Web Design and Development

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8 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Unit 1: Navigating
the
World Wide Web

Web Design and
Development

Introduction


Over the past decade, the
Web has become a fabric of
society (
nearly everybody
knows how to use it
!
).


Most businesses and
organizations have websites
(
nearly everybody has a
URL
).


NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


But you don’t have to be a big company to publish things on the
Web.


You
only need a computer and access to the
Internet.


AND

... the knowledge to create a website.

Introduction


The language of website creation is know as HTML
(
HyperText

Markup Language
).


The Web is currently transitioning from HTML 4/XHTML 1
standards to
HTML 5
.


NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


We will be focusing on the
HTML 5

standard,
while at
the same time referring to
the previous standards for
relational understanding.


Web Design Class Class Tools:


Firefox Browser
with Add
-
Ons


HTML Validator


Web Developer


FireFTP


EditPlus3
(text editor)


/w html5_kit preferences


NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

How
the World Wide Web
Works:

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


An understanding of the Web at a more theoretical
level allows you to understand how it works as a
platform.



The World Wide Web can be described
as a ...


Global


Interactive


Dynamic


Cross
-
platform


Distributed


Graphical


Hypertext
information
system


... that runs over the Internet.

The
Web Is a Hypertext Information
System


Instead
of reading text in a rigid, linear structure (such as a
book), you can skip easily from o
ne
point to
another.


Hypertext

enables you to read and navigate text and visual
information in a nonlinear way, based on what you want to
know next.


NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


When you hear the
term hypertext, think
links
.

The
Web Is Graphical and Easy to
Navigate


In the early days, using the Internet involved simple text
-
only
applications.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Mosaic:
The
first graphical
web browser
able to display
both text and
graphics in full
color on the
same page.


The
Web Is Graphical and Easy to
Navigate


A
browser is used to view and navigate web
pages.
Currently, the most popular browsers are
Microsoft
Internet Explorer
,
Mozilla Firefox
,
Apple Safari
, and
Google Chrome
.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


More and more
people are using
mobile devices to
access the Web,
most of which have
their
own browsers.




The
Web Is Cross
-
Platform


The World Wide Web isn’t limited to any one kind of
machine or developed by any one company.


Cross
-
platform
means that you can access web
information equally well from any computer
hardware running any operating system using any
display.


With
the introduction over the years of numerous
technologies,
the Web has lost some of its capability
to be truly
cross
-
platform (i.e. users of
Flash

and/or
“plug
-
ins”
).



NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The
Web Is
Distributed


Web
content

can take up a great deal of space,
particularly when you include images, audio,
and
video.


The
Web succeeds at providing so much
information because that information is
distributed globally
across millions of
websites.


These sites reside on one or more computers,
referred to as web
servers
.


A
web server is just a computer that listens for
requests from web browsers and responds to
that
request.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The
Web Is Distributed

A
website

is a location on the Web that publishes some
kind of
information.


Each
website, and each page or bit of information on that
site, has a unique address. This address is called a
uniform
resource locator

or
URL
.


Whenever you use a browser to visit a website, you get
there using a
URL (often by using a
domain name
).

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The
Web Is
Dynamic

Web content can change at any time.


If you want a permanent copy of some information stored
on the Web, you’ll need to save it at that time.


Web publishing gives you the ability to keep your
information
up
-
to
-
date
all the time.


You
don’t have to spend a lot of time re
-
releasing updated
documents. There’s no cost of materials.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The
Web Is
Interactive

Interactivity

is the capability to “talk back” to the web
server.


T
he
act of selecting a link and jumping to another web
page to go somewhere else on the Web is a form of
interactivity
.


T
he
Web
also enables
you to
communicate

with the
publisher of the pages you’re reading and with other
readers of those pages.


Pages
can be designed to contain
interactive forms
that
readers can fill out. Forms can contain text
-
entry areas,
radio buttons, or simple menus of items.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Web Browsers


A
web browser
is an
application you use to view pages
and navigate the World Wide Web.


A
wide array of Web browsers
are
available for just
about every platform you can imagine.


If
you don’t take all the popular browsers into account
when creating your Web pages, you’ll limit your
audience substantially.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Web
Browsers


The core purpose of a
web browser
is to connect to
web servers, request documents, and then properly
format and display those documents.


Each web page is a file written in a language called the
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

that includes the
text of the page, a description of its structure, and links
to other documents, images, or other media.


Different
browsers might format and display the same
file in diverse ways, depending on the capabilities of
that system and how the browser is configured.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


An Overview of Some Popular
Browsers


Microsoft
Internet Explorer
, is included with
Microsoft Windows. Because Windows has the
largest market share, Internet Explorer is the
most popular web
browser in the U.S.


Mozilla
Firefox
is a free, open source web browser
that enjoys a large share of the browser market.
Firefox has become popular in large part because
it is free from the security issues that plague
Internet
Explorer, a
large number of Firefox
extensions improve the browser experience, and
Firefox has done a good job of keeping up with
web standards as they have evolved.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


An Overview of Some Popular
Browsers


Apple Safari
is the default browser
for Apple’s
OS X. There is also a version that’s available for
Windows, and a mobile version of this browser
is installed on the Apple
iPhone.


Google Chrome
, the newest browser, is known
for offering very high
performance and
has
some features that prevent it from crashing as
often as other browsers.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Other Browsers


Opera


Konqueror


Camino


Lynx


Links

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Using the Browser to Access Other
Services


Although
the Web is its own information system with its
own Internet protocol (the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
or
HTTP
), web browsers
can also
read files from other Internet
services.


To
point your browser to different kinds of information on
the Internet, you use different kinds of URLs.


Other protocols:


FTP
,
Gopher,

Telnet

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Web Servers


To
publish pages on the Web, you need a
web server
.


A web server is the program that runs on a computer and is
responsible for replying to web browser requests for files.


When you use a browser to request a page on a website,
that browser makes a web connection to a server using
HTTP.



The
server

accepts the connection, sends the contents of the
requested files, and then closes the connection.


The
browser
then formats the information it got from the
server.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Web Servers


Web
servers
are also
responsible for managing form
input and for linking
forms

and browsers with programs
such as databases running on the server.


These
days, a lot of people make websites without
uploading pages to a web server.

They
publish
blogs

using any of a number of popular services, or they use a
content management system
of some kind, or they
publish pages on a
wiki
.


Regardless of the application you use to publish
information on the Web, it is likely to be published as
HTML
.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Uniform Resource Locators

A
URL

is a pointer to some bit of data on the
Web. You use URLs
when you create a hypertext link within a
document.

URLs contain information about the
following:


How
to get to the information (which
protocol
to use: FTP,
HTTP, etc.)


The
Internet
hostname

of the computer where the content is
stored (
www.unr.edu
, ftp.apple.com,
and
so
on).


The
directory

or other location on that site where the content is
located (
http://www.washoe.k12.nv.us/galena
).

You
also can use special URLs for tasks such as sending
mail to people (called
Mailto

URLs) and running JavaScript
code.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB


Summary

To
publish on the Web, you have to understand the basic
concepts that make up the parts of the Web.

T
hree
major
concepts:


Be aware of the useful
features of the Web for publishing
information.


Know about
web browsers and servers and how they interact to
deliver web pages.


Know what
a URL is and why it’s important to web browsing and
publishing.

NAVIGATING THE WORLD WIDE WEB