Used to check if gene of interest is present. 5) Induction: In
front of a new gene genetic engi
neers attach a promoter, extra set of base pairs
that control the activation of the gene.


3.

Question: Describe the gel electrophoresis process.

Answer:
It uses an electric current to separate various samples of DNA to
different lengths in the gel. DNA f
ragments are attracted to the positive
side of the pole. The larger the fragments the slower it migrates.


4.

Question: What field of science is DNA fingerprinting closely associated
with?

Answer:
Genetics



5.

Question: How is genetic engineering applied
in agriculture?

Answer:
Crops have been developed that resist insect damage and
spoilage. Some species of plants have the ability to kill off weeds around
them.

This would cut down on the level of herbicides sprayed. Scientists
inserted genes that prolong
the shelf life of fruit and vegetables. Think
back to the article on corn from Lesson 2 how was genetic engineering
involved there?

Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004



6.

Question: What are some uses of genetic engineering in agriculture?

Answer:
Black walnut has the ability to kill off ce
rtain species that grow
near it. Once this gene is isolated, genetic engineers can move it into other
plants to kill off weeds and roots. The tomato, the first genetically
modified food, has been experimented on with its shelf life with delayed
ripening. T
he corn
-
borer
-
resistant corn has a pest
-
resistant trait. Cotton is
herbicide resistant. Having miniature
-
sized watermelons improves the
eating quality. Improved sweetness gives sweet peas a better taste.
Strawberries can withstand freezing temperatures. Po
tatoes absorb less oil
when fried thanks to their high starch content. Bananas may provide
immunity to hepatitis thanks to a Hepatitis B virus protein added to the
fruit. Squash has been genetically engineered to resist two viruses. Crops
can also be genet
ically engineered to be resistant to frost damage.



7.


Question: How do genetically engineered crops help society?

Answer
: Scientists are now modifying crops to produce pharmaceutical
products. Some genetically engineered plants can help in producing
hu
man antibodies for anti
-
cancer and anti
-
virus drugs. Some consumers
are still hesitant to eat genetically engineered food because they are fearful
of the compounds and chemicals used to make it. If you had a choice
between a regular tomato and a geneticall
y modified tomato, which would
you choose? Does it really matter to you?



D.

Lab Activities



Gene Splicing


Materials: Construction paper, glue, scissors, stapler with staples


Procedure: Before class, cut a long thin strip of construction pap
er and glue or staple
it into a loop. When discussing gene splicing, cut the loop (plasmid) with the scissors
(restriction enzyme). Then with glue or stapler (ligase), attach another strip of
construction paper (inserted gene) into the loop.


Optional Lab

Activity


Horse and Foal Lab


A horse breeder has reason to suspect that his neighbor stole one of his purebred
foals. His neighbor is willing to return the foal only if the breeder can prove that the
foal is his! How do you do it?


See lab worksheet in D
isk 1, Unit 17 Biotechnology under the folder entitled
Supplemental Worksheets.


Optional Lab Activity

The Beachy Experiment (aka Virus Cutting)

Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004


This experiment performed by Roger Beachy explains how plants can become virus
resistant. Beachy introduced a
virus gene called TMV, tobacco mosaic virus. He isolated
the virus and inserted it into the Ti plasmid of a bacterium. Then the TMV gene transfers
into a plant cell providing “immunity” to the virus. The cells are grown into a culture and
then become a pla
nt resistant to TMV.


Students will be simulating this experiment with the help of plasmid worksheets, scissors,
gluestick, and Ziploc bags.


Materials:

Paper with four circular plasmids on it (See following handout; also found in Disk 1, Unit
17, Supplem
ental Worksheets, and Beachy Experiment)

Scissors

Gluestick

Plastic Ziploc bag(s)

Storage Size Ziploc bag

Yarn


Procedure:

1. The students must build their own Tobacco mosaic virus out of three of the plasmids
on the worksheet.

2. Cut out three of the four

plasmids. Cut at the points marked B, C, D, and E. Paste B to
C and C to D and then D to E. This should give you a spiral.

3. After the students have made their virus, the teacher will write on the board the
segment of the virus the students should cut o
ut.

4. After cutting that certain segment, find the appropriate place on the Ti plasmid. (Use
the base pairing method where A pairs with T and G pairs with C)

5. Place the new plasmid inside a Ziploc bag with the yarn to simulate the new bacterium.

6. The
new bacterium will then be placed into a plant cell providing “immunity” to the
tobacco mosaic virus.

7. When the new plant cells are grown in a culture, we develop a new plant that is
resistant to TMV (tobacco mosaic virus).


E.

Optional Lab Activities


1
. DNA Murder Mystery Lab (Carolina Math and Science Catalog) ER #17
-
1028.
Matching “pop bead” fingerprints of suspects to find out who did the crime.

Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004

ACADEMIC CONNECTIONS

Science

Middle School Connections in Agriculture Education

Science QCC: Grade

6
-

1





7
-

1, 10, 11


8
-

1


Name







Period:



Date:





What traits are visible in a human population?


Purpose:

To identify certain traits in a human population.


Procedure:

On a separate sheet of pape
r list the names of all the members in your
family. Ask them the following questions. Be sure to record their response as either “yes”
or “no”.


1.

Can you roll your tongue?

2.

Do you have naturally straight hair?

3.

Do you have brown eyes?

4.

Do you have attached ear
lobes?

5.

Do you have good vision, without eyeglasses?


After you have asked the questions record their responses in the following table.


Family
Member

Inherited Trait

Roll your
tongue?

Naturally
straight
hair?

Brown eyes?

Attached
ear lobes?

Good vision
w
ithout
glasses?

1.






2.






3.






4.






5.






6.






7.







Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004

ACADEMIC CONNECTIONS

Language Arts

Middle School Connections in Agriculture Education

Language Arts QCC: Grade
6
-
16, 44



7
-
20, 40


8
-
20, 41


Name____________________________________ Period____ Date______________


Teacher’s Note: Have students complete a lab activity, related to the material discussed in
class.


Af
ter completing your lab, respond to the following questions.


1. What was the title of the lab?



2. What was the purpose or objective of the lab?





3. Write a short summary of the steps in the lab.








4. What were your results?








5. What do the
se results mean?






Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004


Summary

Conclusion

DNA fingerprinting is a real
-
world example of how genetics and technology
come together to benefit society. DNA fingerprinting solves the “who did it?”
cases in courts today. Many cases still go unsolved due to th
e fact that there is not
enough evidence to convict the criminal.


Evaluation

Written quiz





































Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004


A

C


















B

D















E











Don’t Cut this circle!!


Cut at points labeled B, C, D, and E. Paste B to C and D to E. That is your virus!
Look for the sequence your teacher has chosen to cut. Then match that with the
plasmid,
the circle you did not cut.

Georgia Middle School Agricultural Education Curriculum, Unit 17 Lesson 4

Updated
May 2004


Middle School Curriculum

Unit 17: Biotechnology


Lesson 4: Genetic Engineering Worksheet


A horse breeder had his purebred foal stolen from the barn late one night. Four years
later, his neighbor bought a horse and
the breeder had reason to believe that his
neighbor’s new horse was actually the foal stolen from his barn.

His neighbor will be happy to return the horse if the neighbor can prove the horse is his!


How can this be done?


DNA Strands from the Horses


Foal

born in 1999 Horse Bought in 2003





























On a separate sheet of paper, write your answers to the following questions:


A
re there any similarities between the two?


What leads you to believe that this horse might be the breeder’s foal? Prove your answer
with evidence from the DNA strands.