Internet Video Conferencing - Spark

tastefulsaintregisΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

122 εμφανίσεις

… a rose by any other name



Internet videoconferencing


IP
-
based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol)


Web
-
based videoconferencing


Desktop video conferencing


as opposed to (but still existing)



System
-
based or room
-
based videoconferencing


VTC (video teleconferencing)


Telephony (POTS) videoconferencing



Use in dedicated room


Use of ISDN or T1 lines


High installation costs


High usage costs


Usage at plateau


Resource
scheduling


Technical operator


Centralized control


H.320 standard


Ubiquity


use anywhere


Leverages internet usage


Low installation costs


No/Low usage costs


Growing acceptance


Impromptu, ad hoc nature


Self
-
sufficiency model


Decentralized control


H.323 standard

Traditional vs. Internet

What is it?



two
-
way or more (multipoint) video & audio communication



over a standard high speed internet connection



with standard quality of 30 frame per second video quality



using unique IP addresses for



reliable high speed internet connection (450kbps)



… some agreed upon basics

Long existing opinions:



Videoconferencing was a “next
-
year” technology



Limited application but not mainstream



Fine for Boardroom but not the classroom



Technologies were



too cumbersome or



too expensive and



loses the power of the face
-
to
-
face presence



Long existing proposal:



1964 Worlds Fair in New York



AT&T unveils the "PicturePhone“ to the public



AT&T vision:



PicturePhone centers nationwide (New York, Chicago)



Estimated rate of $30 for a three
-
minute call



Installed only at AT&T centers



Very worst of traditional VTC proposals



By 1970’s AT&T had extremely limited deployment,
so they revamped for business taking and took video
out of the Picturephone.



The 1970’s



Ericsson (Sweden) successfully demonstrates the


trans
-
Atlantic LME video telephone call



1973: Network Voice Protocol (NVP)



released by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of USC (U. of


Southern California



pioneered a computer network protocol for transporting human speech


over a packetized communication network.



an early example of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology.



1976: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone establishes


videoconferencing bridge between Tokyo and Osaka



Infrastructure, bandwidth, & acceptance all lacking


The Big Eighties




Packet Video Protocol (PVP) in 1981


extensions to NVP that standardize transmission protocol for video



1982: IBM Japan/US build 48,000 bps internal VTC links



1982
-

Compression Labs introduces VTC product



$250,000 per unit with dedicated line cost = $1,000 per hour



system commonly trips simple 15 amp circuit breakers



1986
-

PictureTel introduces their VC offering



$80,000 per unit with dedicated lines at $100 per hour



beginning deployment in corporate environments



AT&T continues (estimated R&D costs near $1 billion)



Datapoint unveils the Multimedia Information Network


eXchange (MINX) system



early picture
-
in
-
picture VC solution



source of extensive income from patent infringements rather than product sales

Into the Nineties (pt. 1)



Internet Protocol (IP) technical advances



Video compression technologies advance



Ubiquity of desktop PCs



Explosion in business & consumer use of internet in



1991: IBM introduced PicTel



early PC
-
based vtc system



black and white system



low
-
resolution



purchase costs of $20,000 per unit



estimated operating costs of $30 per line an hour



Into the Nineties (pt. 2)



1991
-

DARTnet connects a transcontinental IP network



12 research sites in the U.S. and the U.K.



Use of T1 trunk lines (not true IPVC)
-



DARTnet, now known as the CAIRN system, still exists



Late 1990’s: beginning IPVC



Embedded within services & software offerings such as



NetMeeting (Win95)



MSN Messenger (1999)



Yahoo Messenger (1998)



Common Traits:



poor video quality



direct costs to
consumers drove moderate adoption



adjunct to unified communication and web conferencing



Into the Nineties (pt. 3)



CU
-
SeeMee (Cornell University)



1992: Apple Macintosh launches with CU
-
SeeMe (no audio)



Part of 1993 Global Schoolhouse (an NSF funded education


project)



1993: multipoint capability added



1994: Win
-
based CU
-
SeeMe



1995: CU
-
SeeMe released commercially



CU
-
SeeMe successes:



first referenced “video chat” term



peer
-
to
-
peer connection methodology somewhat limited applications



early adoption into school rooms and training facilities



used in 1995 television broadcast of World News Now

Into the Nineties (pt. 4)



1992: AT&T returns with $1500 videophone (small success)



1992: MBone (multicast backbone) system


. minimizes data requirements for multipoint audio/video
-
conferencing



free virtual network uses mrouters that can support IP multicast



enables access to real
-
time interactive multimedia on the Internet



negates need for tunneling protocols with older router environments



Novell IPX Networks introduced VocalChat



Microsoft NetMeeting (from PictureTel's Liveshare Plus)



1996 Dec: Microsoft NetMeeting v2.0b2 with video arrives


Into the Nineties (pt. 5)



Real momentum?
The development and ratification of
compatibility standards by the International Telecommunications
Union (ITU)



ITU Standards Unleash Videoconferencing



ITU established the Standard H.263, which reduces bandwidth


transmission for low bit
-
rate communications.



Other standards:



H.323 for packet
-
based multimedia applications



MPEG
-
4 ver 2.0(by The Moving Picture Experts Group)


an ISO standard for multimedia content



Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)



Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in 1999.



SIP offered even further advantages beyond H.323



Gained wide acceptance among developers and supporters (Microsoft)

The New Millennium (pt. 1)



SIP evolves as it entered version 1.30 in November of 2000.
\



H.323 ver 4.0 release



Explosive growth in cell/mobile phones.


Samsung released MPEG
-
4 streaming 3G video cell
--

huge overseas
success



Microsoft announces XP Messenger fully supports SIP.



9
-
11 Tragedy


outcomes



Economic downturn forces cuts to corporate & institutional budgets



Travel dramatically restricted & curtailed



VTC is no longer a luxury but becomes a necessity



Portable satellite videophones used for live battlefront broadcasts

The New Millennium (pt. 2)



High
-
speed internet access available @ reasonable cost.



Video capture/display technologies reduced in cost.



Web cameras readily available (if not built
-
in)



Cost of PCs at all time low



Broadband internet access geographically available



Free/embedded functionality from leading web


conferencing, instant messaging, and unified


communication vendors


The New Millennium (pt. 3)



IPVC in Higher Ed



Distance learning programs are mainstays of Education degrees



Students require/demand enhanced classes with more


interactive classroom
-
like environments.



Streaming video quality has increased while disruptive delays


almost eliminate



Videoconferencing commonplace at work, home, and schools.






began providing various MPEG
-
4 video


systems to universities in the U.S