Cyberspace: Explorations Kilnam Chon 2013.6.11+ 1. Introduction ...

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1

Cyberspace
: Explorations

Kilnam Chon

2013.6.11
+

1. Introduction

Cyberspace has drawn much attention since
the
early 2010s

with various conferences and
organizations founded
during that time devoted to it
[Cyber 2013
;

Seoul 2013
;

ECIR 2013
;

Cyberspace 2013]
.

T
his

paper tries to clarify
the term


cyberspace
’ and deals as well with
cyberspace governance
as discussed in tho
se conferences and
by those
organizations.

Cyberspace
has been

talked about since the 1980s when the word was coined by William
Gibson and then given prominence by his book,
Neuromancer

[Gibson 1984]
. In many cases,
the term ‘
cyberspace




in
particular
,
cyber society



has been

used similarly to

the Internet
’,

including its culture and applications.

In 2010,
the US
White

H
ouse issued a report

entitled the “
International Strategy for
Cyberspace


[White

H
ouse 2012]
.
The
US
g
overnment
designated
a ‘
Cyber Command


as
a
fifth domain after land, sea, air
,

and space.
T
he
European Union as well as
the
UK
g
overnment followed
suit
by forming
similar organizations.
These initiatives brought
worldwide

attention to the ideas of
cyberspace and cyber

war
fare
.

In
the
early 2010s, several conferences
were held
,

and organizations

created with
cyberspace as a core

issue
,

including:

-

Exploration
s i
n Cyber International Relations

(ECIR) at Harvard
-
MIT with various
ECIR Workshops including
the workshop
,

“Who Controls Cyberspace?”

-

A
Cyber Dialogue Conference
held
by
the
Canadian Centre
for Global Security
Studies at University of Toronto

-

An
a
nnual
i
nternational
c
yberspace
c
onference
inaugurated in
London in 2011

Many of these and other acti
vities
related to

cyberspace focus

more on cyber security than
on
other aspects of cyberspace.

2.
Cyberspace

2.1 Cyberspace, r
eal space
,

and mixed space

Cyberspace is
a
virtual
space that

is typically based on the Internet whereas real space
constitutes the
physical world we live

in
.
Additionally, there is
mixed space consist
ing
of
both
cyberspace and
real space
.

Some
mixed spaces are called cyber
-
physical system
s,

such as a sensor
-
based network system where the Internet may or may not be used.
Many
of the Internet
-
based space
s

tend to be mixed space
s

rather than pure cyberspace
s

without
any real space

component
.

2.2 Cyberspace and the Internet

Cyberspace
, when referring to
cyber society and cyber security
,

has the Internet as its

2

infrastructure in many cases. But some cyberspace
s

have other infrastructure
s



for
example,
a telephone system without the

Internet,
a television system without the Internet
,
or
a sensor
-
based network system
. Cyberspace has various aspects
, which include
cyber
society, cyber security, cyber economy
, cyber nation
-
state,

and cyber environment
,

among
others
.

3. Aspects of
Cybe
rspace

Particular aspects of cyberspace
have be
e
n

emphasized based by
David Clark
,

in his paper,

Three Views of Cyberspace

,

[Clark 2011]
:

Cyber Security
,
Cyber Economics

and

Cyber
Society

Anthony Giddens
,

in his paper,

Four Dimensions of Globalization

, proposed four
dimensions of globalization
to which
Gabriela Tejada
added a fifth [Tejada 2007, Giddens
1991]:

World Capitalist Economy
,

Nation
-
State System
,
World Military Order
,
(International)
Division of Labor

and
Culture
.

We proposed
an emphasis on t
he

following major
aspects

[Chon 2012]:

Cyber Society
,
Cyber Security
,
Cyber Economy
,
Cyber Nation
-
State

and
Cyber Environment
.

Other

aspects

such as Cyber Education, Cyber Media
,

and Cyber Labor

may
also
be considered

[Chon 2013].


3.1 Cyber s
ociety

Cyber

society
,

including
cyber
culture
,

is closest
in meaning
to

the Internet


as they

cover
a
similar
semantic
domain
.
With this understanding,
Cyber soc
iet
al

governance would be
similar

to Internet governance, naturally. Both
would
cover
multiple
social iss
ues such as
privacy, personal security, abuse, addiction
,

and violence.
The concepts of
Cyber society
and culture cover

a range of
content, but the
term ‘
Internet


tends to cover
this same range
in a more partial fashion
.

The
Web In
dex by
the
Web Foundati
on may be an

only index to cover
all the
various aspects
of cyber
society,

as many indexes tend to
consider on
ly

the economic

aspect.

3.2

Cyber s
ecurity

Cyber security
has been

the most visible aspect of cyberspace in this decade,

partly due to
the
addition

in 2011
of
the
cyber domain

to the four previously recognized domains


land,
sea, air, and (outer) space


in the
military
conceptualization by the
USA, EU
, and UK
governments. Specifically, the organizations charged with preparing for cyber secu
rity are
Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM)
in USA,
European Network and Information Security
Agency (ENISA)

in European Union, and
Government Communications Headquarters

in UK.

The
Stuxnet incident in 2011 as well
as cyber
attacks on Estonia changed
the
cyber security
landscape
by
bringing
the
concepts of cyber
war
fare

and cyber weapon
ry into currency

[Sanger 2012
, Clarke 2010
].

3.3 Cyber e
conomy

Cyber economy is another aspect of
cyberspace that

has
developed extensively into this

3

century, with the
curre
nt share of the cyber economy in the
global economy

at
around 5%.
In s
ome countries such as South Korea and
the
UK, the figures
now
exceed 7% [Boston
2011]
.

There are several indexes
on cyber economy
available
,

including
the
e
-
Intensity Index of
the
Boston Consulting Group,
Internet Matters by McKinsey, and
the
Network Readiness Index
by
the
World Economic Forum [Boston 2011
;

McKinsey 2012
;

World 2012].

3.4 Cyber nation s
tate

The
Cyber Nation State aspect may cover
the
legal systems for cyberspace as
well as
the
international relations
in

cyberspace
,

which

may be substantially different from
those of
real space.

Explorations on Cyber International Relations (ECIR) covers
the

cyber nation state

extensively



in
particular
, the facet of
international rel
ations.
The
International
Conference on Cyberspace also covers
the

international relations aspect of
the
cyber nation
state.

3.5 Cyber e
nvironment

Cyber environment is a new
aspect that

needs to be studied thoroughly
.

The c
yber
environment on its own is very important including both
the
(sustainable) cyber
environment itself, a
s well as the requirements of the
cyber environment
needed
to support
a
s
ustainable physical environment [Chon 2012].

While we work on
a
sustainable c
yber environment, we also need to work on mixed
environment
s

that
consist of cyber and real environments including cyber
-
physical systems.

3.6
Other a
spects

Several other facets of cyberspace should be considered. These include:

Cyber Education
,
Cyber
Media
,
Cyber Labor

and
Cyber Health
.

4
. Cyberspace Governance

The Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) of the United Nations defined Internet
governance as follows
:

"Internet governance is the development and application by governments, the private
sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules,
decision
-
making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the
Internet.” [WGIG 2005]

For cyberspace, we may look into both control and governance
since many aspects of
cyberspace are in
their

early stages.

The
ECIR workshop on “Who controls cyberspace?” is of great interest since we don’t
yet
know
how
cyberspace
will be controlled
[ECIR 2012]
. We may need to look into multiple
dimensions
,

includin
g
, among
which
:


4

-

Layers
,

as
currently
being analyzed by ECIR

with its workshops

-

Aspects

-

Nations and regions

Cyberspace governance may be appropriate
to consider
now in some aspects such as cyber
society
that
ha
ve

significant overlap with the Internet. On t
he other hand, cyber security
governance may be premature
, similar to the state of
nuclear technology in
the
1950s

[Nye
2011].
C
yber security control may be more appropriate
than cyber security governance
for time being even though we
will eventually
need cyber security governance
in the same
way that control of
nuclear technology
required
treaties

and inspection protocols
.

5
.
Concluding Remark
s

Cyberspace
,

including its various aspects and cyber governance
,

is still in its
early
conceptual stages

as e
xplained
in this paper. We specifically
examined
definitions of
cyberspace with respect to real space and the Internet.
We then
explored various aspects
of

cyberspace,
cyberspace governance
,

as well as cyberspace control
. We also raised several
issues
regarding
cyberspace. We would like to see further studies on cyberspace as well as
cyberspace control and governance.

Please refer the full paper, Cyberspace: What is it? for more detail discussion [Chon 2013].

References


[Boston 2012] Boston Consulting

Group, e
-
Intensity Index, 2012.

[CE 2011] Council of Europe, The (Budapest) Convention on Cyber Crime, 2011.

[Chon 2012] Kilnam Chon, Ecological Internet, NORDUNET, 2012.

[Chon 2013] Kilnam Chon, Cyberspace


What is it?, Cyber Commons. 2013.

[Clark 2011]

David Clark, Three Views of Cyberspace, ECIR, Harvard
-
MIT, 2011.

[Clarke 2010] Richard Clarke, Cyber War, 2010.


[CyberCommons 2012] CyberCommons.net

[Cyber
Dialogue

2013
] Cyber Dialogue, CyberDialogue.ca

[ECIR 2012] ECIR Workshop: Who Controls Cyberspace?
,
2012.

[ECIR

2013
] Explorations i
n Cyber International Relations, ECIR.MIT.edu

[IGF 2013] Internet Governance Forum, www.IntGovForum.org

[McKinsey 2012] McKinsey, Internet matters, 2011.

[Nye 2011] Nuclear lessons for cyber security, 2011.

[Sanger 2012] D
avid Sanger, Confront and Conceal, 2012.


5

[Seoul 2013] International Conference on Cyberspace, Seoul, 2013.

[Tejada 200
7] Gabriela Tejada, The four dimensions of globalization according to

Anthony Giddens, GLOPP, 2007.

[White

H
ouse 2011] Whitehouse,
International Strategy for Cyberspace, 2011.

[Web 2012] Web Foundation, Web Index.

[WGIG 2005] Working Group on Internet Governance, WGIG Report, 2005.

[World 2012] World Economic Forum, Network Readiness Index, 2012.