Internet Video Conferencing - Spark

tastefulsaintregisΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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… a rose by any other name

Internet videoconferencing

based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol)

based videoconferencing

Desktop video conferencing

as opposed to (but still existing)

based or room
based videoconferencing

VTC (video teleconferencing)

Telephony (POTS) videoconferencing

Use in dedicated room

Use of ISDN or T1 lines

High installation costs

High usage costs

Usage at plateau


Technical operator

Centralized control

H.320 standard


use anywhere

Leverages internet usage

Low installation costs

No/Low usage costs

Growing acceptance

Impromptu, ad hoc nature

sufficiency model

Decentralized control

H.323 standard

Traditional vs. Internet

What is it?

way or more (multipoint) video & audio communication

over a standard high speed internet connection

with standard quality of 30 frame per second video quality

using unique IP addresses for

reliable high speed internet connection (450kbps)

… some agreed upon basics

Long existing opinions:

Videoconferencing was a “next
year” technology

Limited application but not mainstream

Fine for Boardroom but not the classroom

Technologies were

too cumbersome or

too expensive and

loses the power of the face
face presence

Long existing proposal:

1964 Worlds Fair in New York

AT&T unveils the "PicturePhone“ to the public

AT&T vision:

PicturePhone centers nationwide (New York, Chicago)

Estimated rate of $30 for a three
minute call

Installed only at AT&T centers

Very worst of traditional VTC proposals

By 1970’s AT&T had extremely limited deployment,
so they revamped for business taking and took video
out of the Picturephone.

The 1970’s

Ericsson (Sweden) successfully demonstrates the

Atlantic LME video telephone call

1973: Network Voice Protocol (NVP)

released by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of USC (U. of

Southern California

pioneered a computer network protocol for transporting human speech

over a packetized communication network.

an early example of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology.

1976: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone establishes

videoconferencing bridge between Tokyo and Osaka

Infrastructure, bandwidth, & acceptance all lacking

The Big Eighties

Packet Video Protocol (PVP) in 1981

extensions to NVP that standardize transmission protocol for video

1982: IBM Japan/US build 48,000 bps internal VTC links


Compression Labs introduces VTC product

$250,000 per unit with dedicated line cost = $1,000 per hour

system commonly trips simple 15 amp circuit breakers


PictureTel introduces their VC offering

$80,000 per unit with dedicated lines at $100 per hour

beginning deployment in corporate environments

AT&T continues (estimated R&D costs near $1 billion)

Datapoint unveils the Multimedia Information Network

eXchange (MINX) system

early picture
picture VC solution

source of extensive income from patent infringements rather than product sales

Into the Nineties (pt. 1)

Internet Protocol (IP) technical advances

Video compression technologies advance

Ubiquity of desktop PCs

Explosion in business & consumer use of internet in

1991: IBM introduced PicTel

early PC
based vtc system

black and white system


purchase costs of $20,000 per unit

estimated operating costs of $30 per line an hour

Into the Nineties (pt. 2)


DARTnet connects a transcontinental IP network

12 research sites in the U.S. and the U.K.

Use of T1 trunk lines (not true IPVC)

DARTnet, now known as the CAIRN system, still exists

Late 1990’s: beginning IPVC

Embedded within services & software offerings such as

NetMeeting (Win95)

MSN Messenger (1999)

Yahoo Messenger (1998)

Common Traits:

poor video quality

direct costs to
consumers drove moderate adoption

adjunct to unified communication and web conferencing

Into the Nineties (pt. 3)

SeeMee (Cornell University)

1992: Apple Macintosh launches with CU
SeeMe (no audio)

Part of 1993 Global Schoolhouse (an NSF funded education


1993: multipoint capability added

1994: Win
based CU

1995: CU
SeeMe released commercially

SeeMe successes:

first referenced “video chat” term

peer connection methodology somewhat limited applications

early adoption into school rooms and training facilities

used in 1995 television broadcast of World News Now

Into the Nineties (pt. 4)

1992: AT&T returns with $1500 videophone (small success)

1992: MBone (multicast backbone) system

. minimizes data requirements for multipoint audio/video

free virtual network uses mrouters that can support IP multicast

enables access to real
time interactive multimedia on the Internet

negates need for tunneling protocols with older router environments

Novell IPX Networks introduced VocalChat

Microsoft NetMeeting (from PictureTel's Liveshare Plus)

1996 Dec: Microsoft NetMeeting v2.0b2 with video arrives

Into the Nineties (pt. 5)

Real momentum?
The development and ratification of
compatibility standards by the International Telecommunications
Union (ITU)

ITU Standards Unleash Videoconferencing

ITU established the Standard H.263, which reduces bandwidth

transmission for low bit
rate communications.

Other standards:

H.323 for packet
based multimedia applications

4 ver 2.0(by The Moving Picture Experts Group)

an ISO standard for multimedia content

Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in 1999.

SIP offered even further advantages beyond H.323

Gained wide acceptance among developers and supporters (Microsoft)

The New Millennium (pt. 1)

SIP evolves as it entered version 1.30 in November of 2000.

H.323 ver 4.0 release

Explosive growth in cell/mobile phones.

Samsung released MPEG
4 streaming 3G video cell

huge overseas

Microsoft announces XP Messenger fully supports SIP.

11 Tragedy


Economic downturn forces cuts to corporate & institutional budgets

Travel dramatically restricted & curtailed

VTC is no longer a luxury but becomes a necessity

Portable satellite videophones used for live battlefront broadcasts

The New Millennium (pt. 2)

speed internet access available @ reasonable cost.

Video capture/display technologies reduced in cost.

Web cameras readily available (if not built

Cost of PCs at all time low

Broadband internet access geographically available

Free/embedded functionality from leading web

conferencing, instant messaging, and unified

communication vendors

The New Millennium (pt. 3)

IPVC in Higher Ed

Distance learning programs are mainstays of Education degrees

Students require/demand enhanced classes with more

interactive classroom
like environments.

Streaming video quality has increased while disruptive delays

almost eliminate

Videoconferencing commonplace at work, home, and schools.

began providing various MPEG
4 video

systems to universities in the U.S