RESEARCH AND LEARNING RESOURCES FOR COMPUTER GAMES TECHNOLOGY

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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
1

11/7/2013

RESEARCH AND LEARNING RESOURCES FOR
COMPUTER GAMES TECHNOLOGY


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction to Computer Games

................................
................................
.............

3

General resources for
game research and technology

................................
............

3

Game Artificial Intelligence resources:

................................
................................
...

3

Web sites on game AI:
................................
................................
............................

3

Academic:

................................
................................
................................
..............

4

Conferences and workshops:

................................
................................
.................

4

Books: (see also AIWisdom.com)

................................
................................
...........

4

Academic Papers:

................................
................................
................................
..

5

Surveys and overviews:

................................
................................
.....................

5

Pathfinding:

................................
................................
................................
........

5

Formations:

................................
................................
................................
........

5

Steering behaviours:
................................
................................
...........................

6

Crowds:

................................
................................
................................
..............

6

Camera AI:

................................
................................
................................
.........

6

Visibility and perception:

................................
................................
...................

7

Social and conversational agents:

................................
................................
......

7

Story AI:
................................
................................
................................
.............

7

Action selection and agent architecture:

................................
............................

7

Strategy and tactics:

................................
................................
...........................

8

Learning and evolution:

................................
................................
.....................

8

Other:

................................
................................
................................
.................

8

Game AI articles:

................................
................................
................................
.

10

Software:

................................
................................
................................
..............

10

Commercial:

................................
................................
................................
.....

10

Open source:

................................
................................
................................
....

11

Other:

................................
................................
................................
...............

11

Game Physics resources:

................................
................................
........................

12

Books:

................................
................................
................................
..................

12

Papers:

................................
................................
................................
.................

12

Software:

................................
................................
................................
..............

12

Open source:

................................
................................
................................
....

12

Commercial:

................................
................................
................................
.....

12

Other:

................................
................................
................................
...............

13

Academic resources: game design, production and criticism:

..............................

13

University labs, centres and projects:

................................
................................
.

13

University courses:

................................
................................
..............................

14

Academically oriented online forums

................................
................................
..

15

Conferences and workshops

................................
................................
................

15

Papers:

................................
................................
................................
.................

15

Other:

................................
................................
................................
...................

16

Related topics of interest

................................
................................
.........................

16

Rants:

................................
................................
................................
...................

16


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
2

11/7/2013

Computer Game Characters

................................
................................
...................

17

Behaviour

................................
................................
....

Error! Bookmark not defined.

Game Design

................................
................................
................................
...........

17

Hierarchical Actions

................................
................................
...............................

17

Learning

................................
................................
................................
..................

17

Specific AI Techniques and Case Studies /Examples

................................
...........

17

Game AI Researchers

................................
................................
.............................

20

Links to be sorted out yet

................................
................................
........................

20



Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
3

11/7/2013

Introduction to Computer Games

Wikipedia video game entry

Gamespot
-

The History of Video Games

Gamespot
-

A History of Video Game Controversy

Life After the Video Game Crash

Google search

General resources for game research and technology



Journal of Game Development


(
CRM
)



Game Programming Gems

book series


(
CRM
)



Game Developers Conference


(
CMP
)



Game Developer Magazine


(
CMP
)



Gamasutra


(
CMP
)



IGDA

International Game Developers Association



Game Research

covering "the art, business, and science of computer games"



Calendar

of game industry events

Game Artificial Intelligence resources:

Web sites on game AI:



The Game AI Page: Building Artificial Intelligence into Games



Amit's Game Programming Information



AIWisdom.com

A book of articles on AI techniques used in
video games by programmers in the industry
by
Steve Rabi
n

("
Our Goal: Catalogue Every Game AI Article and Every
Graphics Article")




Game/AI

blog by Damian Isla



Game AI Page

A website devoted to the topic of artificial
intelligence i
n games and contains many useful links to other
webpages on the subject

by
Steve Woodcock




aiGuru

by
Michael Zarozinski




AI Depot

A website covering many aspects of artificial
intelligence.
by
Alex Champandard




An AI Archi
tecture for Games and Robotics

by
Nick Porcino




Artificial Intelligence

resources at
gamedev
.net




Artificial Intelligence FAQ

Frequently asked questions about
artificial intelligence.



comp.ai.games
:
A newsgroup devoted to game AI.



Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
4

11/7/2013

Academic:



Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games Research

at UMich
by
John Laird

et al.




Artificial Intelligence

section of
Amit Patel's

Game
Programming Information.



AI Center

by
Alexander Nareyek




Dialogue in Computer Games

by
Penny Drennan




Game AI Paper Summaries
,
Strategy AI

by

Penny Sweetser




Game Development
Page

by Ken Perlin



Conferences and workshops:



Computer Game Design and Technology Workshop
GDTW2006




V
-
Crowds '05

The First Interna
tional Workshop on Crowd
Simulation



Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment
Conference

(AIIDE
2005
)



AAAI
-
04 Workshop on Challenges in Game AI

(2004)



Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment

(AAAI
AIIE
2002
,
2001
,
2000
,
1999
)



Australian Game Developers' Conference



International Conference on Entertainment Computing



Game
-
On



Game Developers' Conference



AAAI Spring Symposia



International Conferen
ce on Virtual Storytelling

Books: (see also
AIWisdom.com
)

o

Artificial Intel
ligence for Computer Games: An Introduction

(2004) by
John D. Funge
.
The companion web site
ai4games.org

includes
bibliography, errata, chapter guide, and relevant links.

o


Companion website for Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

o

Programming Game AI by Example

(2004) by
Mat Buckland

o

AI Game Engine Programming

(2004)
by Brian Schwab

o

AI for Game Developers

(2004)
by David M. Bourg and Glenn
Seem
an

o

AI Game Development: Synthetic Creatures with Learning and
Reactive Behaviors

(2003) by
Alex Champandard
. See also the
companion web site
AiGameDev.com
.

o

AI Game Programming Wisdom 2

(2003) edited by
Steve Rabin
.

o

AI Game Programming Wisdom

(2002) edited by
Steve Rabin
.


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
5

11/7/2013

o

AI for Animation and Games: A Cognitive Modeling Appro
ach

(1999)
by
John D. Funge
.


Academic Papers:

Surveys and overviews:



Alex Nareyek (2004)
Artificial Intelligence in Computer
Game
s
-

State of the Art and Future Directions

ACM Queue
1(10), 58
-
65 (
PDF of print version
)



Behavior Modeling in Commercial Games

(2004) by David E.
Diller, William Ferguson, Alice M. Leung, Brett Benyo,
Dennis Foley
[
DO
C
]

Pathfinding:



Near Optimal Hierarchical Path
-
Finding

(2004)
Adi Botea
,
Martin Müller

and
Jonathan Schaeffer




Ef
ficient Navigation Mesh Implementation

(2004) John C.
O’Neill



Realistic Human Path Planning using Fluid Simulation
[
PDF
]

(2004) by René G. Burgess and
Christian J. Darken



Ribbon Networks for Modeling Navigable Paths of
Autonomous Agents in Virtual Urban Environments

[
PDF
]

(2003)
Peter Willemsen
,
Joseph K. Kearney

and
Hongling
Wang




Interactive Navigation in Complex Environments Using Path
Planning

(2003)
Brian Salomon
,
Maxim Garber
,
Ming C. Lin
,
and
Dinesh Manocha




Polygon Soup for the Progra
mmer's Soul: 3D Pathfinding

(2001) by Patrick Smith.


GDC 2001 presentation slides in
[
PPT
]
.


Formations:



Formation
-
Base
d Pathfinding With Real
-
World Vehicles

(2000) by
Jim Van Verth,

Victor Brueggemann
, Jon O
wen and
Peter McMurry.


Extends steering behaviors to include multi
-
vehicle formations and explores more specific vehicle
locomotion models.



Coordinated Unit Movement
, and
Implementing Coordinated
Movement

(1999) by
Dave Pottinger




Closely related robotics papers:


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
6

11/7/2013



Formations with a Mission: Stable Coordination of Vehicle
Group Maneuvers

(2002) by
Petter Ogren
, Edward Fiorelli and
Naomi Ehrich Leonard



Negotiated Formations

(2003) by
David J. Naffin

and
Gaurav
S. S
ukhatme




Robot Formations Using Only Local Sensing and Control

(2001) by
Jakob Fredslund

and
Maj
a J Mataric




Social Potentials for Scalable Multi
-
Robot Formations

(2000)
by
Tucker Balch

and
Mar
ia Hybinette




Behavior
-
based Formation Control for Multi
-
robot Teams

(1999) by
Tucker Balch

and
Ronald C. Arkin

Steering behaviours:



Autonomous Behaviors for Interactive Vehicle Animations

(2004) by Jared Go, Thuc Vu and
James Kuffner
.
[
PDF
]



Fast, Neat and Under Control: Invers
e Steering Behaviors for
Physical Autonomous Agents

(2003) Heni Ben Amor,
Oliver
Obst
,
Jan Murray
.
[
PDF
] [
CiteSeer
]



Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters

(1999) by
Craig

Reynolds
.
[
PDF
] [
CiteSeer
]


Crowds:



FastCrowd: Real
-
Time Simulation

and Interaction with Large
Crowds based on Graphics Hardware

(2004) by
Nicolas Courty

and
Soraia Raupp Musse

[
PDF
]




Interaction with Groups of Autonomous Characters

(2000) by
Craig Reynolds
.
[
PDF
]


Camera AI:



A Cinematography System for Virtual Storytelling

(2003)
Nicolas Courty
,
Fabrice Lamarche
,
Stéphane Donikian
, and
Éric Marchand
.
[
PDF
]




Real
-
Time Camera Control For Interactive Storytelling (2002)
Fred Charles, Jean
-
Luc Lugrin, Marc Cavazza and Steven J.
Mead.
[
PDF
] [
CiteSeer
]




A Camera Engine for Computer Games: Managing the Trade
-
Off Between Constraint Satisfaction and Fram
e Coherence

(2001) by
Nicolas Halper
,
Ralf Helbing

and
Thomas Strothotte
.
[
PDF
]

[
CiteSeer
]



The Virtual Cinematogra
pher: A Paradigm for Automatic Real
-
Time Camera Control and Directing

(1996) by
Michael F.
Cohen
,
Li
-
wei He

and
David Salesin
.
[
PDF
] [
CiteSeer
]



Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
7

11/7/2013

Visibility and perception:



Visibility and Concealment Algorithms

for 3D Simulations
[
PDF
]

(2004) by
Christian J. Darken




AI on the GPU
[
PDF
]

(2004) by
Christian J. Darken
, E. Ray
Pursel, J. Steve Correia. On determining how entities on a
virtual battlefield see each other.



State Estimation for Game AI using Particle Filt
ers (2004) by
Curt Bererton
.
[
PDF
] [
AVI video
]




Object Persistence
for Synthetic Characters (2002) by Damian
A. Isla and
Bruce M. Blumberg
.
[
PDF
]

Social and conversational agents:



Character Part
icipation in Social Interaction
[
PDF
]

(2004) by
Robert Zubek




Generic Personality and Emotion Simulation for
Conversational Agents

[
PDF
]

(2004) by
Arjan Egges
, Sumedha
Kshirsagar,
Nadia Magnenat
-
Thalmann




FLAME
-

A Fuzzy Logic Adapt
ive Model of Emotions

(2000)
by
Magy Seif El
-
Nasr
, John Yen, and Thomas Ioerger.
[
PS
]


Story AI:



AI Characters and Directors for Interactiv
e Computer Games
(2004)
Brian Magerko
,
John E. Laird
,
Mazin Assanie
,
Alex


Kerfoot

and
Devvan Stokes
.
[
PDF
]




An intent
-
driven planner for multi
-
agent story gener
ation
(2004) by
Mark Owen Riedl

and
R. Michael Young
.
[
PDF
]




Interactive Narrativ
e Architecture Based on Filmmaking
Theory (2004) by
Magy Seif El
-
Nasr
.


[
PDF
]




A Search
-
Based Drama Manager (2004) by
Ari Lamstein

and
Michael Mateas

[
PDF
]



Faç
ade: An Experiment in Building a Fully
-
Realized
Interactive Drama

(2003)
Michael Mateas

and
Andrew Stern

[
PDF
]




The Stage as a Character: Automatic Creation of Acts of God
for Dramatic Effect

(1995) by
Bradley Rhode
s

and
Pattie Maes

Action selection and agent architecture:



Improv: A System for Scripting Interactive Actors in Virtual
Worlds (1996) by
Ken Perlin

and
Athomas Goldberg

[
PDF
]

[
CiteSeer
]

[
related page
]


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
8

11/7/2013



Multi
-
Level Direction of Autonomous Creatures for Real
-
Time
Virtual Environments

(1995) by
Bruce Blumberg

and
Tinsley
Galyean
.
[
PDF
]

[
CiteSeer
]


Strategy and tactics:



Rules versu
s Scripts in Games Artificial Intelligence (2004) by
Nathan Combs

and Jean
-
Louis Ardoint.
[
PDF
]




It Knows What

You're Going to Do: Adding Anticipation to a
Quakebot (2001) by
John E. Laird
.
[
PDF
]


Learning and evolution:



Evolving Opponen
ts for Interesting Interactive Computer
Games (2004) by
Georgios N. Yannakakis

and
John Hallam
.


[
PDF
]




Fast and Learnable Behavioral and Cognitive Modeling for
Virtual Character Animation (2004)
Jonathan Dinerstein
,
Parris
K. Eg
bert
,
Hugo de Garis

and
Nelson Dinerstein
.
[
PDF
]



Integrated Learning for Interactive Synthetic Characters

(2002)
Bruce Blumberg,

Marc Downie
,
Yuri Ivanov
,
Matt Berlin
,
Michael Patrick Johnson,
Bill Tomlinson
.
[
PDF
]


Other:



Automating Lighting Design for Interactive Entertainment

(2004)

Magy Seif

El
-
Nasr

and
Ian Horswill
.
[PDF
]



Realistic Autonomous Navigation in Dyna
mic Environments

(2003) by
Alex Champandard

(Masters thesis, University of
Edinburgh)




RTS Games as Test
-
Bed for Real
-
Time Research
[
PDF
]

(2003)
Michael Buro

and Timothy Furtak.



Artificial Stupidity: The Art of Intentional Mistakes (2003)
Lars Liden
.
[
PDF
]




Putting AI in Entertainment: An AI Authoring Tool for
Simulation and Games (2002) by Daniel Fu and Ryan Houlette
[
PDF
]




Strategic
and Tactical Reasoning with Waypoints (2002)
Lars
Liden
.
[
PDF
]




Gamebots: A 3D Virtual World Test
-
Bed For Multi
-
Agent
Research (2001)

Rogelio Adobbati
, Andrew N. Marshall,
Andrew Scholer,
Sheila Tejada
,
Gal Kaminka
, Steven Schaffer,
Chris Sollitto.
[
PDF
] [
CiteSeer
]




Virtual Real(i)ty: SimCity and the Production of Urban
Cyberspace


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
9

11/7/2013



Civilization and Its Discontents: Simulation, Subjectivity, and
Space



Does gameplay have politics?



Vid
eo Games
-

The Necessity of Incorporating Video Games as
part of Constructivist Learning



Making Sense of Software: Computer Games as Interactive
Textuality







Home



Bio



Publications

Naimad Games
Papers and Presentations

Next
-
Gen Content Creation for Nex
t
-
Gen AI
, D. Isla, Invited talk, Foundations of
Digital Games (FDG) 2009
[ppt]

Beyond Behavior: An Introduction to Knowledge Representation, D. Isla, P.
Gorniak, AI Summit GDC 2009
[ppt]

Halo 3 Objective Trees: A Declarative Approach to Multi
-
agent Coordination
, D.
Isla, Invited talk, Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE)
2008
[ppt]

Halo AI Retrospective: 8 Years of Work on 30 Seconds of Fun
, D. Isla, Programming
Keynote, Develop 2008
[ppt]

Transparent Decision
-
Making and AI Design
, D. Isla, Seoul International Games
Symposium (SIGS) 2008
[ppt]

The Two Faces

of Video Game AI
, New Paradigms in Using Computers (NPUC) IBM
Almaden Research Center 2008
[ppt]

Building A Better Battle: The Halo 3 AI Objectives System
, D. Isla, GDC 2008
[ppt]

Dude, Where's My Warthog: From Pathfinding to General Spatial Competence
, D.
Isla, Invited talk, Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (A
IIDE)
2005
[ppt]

Handling Complexity in the Halo 2 AI
, D. Isla, GDC 2005
[doc]

[ppt]

The Halo 2 AI in 10 Minutes or Less
, D. Isla, SD Forum 2004
[ppt]

"Low Level" Intelligence for "Low Level" Character Animation
, D. Isla, B. Blumberg,
Sketches and Applications, SIGGRAPH 2002
[pdf]

[ppt]


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
10

11/7/2013

Object Persiste
nce for Synthetic Creatures
, D. Isla, B. Blumberg, Autonomous
Agents and Multi
-
agent Systems (AAMAS) 2002.
Winner Best Student Paper
Award
.
[pdf]

[ppt]

New Challenges for Character
-
Based AI for Games
, D. Isla, B. Blumberg, AAAI
Symposium on AI and Interactive Entertainment 2002
[pdf]

A Layered Brain Architecture for Synthetic Creatures
, D. Isla, R. Burke, M. Downie,
B. Blumberg, International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) 2001
[pdf]

Game AI articles:

o

Artificial Intelligence

articles from
Gamasutra

(requires free
registration)


o

Using Genetic Algorithms for Game AI

by
Greg James

at
GIGnews


o

AI in Video Games vs. AI in Ac
ademia

(Slashdot discussion)

o

Wild Things

game AI article from
Wired
.

o

AI he
lps gamers keep on playing

(BBC 2002) by Mark Ward on AI in
Majorem


o

Computer games start thinking

(BBC 2002) by Mark Wa
rd

o

The future of artificial intelligence: The Borg?
(2002, ZDNet) group
mind AI for "Dmitry"

o

AI in action g
ames: complete interviews

(2002, PC Gamer)

o

NOLF 2: the complete developer interview

(2002, PC Gamer)

o

AI Middleware: Getting into Character

by Eric Dybsand (Gamasutra,
July 2003) parts:
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
,
5


o

The Full Spectrum Warrior Camera System

by John Giors (GDC 2004,
Gamasutra
(requires free registration)
)

o

Under the hood of The Sims

(2002
IE only?
) lecture notes by
Ken
Forbus


o

What does AI offer video games?

(2004, self
-
publis
hed) by Craig
Furness

o

Bringing emotions to video games

Can games inspire feelings as well
as fun? by Tom Loftus (2004, MSNBC)
[
PDF
]


o

Adapting the Tools of Drama to Interactive Storytelling

(2001,
Gamasutra

(requires free registration)
) by
Randy Littlejohn


o

Agitating for Dramatic Change

(2003, Gamasutra

(requires free
registration)
) by
Randy Littlejohn


Software:

Commercial:



AI.implant

from BioGraphic Technologies


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
11

11/7/2013



Massive

(crowd system used in Lord of the Rings,
see also
)




Softimage Behavior




RenderWare A.I.

("powered by
Kynogon
")




SimBio
nic

from
Stottler Henke Associates

see
also
.



Pariveda




Louder Than A Bomb! Software




Virtools AI Pack

(
formerly NeMo?
)



DirectIA




emotio
n ai




Realtime Drama

Open source:



OpenAI




FEAR
: a generic framework for AI development with a
collection of building

blocks, and methodologies to extend the
system



OpenSteer
: a C++ library and tools to help construct steering
behaviors for autonomous characters


Other:

o

IGDA's comm
ittee on Artificial Intelligence (AI) Interface Standards

[
related game AI newsletter
]


o

International Journal of Intellige
nt Games & Simulation


o

Computers > Artificial Intelligence > Games

(Google/DMOZ
directory)


o

comp.ai.games

newsgr
oup
(via
web

or
nntp
)


o

Related topics:



Games with programmable AI
: games providing AP
I/SDK
allowing them to be used as testbeds for AI research.
(From
CS
672: Learning and Sequential Decision Making

by
Michael L.
Littma
n
.)

Some others:




ORTS

-

A Free Software RTS Game Framework



Freeciv
: "Cause civilization should be free!"



Games > Video Games > Simulation > Programming
Games

(Google/DMOZ directory)




Gamebots

Unreal Tournament as a domain for research
in artificial intelligence



Emotionally Challenged

blog by
Ian Wilson

on articial
emotion.




Terra Nova

a blog about virtual worlds: "computer
-
generated,
persis
tent, immersive, and representational social
platforms...MMORPGs
..."


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
12

11/7/2013



Interactive Storytelling: Techniques for 21st Century Fiction

(
2004) book by

Andrew Glassner




GPGPU

General
-
Purpose Computation Using Graphics
Hardware



AI on the Web

a massive directory of general (not spe
cifically
game related) AI links, online companion to the book

Artificial
Intelligence: A Modern Approach

Game Physics resources:

Books:

o

Game Physics

(2003)
by

David H. Eberly

see
table of contents

and
source code


o

Physics for Game Developers

(2001)
by David M. Bourg

(
overview

and

reviews
)

Papers:

o

Practical Physics for Articulated Characters

[
PDF
]

(2004) by Vangelis
Kokkevis

o

Using Verlet Integra
tion and Constraints in a Six Degree of Freedom
Rigid Body Physics Simulation

[
PDF
]

(2004) by Rick Baltman


o

Adv
anced Character Physics

(2001) by
Thomas Jakobsen


Software:

Open source:



Open Dynamics Engine (ODE)

and
odejava




Tokamak Game Physics SDK




Newton Game Dynamics




Bullet

Continuous Collis
ion Detection and Physics Library



OPCODE

Optimized Collision Detection

Commercial:



Havok Game Dynamics SDK




RenderWare Physics



Meqon Game Dynamics SDK




3Impact

dynamics
-
capable game engine




CMLabs

(real
time, but oriented toward engineering and
academic use)




NovodeX Rocket

(free for non
-
commercial use)



Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

Page
13

11/7/2013



ACE

(The Autonomous Character Engine):



DirectIA
:
(Direct Intelligent Adaptation) a set of software
components modelling motivations and emotions, action
selection capabilities and cognitive behaviours such as dynamic
learning” (animaths websi
te).




GALib

A C++ library of Genetic Algorithm components



Logic Programming Associates

Released a series of AI
programming tools:



Flex: An expert system

toolkit that supports frame
-
based reasoning, rule
-
based programming and data
-
driven procedures.


Includes an English
-
like Knowledge
Specification Language (KSL).



Flint: A fuzzy logic expert system.


Supports fuzzy
variables, fuzzy qualifiers and fuzzy mod
ifiers.



Agent: Allows you to write agent
-
oriented programs
using a logic
-
based approach.



LouderThanABomb!

Spark!: A fuzzy logic editor with a
graphical user interface (GUI).



NightFall
:
Includes tools for developing worlds, including an
AI editor and library with functions for route finding, sensing
other objects nearby, creating other objects and moving around.



Open AI
:
The OpenAI website is the host to an Open Source
project and provides a community for people with an interest in
AI.





Roboc
ode
:

P
rogram a robotic tank in Java that can battle
against others.

Other:

o

Rigid Body Dynamics

by
Chris Hecker


o

Interactive Physics Simulation Resources

by
Thomas Jakobsen


o

Physics Resource Guide

(Gamasutra
,
requires free registration
)

o

Research on game physics

(Pseudo Interactive)

o

Smash Hits

(2001, Wired) by Mark Frauenfelder

Ac
ademic resources: game design, production and criticism:

University labs, centres and projects:

o

Entertainment Technology Center

CMU

o

University of Alberta Games Grou
p


o

Game Research Lab

(University of Tampere)

o

Center for Computer Games Research

IT University of Copenhagen

o

Interactive Entertainment Group

Northwestern University


Research
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o

Game Culture & Technology Lab

UCI

o

Institute for Creative Technologies

USC

o

EA Game Innovation Lab
(
stand
-
in link
)

USC

o

Video Game Research Site

Purdue

o

The Rapunsel Project

(N
YU, Hunter College, University of Illinois)

o

How They Got Game
: History and Culture of Interactive Simulations
and Video Games, at
Stanford Humanities Lab


o

Serious Games
: Improving Public Policy through Game
-
Based
Learning and Simulation and the
Serious Games Summit
. (See
also
this 2004
CIE article

article by
Ben Sawyer

and this
(older?)

site.)

o

Game Technology Research at Brown


o

Computer Games Group

University of Maastricht

o

Liquid Narrative Group

North Carolina State University

o

InteractiveStory.net

and
Façade


o

Water Cooler Gam
es

"video games with an agenda...beyond
entertainment"

o

Experimental Game Lab

Georgia Tech

o

Research in Interactive Narratives

University of Teesside

o

Game Development Society

("Stop playing alone, play together!")

Leeds University

o

John Laird's Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games
Research

o

NC State's Liquid Narrative research group

o

USC's Institute for Creative Technologies

o

Northwestern's Interactive Entertainment Group

o

Excalibur: Adaptive Constraint
-
Based Agents in Artificial
Environments

o

Tierra

o

University of Maastricht, Computer Games Group

o

The University of Alberta GAME
S Group

o

Prof Ken Perlin of New York University a must visit page

University courses:

o

CS 4455
-

Video Game Design and Programming

Ge
orgia Tech

o

Computer Game Design and Implementation

University of Michigan

o

Algorithms for Computer Games

notes for course at the Unive
rsity of
Turku.

o

History of Computer Game Design: Technology, Culture, Business

Stanford

o

AI for Game Programming Course Information

(
Jessica Bayliss
) RIT

o

CS 294 Computer Games Home Page

(
David Forsyth
) UC Berkeley

o

Game Development

Certificate Program, University of Washington
Extension



Research
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Dr C Süheyl Özveren

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o

CS 395 Interactive Graphics Te
chniques for Computer Gaming

(
Ben
Watson
) Northwestern

o

Computer Game Design at Northwestern

A course on computer game
design

offered at Northwestern University.

o

Game AI at RIT

A course on game AI at the Rochester Institute of
Technology.

o

Game Programming

at the University of Michigan

While not
specifically a course on game AI, this course is intended to cover all
areas of game design and implementation.

Academically oriented online forums

o

Game Studies

--

aesthe
tic, cultural and communicative aspects of
computer games

o

Ludology.org

-

Videogame Theory

(see also
Associated Press Says
"Ludology"
)


o

Narratology

-

projects, debates and resources in narrative theory

o

Grand Text Auto

-

group blog about interactive narrative, games,
poetry, and art.

o

The Education Arcade

-

The Future of Videogames in Education

Conferences and workshops

o

Computer Game Technology Conference

(2004)

o

Gaming2Learn

workshop (2003
Media X
, Stanford)

o

Game On:
2000
,
2001
,
2002
,
2003
,
2004

and
GameOn'NA 2005
.


See
also this article on
The Game On conference and the current state of
research into learning
.

o

International Conference
on Virtual Storytelling:
2003
,
2001


o

Narrative Intelligence

AAAI 19
99 Fall Symposium

o

RE:PLAY

(1999) "Real world Conference: Game design + Game
Culture"

Papers:

o

GameFlow: A Model for Evaluating Player Enjoyment in Games
(2005)
Penelope Sweetser

and
Peta Wyeth

[
PDF
]


o

Scripting Versus Emergence: Issues for Game Developers and Players
in Game

Environmen
t Design (2005)
Penelope Sweetser

and
Janet Wiles

[
PDF
]


o

Learning b
y Design: Games as Learning Machines (2004) by
James
Paul Gee
.
[
PDF
]

o

MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design a
nd Game Research
(2002)
Robin Hunicke
,
Marc LeBlanc
,
Robert Zubek
.
[
PDF
]



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Other:

o

Games > Game Studies

>
Education

(Google/DMOZ director
y)


o

Video game studies

from
Wikipedia

o

IGDA
's
Academic

site, includin
g
academic events
,
articles
,
curriculum
, and
forums
.

o

Gamers Learning by Degree

(2002, Wired)

o

10 Game Industry Sites We Like

(
GIGnews)

o

Digital Games Research Association

(DiGRA) Online Community

o

Shedding the stigma: Yes, that's a Ph.D in game theory hanging o
n the
wall

(2004, AP)

o

U.S. colleges offering video game studies

(2004, Reuters,
via Frobes
)

o

gaming research | games as
education | games as art

by
Mary Flanagan

including
The Rapunsel Project

and
The Adventures of Josie True


o

Whither Game Research

(2004 blog post) by
Michael Mateas


o

Towards Relevant Research: Collaboration 101 (GDC 2004 panel) by
Robin Hunicke
,
with

Raph Koster
,
Mark DeLoura
,
Michael van Lent

and Wi
ll Wright
.
Session summary

and

session prep notes
.

o

Computer Games in an Academic Environment

by
Asher Lipson

Related topics of interest



The Uncanny Valley
, a concept formulated
by Masahiro Mori, a Japanese
roboticist. Mori tested people's emotional responses to a wide variety of
robots, from non
-
humanoid to completely humanoid. He found that the
human tendency to empathize with machines increases as the robot
becomes more human.
But at a certain point, when the robot becomes too
human, the emotional sympathy abruptly ceases, and revulsion takes its
place. People began to notice not the charmingly human characteristics of
the robot but the creepy zombielike differences.



The Uncanny Valley

(2000) by
Dave Bryant
:
Why are monster
-
movie
zombies so horrifying and talking animals so fascinating?

[
PDF
]




The Undead Zone

(2004,
Slate
) by
Clive Thompson
:
Why realistic
graphics make humans look creepy
.

Robots Dancing in the Uncanny Valley ...

(2004,

Life With Alacrity
)



The Man Who Mistook His Girlfriend for a Robot

by
Dan Ferber

(2004,
Popular Science
) about the robotic art of
David Hanson




Quality of Life

IGDA's QoL pages advocating better workin
g conditions
for game developers.
Videos

from the
Quality of Life Summit

at GDC
2005.

Rants:

o

GDC 2005, IGDA Session:
Burning Down The House
-

Game
Developers Rant

with
Eric Zimmerman
,
Warren Spector
,

Jason

Research
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Dr C Süheyl Özveren

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Della Rocca
,
Greg Costikyan
,
Brenda Laurel

and

Chris Hecker
.


Covered by


GameSpot
,
GameSpy
,
Wonderland

and

Terra Nova
.

o

A Gamers' Manifesto

("20 things gamers want from th
e seventh
generation of game consoles")

by David Wong and Haimoimoi.

o


o

GDSE
:

Game Development Search Engine

o

Mindpixel
:

Digital Mind Modeling Project
The a
im of the project
is to create artificial consciousness, by teaching it what it is to be
human.

o

NN and GA Tutorials

Computer Game Characters

Google search for Lara Croft

Google search for Mario

Google search for Pac
-
Mac

Google search for Wario

Game Design

Garage Games

Jie Gao
-

Collision Detection

Hierarchical Actions

Cognitive/Agent Architecture

Learning

David W. Aha: Machine Learning Page

Association for Uncertainty in Artific
ial Intelligence (AUAI)

Craig Boutilier's Web Page

Daphne Koller

Machine Learning in Games

C++ Machine
-
learning Library


Machine Learning Network Online Information Service

Specific AI Techniques and Case Studies /Examples

Ex
calibur Project

:

Excalibur is an autonomous agent architecture whose goal is to
provide a complex computer
-
game environment in which the agents would operate.
These agents not only have to plan and make decisions in a dynamic world with
incomplete knowle
dge, but they also have to communicate with other agents and
work as parts of a group as well.


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Genetic Algorithms
: An explanation of genetic algorithms, and how they might work
well with game AI.

Intelligent Agents in Computer Games
: A paper detailing the authors' SOAR interface
to the popular computer game Quake II.

Machine Learning

in Games
:
A site whose title is somewhat misleading. It is actually
more of a repository for AI researchers and game programmers alike. It contains links
to
a number of papers
, techniques,
and current projects.

Machine Learning in Games Development


An article that suggests that Machine Learning is rarely, if ever, used in completed
computer games. It provides an explanation of what m
achine learning is (without
much explanation of the theory of counting and such): the performance element,
learning element, and so on.

Steering Behaviors for Autonomous Characters


A paper on how to make au
tonomous characters in animation and games move in a
life
-
like manner through steering behaviours.


AI in Games: From Black & White to Infinity and Beyond


A website detailing the AI used in the rece
nt game "Black & White". It discusses
autonomous agents, feedback
-
based learning, and decision trees. It also extrapolates
from "Black & White", conjecturing possible directions for future AI in games, such
as infinite goals, and real
-
time planning.

Angband

Angband is a descent through randomly generated dungeons. As one goes
deeper, more fearsome monsters are encountered. These monsters are more than just
better statistics and a different graphical tile: the m
onsters also get smarter as you
descend. Angband and some of
its variants

have a player
-
toggleable option that
allows monsters to track the player by scent and sound as well as sight. Certain
monste
rs can also track better than others: canines and the various types of hounds
can smell the player from hundreds of feet away, and attack in packs. However, scent
is also unreliable. Though each time the player moves into a square his or her scent
lingers
for a while, it is only temporary, and degrades over time, so that after a while,
it becomes unreliable.

Complete AI Interviews
:

This is a collection of interviews with the AI de
signers of
games. They discuss what makes good and bad game AI, and why good AI takes so
long to develop.

Game AI: The State of the Industry

This article is the basis for informat
ion on the two
games mentioned above, but it also contains a number of other facts. One is that finite
and fuzzy state machines still seem to be the industry standard. Genetic algorithms
and neural networks are infrequently used because of a perceived diff
iculty arising
from their non
-
determinism.

Microsoft's Age of Empires
;
To make the AI's job easier, Age of Empires uses terrain
analysis. The result is a pathfinding algorithm that is more efficient th
an the standard
A*. As well, the game uses so
-
called
influence maps
. These maps allow certain
structures to be identified as "key structures", and can find optimal placement of
buildings relative to these structures. These maps are also used to plan attack
s: if any
enemy structures are known, the AI will plot out the best possible attack route, so that
early warning to the enemy is minimized.

Red Storm's Force 21
:
Force 21 takes a different approach to

path finding, drawing on
research in visibility graph analysis

to divide larger sections into "reachable" and
"unreachable" areas, leaving implementation issues up to the individual units.


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The Sims
: Although you can do things to make your characters react in this game,
they are by and large autonomous agents.

Quake 3
:

Quake 3 uses a pathfinding system called the Area Awa
reness System
(AAS). A detailed explanation of it can be found
here
.

Virtua Fighter 4
:

Virtua
Fighter 4 allows you to create AIs, and train them using a
form of supervised learning. After a fight, you can tell it whether it was a good fight
or not, which the AI can then use as information in future fights.

Warcraft 3
: Warcraft 3 uses autonomous agents for better unit behaviour.

Researchers, Research, and Conferences

Alexander Nareyek
:
The website of Alexander Nareyek, a researcher interested in AI
in ga
mes. He has written papers
detailing approaches and fields which might be
appropriate for game AI research
, and
his thesis

combines agents, planning, constraint
programming, and local search. The formal framework he provides is implemented as
a computer game to show its viability. He also provides a
list of papers
,

some of
which might be as useful as the ones mentioned above.

Artificial Intelligence Magazine, January 2002


A publication of the AAAI, the Janua
ry 2002 issue of AI magazine has, among
articles on more traditional games,
an article surveying the history of computer games
and AI
.

GAMES Group at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada


A research group that produces high
-
performance strategy games, encompassing both
traditional games such as Chess, Go, Poker, etc., as well as cutting
-
edge technology
produced in association w
ith industry giants such as Electronic Arts and Bioware.

GCDC00
,
GCDC01
,
GCDC02
,
GCDC03
:
Moderator's notes from the roundtables on
AI in Computer Games at the Computer Games Development Conferences 2000
-
2003.


Research
and Learning Resources for Computer Games Technology

Dr C Süheyl Özveren

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20

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Game AI Researchers

J.M.P. van Waveren


Mr. van Waveren created the Quake II bot Gladiator, which was extended to provide
the core Quake III bot AI. His MSc. thesis describes the Area Awareness System
(AAS) pathfinding method used in the bot.

John Laird's Computer Game Research


John Laird is a professor and associate chair of the computer science and engineering
division of the College of Engineering at the University of Mic
higan. This page
details his research in the field of computer game AI. It contains a number of his
papers, as well as links to the source code of projects he has worked on. Of particular
interest might be
Interactive Computer Games: Human
-
level AI's Killer Application
,

described by Professor Laird on his website as "a general, over
-
the
-
top paper
attempting to rally people to work on artificial intelligence and computer games." He
also

wrote
an article entitled "The Future of Game AI"

for the Gamasutra website, and
maintains
a list of interes
ting games from an AI perspective
.


Research Directions for AI in Computer Games


A technical report of the computer science department of Trinity College Dublin.

It
describes the level of AI being used in the industry, as well as how AI is used in a
number of different genres. It then identifies reasons as to why AI in the industry
tends to be much less sophisticated than that studied in academia, as well as a
dis
cussion of game AI as an academic subject, and TCD's Game AI Project.

Robert Zubek


A Ph.D candidate at Northwestern, Mr. Zubek's research extends into "social" AI
-

creating bots and other forms of AI
which can engage with the player socially. One of
his projects,
tt14m

the trash
-
talking 14
-
year
-
old moron, attempts to model verbal
posturing and emotional involvement.

Text Book:

Game AI


The table of contents for what could be an academic text book on game AI. The idea
is to demonstrate what might be useful for university courses on game AI, as there
currently seems to be no academic textbook on this subject. It is meant to gene
rate
discussion rather than be an actual work in progress.

Towards an AI Behavior Toolkit for Games


An article by researchers who are trying to develop a toolkit for games that
would
allow programmer’s access to state
-
of
-
the
-
art AI ideas and advances, thus bridging
the gap between academia and the industry.

Academic Courses



Links to be sorted out yet



The Angband Borg
: A '
bot that plays
Angband

as if it were a normal player looking at
the screen. It was originally written by the maintainer of the game, though because the
source is freely available, there are a number of variants f
or different versions of the
game. It maintains a set of goals, the weight of which changes depending on the

Research
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situation it finds itself in. Then, each turn, it looks at its surroundings and its goals,
and does that which will best satisfy its current most i
mportant goal.

Game Development Resources

Articles

Amit's Game Programming Information
:
A resource for information on articles and
particulars of game programming. Includes sections

on pathfinding and A*, tile
-
based
games, and more.

Gamasutra
:
A website with many articles covering all areas of game development.

Game Development Search Engi
ne
:
A website containing many resources for game
developers. Its search engine lets you search articles from many game
-
related
websites, and it also contains links to other sites, with rankings showing their general
usefulness.

Introduction to Writing a Bot


A tutorial that guides you through the processes of creating a bot for a game like
Quake 2, Quake 3, or Half
-
Life.

Justin
Heyes
-
Jones personal web pages
-

A* Tutorial


A tutorial on A* search, as well as an implementation written in C++, using the
standard template library. It claims to be platform
-
independent, but isn't. However,
removing the line "#include <conio.h>" in th
e source should allow you to compile it
correctly under a non
-
Windows operating system.

Timeline of Knowledge Representation


An excellent timeline of knowledge representation from 10000 BC to 2003 AD.

Compilers

DJGPP


A 32
-
bit C/C++ development system for machines running some form of DOS.

GameDev


A Windows
-
based toolkit for developing side
-
scrolling computer

games.

Haskell Compilers and Interpreters


Links to the Hugs 98, GHC, nhc98, and other Haskell interpreters and compilers.

Java Technology


Su
n's Java website.

MinGW


A collection of windows
-
specific header files and tools for developing native
Windows programs.

Python

The official website for the Python programming l
anguage.

The GNU Compiler Collection
:
A collection of compilers. Currently, it contains front
ends for C, C++, Ada, Java, Fortran, and Objective
-
C. Distributed with almost every
copy of Linux, and often with the BSD fami
ly of operating systems, this comes close
to being ubiquitous outside the Windows world.

Libraries

Bayesian Networks in Java
:

A Java/XML toolkit for writing and using Bayesian
networks in Java.

FEAR: Foundations for General Game AI
:

A project that bills itself as "a language
independent open
-
source project providing portable support for the creation of
genuine
Artificial Intelligence

within realistic simulate
d worlds".

Free Fuzzy Logic Library
:
A library useful for those intent on using fuzzy logic as
part of their game AI.

Haskell Graphics Library
: A gra
phics library for use with the Hugs Haskell system.
There are demo snippets of code available on the website. The library is supposed to
work on both Windows and Unix/Linux.


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OpenGL
:
The Open Graphics Library, a widel
y
-
used general
-
purpose graphics
library.

PyGame
: A set of modules for the Python programming language which allow
multimedia programming, and which are usually used for games development.
PyGame is written on top of
the
SDL

multimedia library.

SDL


The Simple Directmedia Layer, a C multimedia library which allows crossplatform
multimedia access to the mouse, keyboard, graphics, and sound.

SVGALIB


A low
-
level SVGA graphics library for Linux.

Games and Engines

Angband


Though its graphics are extremely primitive by today's standards, Angband still has a
fairly

large user base, and is in constant development. Monsters, races, items, and so
on are all specified externally in text files, so variants can quickly be made that way;
and while the source is still quite large, it is extremely well
-
commented and well lai
d
out.

Botman's Bots


A resource for bots for Half
-
Life and its associated modifications. It includes both
source, binaries, and instructions on how to compile everything.

Crystal Space


Crystal space is a freely available (LGPL) 3
-
D game development kit. It can use
OpenGL
,
Allegro
,
X11
,

and
SVGALIB
, depending on one's operating system setup.

Freeciv

Freeciv is a turn
-
based strategy game based loosely on the Civilization series
of

games. Its source is freely available, and the developers
encourage contributions
from the community
.

Quake and Hexen 2 Source


A repository for the Quake and

Hexen 2 source code, as well as modifications
("mods") for those engines.

Quake 2 Source


This site contains the final release of Quake 2, as well as its source code.