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Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


1












Looking Toward the

Future of Serials


in a Linked Data World


Laurie Kaplan

Director, Content Operations

Serials Solutions®, a ProQuest business


Rutgers University, School of Library & Information Science

17:610:553:85


Digital Libraries

Fall,

2012

December 3, 2012





Author Note


Laurie Kaplan is the Director of Content Operations for Serials Solutions
, a ProQuest
business
.
Laurie

is also currently an MLIS student at Rutgers, the State University of
New Jersey. A
shorter
version of this paper is being submitted
to the conference
proceedings

for
the 2012 Charleston Conference, published by Purdue University Press
.

Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


2


Abstract

Serials, from a cataloging, search, and retrieval point of view, are currently described and
accessed

via metadata records. Each record is tied to the title of the journal, newspaper,
or magazine. The record might cover a range of years for that publication under its
current title, or it might cover the current iteration and previous titles. But in our li
braries,
to find a serial we look for the appropriate record, usually a MARC record
, in OPACs
and search systems
.
T
he cataloging rules are changing and RDA will soon replace
AACR2 as the content standard for creating MARC records
and

other library metadata
for books and serials. The Library of Congress has announced that as the cataloging rules
are changing, so too will the bibliographic framework change. The current framework,
FRBR (a linear, hierarchical conceptual model)
,

and
the M
ARC standard
(
the
flat
format
used for catalog records in the U.S. and many other countries around the world
)
,

form the
basis of many catalog records
. All signs are pointing toward a new framework built on
RDF and linked data.
How will current MARC records

adapt to use in a linked data
world?
Should future structures and displays use the traditional hierarchical approach, or
should they take as a model the web
-
like structure taking shape for the Semantic Web?

And how can libraries and librarians take part i
n this next phase of information access
and retrieval?


Keywords:

serials,
librarians,
linked data,
S
emantic
W
eb


Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


3


Abbreviations

AACR2


Anglo
-
American Cataloging Rules 2
nd

Edition

API


Application Programming Interface

DDC


Dewey Decimal Classification

DOAJ


Directory of Open Access Journals

DRM


Digital Rights Management

EAD


Encoded Archival Description

EDM


Europeana Data Model

ESE


Europeana Semantic Element

FRBR


Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

HTML


HyperText Markup Languag
e

HTTP


HyperText Transfer Protocol

ILS


Integrated Library System

ISBD


International Standard Bibliographic Description

ISNI


International Standard Name Identifier

ISSN


International Standard Serial Number

ISTC


International Standard Text Code

LODLAM


Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives and Museums

MARC


Machine Readable Cataloging

OPAC


Online Public Access Catalog

ORCID
-

Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier

RDA


Resource Description and Access

RDF


Resource Description
Framework

SPARQL
-

Protocol and RDF Query Language

TEI


Text Encoding Initiative

URI


Uniform Resource Identifier

VIAF


Virtual International Authority File

W3C


World Wide Web Consortium

XML


Extensible Markup Language

Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


4


Looking Toward t
he Future of S
erials in a Linked Data World


A hot topic in today’s literature and at
library and information science
conferences is linked data. Everyone wants to be part of the linked data world, and it is
referred to as a new concept. It may be
a new
concept to
elect
ronically link
disparate
content, but
many of the principles of linked data have been applied by
librarians for as
long as there have been libraries
,
including the classification of
data and making
resources accessible to library patrons
.
I
n

ancient Egypt
around

300 BC the Library of
Alexandria
used a
classif
i
cation system for
their papyrus scrolls and arrang
ed

them in
bins by subjects. In the United States, in the 1770s Thomas Jefferson classified his
personal library by subject and chronology, using broad

subjects such as Science,
Memory (History), Reason (Philosophy)
,

and Imagination (Fine Arts). About 100 years
later three classification systems were developed, each with varying degrees of detail and
granularity
. The Dewey Decimal System (1876), the Cutt
er Classification System (1882),
and the Library of Congress

Classification System

(1897) all created classifications and
enabled patrons to find linked data, on the shelves, in the library. Without that cataloging
and classification how would a patron find the history section, with books

and periodicals
specifically about the Renaissan
ce, and even more
specifically about Italian art,
Michelangelo and
Leonardo
da
Vinci?


Librarians in more modern times have been using the Anglo
-
American Cataloging
Rules, 2d Edition (AACR2) and MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) to create catalog
records
for the materials in their libraries.
Among the most challenging records are the
serials records, tracking their title changes as they merge, incorporate, and split apart
again over their lifespans.
Serials include several types of publications as well, su
ch as
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


5


scholarly journals, newspapers, government documents, consumer and trade magazines,
annuals, reports, yearbooks, directories, proceedings,
and
monographic series.
Additionally there are self
-
published family newsletters, ‘zines, and online publicatio
ns.
In order to keep up with the changing face of library catalogs and with electronic library
systems
,

c
ataloging rules are changing as
well, with
Resource Description and Access
(RDA)

replacing AACR2
.
The Joint Steering Committee for the Development of R
DA
(2012) notes

RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to
support resource discovery

. . .
covering all types of content and media
.


One question to
be explored is how
librarians can
support linked data on the Semantic Web,
and how that
will change the way librarians catalog and classify resources.

The Semantic Web is
defined
by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
as “a Web of data


of dates and
titles and part numbers and chemical properties and any other data one might con
ceive of.
RDF
, which stands for Resource Description Framework,

provides the foundation for
publishing and linking

data”
.
It is


a standard model for data interchange on the Web.
RDF has features that facilitate data merging even if the underlying schema
s differ, and it
specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time
. .
.


The intention of
this
paper is to review the literature on the concept of linked data
,

relate linked data

to serials publishing, and discover what librarians are currently
pla
nning
and what they might do in the near future to facilitate

the creation of
linked
data. The methods employed are a review of the current research, websites, and linked
data models to analyze which of these are applicable to serials publications and seri
als
research.
This paper will also discuss several
sites that can be used by serials librarians to
create or enhance metadata in their catalog

record
s
.

The
objective
of this research is to
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


6


understand the implications of linked data for serials librarians, and to understand
how

serials
librarians
can take advantage of enhanced
navigation between the traditional
online
library re
sources and the rest of the web

through the use of
metadata
and
l
inked
data
,

to
help their patrons improve research results in a linked data world.

Current
L
andscape of Serials


Access to
R
esearch

Serials
are a major
part of

the library

collection in any format imaginable, including

print publications, online publicati
ons, open access collections,
and
institutional
repositories, with or without their accompanying datasets.
One
critical
role of the
librarian is to make these resources accessible for their patrons, researchers, students, and
the general public
, through
catalog records and

a
search system
. Technological advances
in
library
research are dependent upon the underlying metadata and authorities to ensure
that search terms employed by patrons result in finding the appropriate resources. There
are many standards

for expressing that metadata
, some of which are general standards for
bibliographic records

(MARC and Dublin Core)
, and others that are designed for specific
types of records

(TEI and EAD)
,
and
all of which can now be included in more detail
thanks to RDA
, the replacement for AACR2
bibliographic description.

There are also new standards and identifiers
for adoption
, including:



International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI)
:

an ISO Standard (ISO
27729:2012) whose scope is the identification of public identi
ties across
multiple fields of creative activities, disambiguating natural, legal and
fictional parties that might otherwise be confused



International Standard Text Code (ISTC)
:

a numbering system for the unique
identification of text
-
based works; the term “work” can refer to any content
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


7


appearing in conventional printed books, audio
-
books, static e
-
books or
enhanced digital books, as well as content which might appear in a newsp
aper
or journal



Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier (ORCID)
:

somewhat similar to
ISNI, intended to disambiguate author names, starting with scholarly journal
authors first, and linking to scholarly object identifiers

RDA, RDF, and Bibliographic Fra
mework

Most current US catalog records use AACR2 as their bibliographic description or
content formalization, and are most often encoded using MARC21 format. The move to
RDA from AACR2 has raised issues about the long
-
term viability of the MARC format.
One

reason is that MARC does not represent relationships and hierarchies between pieces
of bibliographic data, which is
a feature

of
RDA
, f
ollowing
a more web
-
like model and
identifying and relating the resources in library collections.
As a result, the
Library of
Congress

announced
the Bibliographic Framework Initiative

in October, 2011 to

investigate alternatives
:
“The new bibliographic framework project will be focused on the
Web environment, Linked Data principles and mechanisms, and the Resource
Desc
ription Framework (RDF) as a basic data model
.

According to a presentation given
by Sally McCallum
(2012)
, some of the requirements
for the Bibliographic Framework
Initiative
are enhanced linking for semantic technology through Uniform Resource
Identifier
s (URIs), MARC
c
ompatibility

with the continued maintenance of MARC 21
and the ability to reuse MARC data, and new views of different types of metadata (e.g.
descriptive, authority, holdings, classification, subject, rights). The initiative will

use the
We
b as a model for connecting information, and will

investigate the use of the RDF data
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


8


model

and various syntaxes in a collaborative way. The linked data orientation will lead
to easier integration of catalog data with data on the web and in social media, i
ncrease
flexibility for descriptive data, and facilitate reuse of data for searching and applications.
McCallum (2012) noted that while balancing factors they would “leverage machine
technology for the mechanical while keeping the
librarian

expertise in co
ntrol.”
Kevin
Ford, project manager for the Library of Congress Linked Open Data service, noted that
“RDF provides a means to represent the data and the Linked Data methods and practices
provide a means to communicate the data, the two core and historical
functions of
MARC

(Ford, 2012, p. 46)
.

He

further noted

that

“Linked Data is about publishing
structured data over the same protocol used by the World Wide Web and linking that data
to other data to enhance discoverability of more information”

(Ford, 2012,
p
.
47
).

The process to move from MARC to a new linked data model wi
ll

be gradual, to
enable librarians to manage their legacy data and incorporate it into the linked data world.

While the changes apply to resources generally, they are partic
ularly challenging in the
case of serials.

Classic serials issues of tracking
title
change
s

over time, finding the
appropriate copy, retrieving all parts of the serial including articles, bibliographies,
graphs, and images, are multiplied when moving from
one system to another
. Of utmost
importance to serials librarians is

ensuring that serials are properly coded so that systems
used for search and retrieval can successfully resolve all the links and find the result
s

for
students and researchers.

C
urrent
R
e
search
on
L
inked
D
ata

There are many articles about linked data available on the web. A search
for “linked
data” (with the quotes) in
two
library system
s

using

Serials Solutions
®

Summon


Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


9


service
finds
7,947
results
in one and 8,968 in the other; the same
search

in Google
finds
16,500,000 results and in Google Scholar finds 26,500 results.
Several websites and
articles credit Tim Berners
-
Lee, the current Director of the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C), with coining the term “linked data” in his 2006 Design
Notes
.

In that same
document he define
s

the four
principles

(or “expectations of behavior”), which were
summarize
d by Bizer, Heath and Berners
-
Lee (2009) as

1.

Use URIs as names for things

2.

Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names

3.

When someone look
s up a URI, provide useful information, using the
standards (RDF, SPARQL)

4.

Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things

These principles set the stage for publishing data on the web and for connecting data via
the web with
in

a framewo
rk or structure and standards.

The
basic
grammatical structure
of the RDF model
is stated

“in the form of
subject, predicate, object

triples. The subject
and object of a triple are both URIs that each identify a resource

.

. .

The predicate
specifies how the subject and object are related, and is also represented by a URI
” (Bizer,
Heath, & Berners
-
Lee,

2009)
.

Bizer, et al. (2009) also note that “it is possible to think of
RDF triples that link items in different data sets as an
alogous to the hypertext links that
tie together the Web of documents.”


Needleman (2007) noted that “RDF allows for both human
-
readable and machine
-
parseable vocabularies and is designed to support the reuse of metadata semantics and
vocabularies among di
sparate information communities”

(p. 58).
Much of linked data
involves mark
-
up languages and voca
bulary standards. The most common mark
-
up
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


10


languages are HTML and XML, and RDF works with both.
“RDFa is an extension to
HTML5 that helps you markup things like

People, Places, Events, Recipes and Reviews.
Search Engines and Web Services use this markup to generate better search listings and
give you better visibility on the Web, so that people can find your website more easily

. . .
In fact, if your markup langu
age is based on XML, then you can already use RDFa in
your documents today” (
Linked data in HTML
)
.

According to a blog post by Eric
Hellman (2009) “there is an easy and rough transformation to go from marc into an RDF
model: the triples are (record ID, mar
c field/subfield, field value). A single MARC record
decomposes into many triples.”
As we are beginning to see, standards that are already in
use
are relevant for

linked data, and can provide structure for data and objects on the web
,
including the various

types of
serials

publications
.

Examples of Linked Data in Library Settings

The
L
ibrary of
C
ongress

Linked Data Service
was created in

early 2009
, with 17
datasets now available; the list can be

found at
http://id.loc.gov/descriptions/
. “The
Library of Congress Linked Data Service enables both humans and machines to
programmatically access authority data at the Library of Congress

. . .

The Library of
Congress has prepared this vocabulary terminology syste
m and is making it available as a
public domain data set
.

Also available
since

2009
i
s

the Swedish National Library’s
Union Catalog
published as linked data;
similar efforts from the German and French
national libraries and the British Library

followed over the
last few years
.

Another type of linked data effort is Europeana, a cooperative effort in the European
Union that brings together data from over 1500 national libraries, academic and public
libraries, museums and archives to promote Euro
pean cultural heritage. It was launched
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


11


in 2008 as a portal with links to collections from various institutions. Europeana “
is an
authoritative source of information coming from European cultural and scientific
institutions . . . is an opportunity to reach

out to more users, increase their web traffic,
enhance their users' experience and build new partnerships . . . is a platform for
knowledge exchange between librarians, curators, archivists and the creative industries
.

The Europeana project encountered a
ll of the legal, technical, policy, linguistic and
financial issues one might imagine when combining objects from collections across
Europe. Despite the attractiveness of being able to access so many collections from one
portal, the collections were still
in silos. A decision to create a linked open data pilot
project was the technical starting point to test the concept of interoperability and to define
the standards on which the project would be based. To coordinate all of the different data
format and sta
ndards, they began with a Dublin Core metadata application as the
common dataset (Europeana Semantic Element or ESE), with elements from each of the
various types of institutional data as well as some new elements needed for Europeana.
This original datase
t had problems of interpretation and did not enable linking at the
desired level; it was soon replaced with the Europeana Data model (EDM), an RDF
-
based model using URIs and HTTP, more specific rules regarding items and their
metadata records, and their di
gitized versions, and support for contextual resources with
controlled vocabularies. The linked data pilot was launched in June 2011 with 3.5 million
objects; the second version of data.europeana.eu was released in February 2012 with
fewer items (2.4 milli
on) but with better linking, fully open, legally vetted objects. The
pilot is ongoing, and serves as a good lesson for those embarking on their own linked
data project (Isaac, Clayphan, & Haslhofer, 2012).

Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


12


One organization that
i
s

involved with

several
linked data initiatives

is
OCLC
,

with
projects

including
x
ISSN,
Dewey Web Services
,

VIAF (Virtual International Authority
File), and the Schema.org initiative with WorldCat.org, Google, Bing, Yahoo, and
Yandex, in a “cooperative agreement between these major search engines to share a core
vocabulary for markup” (Fons, Penka,
&

Wallks, 20
12, p. 29)
.

The
x
ISSN
web service
project was one of the earliest to use linked data through standard numbers. It pulls
together associated serials based on the ISSN, is machine actionable, and offers a
visualization of the serial map that allows for human

interpretation.
Dewey
Decimal
Classification (DDC)
top three levels became available as linked data in September 2009,
and the s
ummaries are now a
lso a
vailable as linked data from
dewey.info

(June 2012)
.
Adding

RDF vocabulary and URIs
to the summaries
extends the
ir

web document version,
and enables anyone us
ing

Dewey numbers to add URIs and link to the summaries,
available in nine languages. Updates
are

also automatically

available through the links.
Another pro
ject
also launched in September 2009, and
now
hosted by OCLC is
VIAF
.org,
“a joint project of several national libraries plus selected regional and trans
-
national library agencies. The project's goal is to lower the cost and increase the utility of
library

authority files by matching and linking widely
-
used authority files and making
that information available on the Web” (VIAF,
http://viaf.org/
)
.

VIAF
creates a "super"
authority record by linking together all authority data

for a given entity
.

The newest

OCLC

project is the
OCLC
Linked Data Ini
tiative with Schema.org,
which was also released in June of 2012 for over 250 million records on WorldCat.org.

This project is adding “a set of vocabulary extensions to WorldCat data. Schema.org and
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


13


library
-
specific extensions will provide a valuable two
-
way bridge between the library
community and the consumer web” (F
ons, et al., 2012, p. 30).

A specific serials

project is the

New York Times rNews, which is the first phase

of a
vocabulary designed for news organizations. All nytimes.com articles published after
January 23, 2012 include rNews metadata. Using a Google tool called Rich Snippets one
can see the rNews

attributes from any N
ew
Y
ork

Times online article. Evan Sandhaus
explained rNews in a blog post in February of this year. Sandhaus (2012) stated “[f]ar
beneath the surface of nytimes.com lurk the databases


databases of articles, metadata
and images, dat
abases that took tremendous effort to develop, databases that the world
only glimpses through the dark lens of HTML” and noted that most readers won’t notice
the change from the addition of rNews metadata outright, but that implementing rNews
will enhance
the user experience.

Another form of linked data is in the area of e
-
books, with additional metadata added
to catalogs by the e
-
book vendors.
I
ntegrat
ion of

the e
-
book catalogs
occurs through an
API (application program interface)
with the ILS
(integrated

library
system
) and OPAC
(online public access catalog)

in use by public and academic libraries. OverDrive, Inc., a
distributor of e
-
books for publishers, created their first e
-
book platform, BookWorks, in
1995. The first OverDrive Virtual Branch website,

launched in Cleveland, Ohio’s public
library in 2003, occurred the same year that OverDrive became part of OCLC’s
Cataloging Partners Program. The association with OCLC added the OverDrive e
-
books
to WorldCat and created MARC records for each e
-
book, whic
h enabled librarians to
incorporate these records into their catalogs. Another company, Syndetic Solutions, came
on the scene in 2006 and provided libraries with “content to enhance bibliographic
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


14


records, such as book reviews, covers images, publisher blur
bs, author biographies, table
of contents, forewords and first chapters, back covers, sample chapters, fiction profiles
(setting, characters, themes), and book summaries” (Buczynski, 2006, p. 110). In 2008
OverDrive began offering DRM
-
free (no digital righ
ts restrictions) audiobooks for
downloading on MP3 players as part of their Virtual Branch library concept. Integrated
through a library’s ILS systems, the system increases access to OverDrive’s titles, and
increases interest in other digital content. Anot
her way that e
-
books extend the reach of
the library is by providing access to books digitized by Project Gutenberg and Internet
Archives. OverDrive and others include these books through their service, again
integrated with the library’s ILS, and add qual
ity control so that the library patrons
benefit from the digitization projects as well as the library’s services. 3M recently entered
the e
-
book market with their Cloud Library platform,
in which they

have created a design
“to connect with services offered

by other library providers.” The integration will enable
the patron to check out physical books and e
-
books, receive status notifications, use a
seamless search system, and view the entire list of a publisher’s offerings
to

make
suggestions to the librar
i
an

regarding e
-
books to add to the
library
collection. There is
also support for tablets and smartphones so that e
-
books are available on mobile devices.
To include social media aspects, products such as LibraryThing for Libraries are not only
integrating
with the ILS and OPAC in public and academic libraries, but they are
allowing users to add tags, recommendations, and links to other editions and translations,
all of which are searchable by the library patrons. There are sometimes issues of privacy
raised
, such as with OverDrive’s association with Kindle, which led to patrons seeing ads
from Amazon
to buy

the book as their loan was about to expire (Parry 2012). As with any
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


15


new technology there are
positive

and negative issues that come into play.
However,
g
enerally these e
-
book advances, especially the enhancements to the library catalog, are
seen as
benefits to patrons

using the library.

A final wide
-
ranging group to mention is the Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives,
and Museums Summit which was found
ed to help educate the global community of these
organizations about linked data and its potential for making connections among disparate
datasets throughout the world. Their mission, initiated at the first meeting in June of
2011, is to foster discussion
on issues of metadata, vocabularies, copyright, licensing, and
more, and to encourage collaborative projects of linked open data to demonstrate the
successes and the issues. LODLAM continues to encourage discussion and presentations
at their annual meeting
s, regarding linked data for archives, museums, and all library
resources, including serials and monographs.

The Future
-

Issues for Libraries, Publishers and Vendors

The move to linked data is not without

issues
;
legal issues of copyright and licensing,
and differences in underlying metadata formats and languages need to be resolved before
linking can proceed.
And as far as they have come, there is still more to be done,
including improved connectivity,
developing
standards, ensuring interfaces that enhance
navigation, and improving integration. The OCLC projects also have goals for the future,
including improving and adding vocabularies to extend the basics of Schema.org,
improving access to data, and extending the

l
inks that are currently mapped.

Karen Coyle, a frequent author
on the topic of

library data, notes that the design of
use
ful data has changed over time,
from an alphabetic card catalog system, through
keyword searching, to facets for more narrow or focus
ed searching, to linked data. For
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


16


the first three there needed to be additions to a library record or a method to manage the
library

catalog, usually in a d
atabase. “
Designing data for linking goes beyond additions
to the catalog record: it requires that w
e adopt a significantly different metadata
methodology
.
This methodology is based on technologies that permit sharing data over
the web and making connections between disparate data stores

based on the data
elements that they have in common
” (Coyle, 2011,
p. 156)
.

She notes that linked data
uses structured statements for data and metadata, controlled vocabularies whenever
possible, and identifiers to name every item.
The move to linked data from standard
catalog records requires an analysis of the existing
data, ensuring that as much of the text

as possible

is converted to data (so it can be analyzed)
,

which likely requires breaking
apart existing fields to restructure as RDF or similar structured data.
One example is in
catalog entries for standard numbers
such as ISSN. If the term Online or Print is added to
that field, the identifier becomes textual, not data. In order for a machine to understand
the data it has to ignore the text comment.
Many libraries are undertaking this analysis
now in preparation for

a

move to a linked data catalog.
“It is definitely not a matter of
serving only the machine or only the human reader, but of creating data that can serve
both”
(
Coyle, 2010, p. 15).


Laura Krier

(2012)

“proposes a new way of cataloging serials using li
n
ke
d data and
Resource Description Framework (RDF), as well as how the concepts of Functional
Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) can be expanded to apply to journal
content at both the journal level and the article level, all with an eye toward eas
e of
access and understanding for users” (p. 177)
.

The move to linked data would require
“an
item to be cataloged as a resource is assigned a URI that is available on the open Web. A
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


17


cataloger would then
use
element sets such as the Dublin Core Metadata In
itiative terms,
the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) terms, or FRBR concepts in
RDF to describe that resource by making statements about it” (Krier, 2012, p. 180).
In the
absence of separate records, a cataloger would add statements
that link the item,
wherever it is, to the library to indicate that it is included in the library’s collection.
Specific local notes can be published and different users
can

pull elements to suit their
needs.

Krier (2012) believes that the complex nature o
f serials and their bibliographic
relationships would work well with the linked data model.

Linked data can
minimize
the
complications of serials title changes and multiple formats by focusing on the links to
resources rather than the description of those resources, and the focus would also shift to
the electronic resources as more of them become available, including dig
itized back
issues.
According to Krier (2012) “the shift to a linked data model would not only help
users better understand the bibliographic universe; it would save immense amou
nts of
time for catalogers, too

. . . catalogers can work collaboratively to m
aintain bibliographic
metadata
, and take advantage of metadata released by publishers and vendors”

(p. 185).

Providers of data for libraries are also beginning to add RDF and URIs to the
underlying mark
-
up, to enable linking of that data. The Directory of
Open Access
Journals (DOAJ) has “exposed the data behind their system. Normally one would need to
click several times to get to the data one is looking for, such as a specific title” (Miller,
2012, p. 20)
.

Using the exposed data from DOAJ, and connecting i
t with visualization
and navigation tools can enable a library to combine that data with other data in building
a collection development strategy.

Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


18


Additional
issue
s to consi
der are whether linked
data can
improve the identification
and mapping of serials
title changes
to

ensure that the appropriate copy is available,
regardless of the citation or standard number identifier used
; aid in

the curation of

data
sets, multi
-
media files, and other resear
ch data that inform the article,
journal or project,
to enab
le access to these elements
; and i
mprove link resolution for citations to materials
held in the coll
ection and available on the web.

The Ongoing Role of Librarians

There is no doubt that librarians will continue to talk about, blog about, and conduct
research about linked data, and will share their thoughts, trials and tribulations at
conferences, on
professional organization and user group lists
, and through social
media.
The persistence of librarians to ensure an organized move from MARC to linked data
through the Bibliographic Framework Initiative, their advocacy for change from data and
systems providers, and their experimentation with linked data for their own li
brary
collections will lead the way for serials in the linked data world
(Byrne & Goddard,
2010). As noted in the beginning of this paper, librarians have been working with linked
data for as long as there have been libraries. To ensure the continued relev
ance of the
data in library collections, librarians will begin to enhance those collections using
Semantic Web technology, and adding metadata and URIs to thesaurus, mapping, and
taxonomy services. There will be a shift away from focusing on records to foc
using on
data, and ensuring that the relevant pieces of data are represented by metadata that can be
found on the web. Library catalogs hold a wealth of data about published and
unpublished materials. Adding that data to the linked data cloud or universe w
ill increase
the
search success rate for
a researcher, and combined with other linked data on the web
Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


19


may
lead the researcher
to some new observations and conclusions. Transformation of
serials
data is needed,
and

the existing MARC tags and metadata elemen
ts are a great
beginning.

Future of Serials in a Linked Data World


20


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