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July 16, 2008, Penn State

www.czen.org

Goldschmidt Meeting, Vancouver

Introduction and CZEN
Overview

The Critical Zone = the zone extending
from the outer vegetation envelope to
the lower limit of groundwater

Anderson et al., 2004

Human population

through historical

time . . .

Slide from Mike Hochella, Univ of Delaware meeting

Slide from Mike Hochella, Univ of Delaware meeting

From Hooke, R. LeB., 2000,
Geology
, Vol. 28, No. 9.

Historical Rates of Earth Moved

geologic


rate

~2 times

geologic


rate

"the bottom line is, we move
about 10 times as much
sediment as all natural processes
put together,"

Bruce Wilkinson, U.
Michigan, Nov. 2004, GSA Meeting

Slide from Mike Hochella, Univ of Delaware meeting

Nutrients

Chemistry

of Water

Atmosphere

Landform

Evolution


What processes control
fluxes of carbon,
particulates, and reactive
gases over different
timescales?

How do biogeochemical
processes govern long
-
term sustainability of
water and soil
resources?

How do processes that
nourish ecosystems change
over human and geologic
time scales?

How do variations in and
perturbation to chemical and
physical weathering
processes impact the
Critical Zone?

The Four Driving Questions

To answer these questions requires
scientists who can cross disciplines and
also think across timescales that vary
from seconds to tens of millions of years

How can we quantitatively predict
(
earthcast
) the response of the earth
surface to natural and human perturbation?


To do this, we need…



new techniques

to measure the controlling variables at the relevant
scales of time and space


comprehensive, long
-
term, and systematic
observations
of the key
variables needed to
earthcast


measurement of the
thermodynamic and kinetic data

necessary to
predict the fluxes of matter and energy occurring at interfaces
between reservoirs with very different dynamics


development of
conceptual models


development of a complete set of
governing equations for surface
processes


improvements in modeling
of dynamical complexities and emergent
phenomena

Fundamental
Critical Zone
Science

USDA

EPA

NASA

DOE

NSF

EAR

BIO

The U.S. funding
perspective


Workshop with 20 participants (Baltimore, October 2003)


WSSC website (
http://www.wssc.psu.edu/
)


Open meeting at AGU (Dec. 2003)


Anderson et al. (2004) published in EOS


Goldschmidt conf., Copenhagen, open meeting (2004)


Open meeting at WRI
-
11, Saratoga Springs (June 2004)


WSSC European science meeting (England, Oct. 2004)


WSSC UK scientists meeting (October 2004)


2005 Goldschmidt conference: Earth’s Weathering
Engine


2
nd

WSSC Workshop, January 2005, at NSF, WSSC
renamed as CZEN


Univ of Delaware Frontiers of Crit Zone meeting, 2006


Data and Date Structures Meeting at Penn State, 2007

Partial History: WSSC and CZEN

Workshop report
from the Univ of
Delaware
meeting



Download from
www.czen.org

Pick up a copy
at the
EarthChem
-
CZEN
-
ChemxSeer
booth

The Tool that this Community Needs


A network of observatories (
Critical Zone
Exploration Network, CZEN)
that all Critical
Zone scientists could work on together


CZEN would be open for investigation using all
chemical or physical or hydrological or
ecological or molecular biological or geological
(etc.) techniques


Climate

Lithology


Critical Zone Exploration Network

Disturbance

Why a network?


Network can explore one environmental variable
while keeping other variables constant


Network allows comparison of the same data
measured in the same way at multiple sites


Network allows understanding of broad patterns
of behavior


Network can create community among scientists
and generate interdisciplinary understanding

Hawaii Critical Zone Network

Peter Vitousek and
Oliver Chadwick
have spearheaded
both
chronosequences
and climosequences
in Hawaii that have
drawn many
scientists to
investigate the
Hawaiian CZ

CZEN Seed Sites funded in 2006

NSF announced a competition for
Critical Zone Observatories in 2006
($8m new money)


Largely in response to exciting new surface
Earth sciences


In partial response to the NRC BROES report
that highlighted the Critical Zone


In partial response to community pressure from
CUAHSI, WSSC, CZEN, NCED, many others


In partial response to proposal pressure Earth
surface scientists


Run jointly by Geomorphology, Geobiology and
Low T Geochemistry, and Hydrology programs

Critical Zone Observatories


Sierra Nevada Transect (Roger Bales)


Boulder Creek (Suzanne Anderson)


Susquehanna Shale Hills (Chris Duffy)

SSHO: Shale Transect


Chris Duffy

Sue Brantley

Rudy Slingerland

David Eissenstat

Ken Davis

Karen Salvage

Kamni Singha

Laura Toran

Pat Reed

Eric Kirby

Tim White

Kevin Dressler

Doug Miller

Ray Fletcher

Michelle Tuttle

Paul Bierman

Peter Lichtner

Carl Steefel

SSHO Investigators

Transect Investigators

CZEN International Sites


BigLink, Switzerland


Guadeloupe, France


Strengbach, France

Criteria to become a CZEN site


Data available for water and soils down to
bedrock


Willingness to share data


Willingness to open the site to other
investigators


Interest in answering questions that can
only be answered with a network of sites

For a given lithology, can we use the
climate and the soil residence time or
exposure time to predict


….the thickness of regolith on the
landscape?


…the profiles of elements and
minerals as a function of depth to
bedrock?

What controls the depth and chemistry of the Earth’s regolith?

To answer such questions across a
network requires shared data


We have a great variety of data types that
vary with space and time


We need to have some measurements
that are made at all sites =
core data


We will have some measurements that are
more specialized and that will not be made
at all sites =
specialized data


CZEN has drafted an ontology that describes the structure of the data,
and it has been posted for comments

http://www.czen.org/content/critical
-
zone
-
ontology

http://www.czen.org

Table 1. Minimum Information to be Submitted from CZEN Sites

Site information (as available)
: Digital topography (and derived information
such as slope and curvature); Digital geology; Digital soil; Landform type;
Landform position, Parent material type (e.g., alluvial, bedrock), Latitude,
Longitude, Description of drainage characteristics, Slope, Aspect, Land use
description, Elevation, Geology.

Meteorological characteristics
: Daily, monthly and mean annual
temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration.

Regolith characterization
: Bedrock chemistry and mineralogy; Soil and
saprolite bulk density, Soil chemistry (as function of depth to bedrock), Soil
mineralogy (as function of depth to bedrock), Loss on ignition (if applicable),
Soil profile description, Landform age or soil production rates, Depth to
bedrock, Analysis company (if applicable for chemical analysis); Analysis
technique (for chemistry and mineralogy); Date of analysis; Sample
preparation (size separation, drying, ashed or unashed); Grain size
analyzed


Data Infrastructure for CZ Science


The three CZOs must share data after a two
year embargo period


Only moderate funding was included in each
CZO proposal to place data onto the web


The SSHO CZO is discussing placing data onto
the web using ChemxSeer, but ultimately storing
it with EarthChem (CZ.db …with Kerstin Lehnert,
Columbia U.)


As the CZ data infrastructure for CZO grows, we
should augment this CZO data with data from
other sites and legacy data, as well as kinetic
and thermodynamic data

Kinetic Data Synthesis by Center for
Environmental Kinetics Analysis (CEKA)

Kaolinite

Valley Floor
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Tau (Zr)
Depth (cm)
Published
soil profile
data

Datasets compiled and placed
online (search for
ChemxSeer
): silicate
mineral dissolution rate
constants; chemistry of
soils where available from
surface to bedrock with
exposure age



CEKA was funded by the National Science
Foundation and Dept of Energy as an
Environmental Molecular Sciences Institute

http://chemxseer.ist.psu.edu

PI: Karl Mueller,

Funded by NSF

C. Lee Giles
, Levent Bolelli, Xiaonan Lu, Ying Liu, Anuj Jaiswal, Kun Bai, Bingjun
Sun, Isaac Councill, Prasenjit Mitra, James Z. Wang, Karl Mueller, James Kubicki,
Barbara Garrison, Joel Bandstra, Qingzhao Tan, Juan Pablo Ramirez Fernandez


Chemistry, Geosciences, Information Sciences and Technology

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

Data Search Example in Chem
X
Seer

Search document
content and
metadata

Table Search Interface in Chem
x
Seer

Extracts the data from the
table automatically for user
decision
-
making

Searches tables
with specific
properties

Chem
X
Seer Data Extraction from Figures

Numerical data in

scientific publications

are often found in figures.





Tools that automate the data extraction from figures
provide the following:



Increases our understanding of key concepts of papers



Eases the process of comparative analyses.



Enables regeneration of figures in different contexts.



Enables search for documents with figures containing
specific experiment results.

X. Lu, et.al, JCDL 2006.

What kind of cyberinfrastructure
might we want?



Cyberinfrastructure that promotes use of datasets by
domain scientists


Cyberinfrastructure that promotes use of reactive
transport models (eg Flotran, Crunch, Witch, Min3)


Cyberinfrastructure that will
invite

domain scientists to
share data and make it accessible


Cyberinfrastructure that will facilitate both private and
public datasets


Cyberinfrastructure that is enabled by funding agencies,
professional societies, publishing houses, and individual
scientists


Cyberinfrastructure that brings communities together,
more predictive capability, and a stronger voice

How can a cyberinfrastructure be
inviting to domain scientists?


The site will be the “
go to
” place to make comparisons across
data sets


The site will make it easy for domain scientists to compare their
data with other data


The site will allow domain scientists to keep their own data
private until released after an embargo period


The site will make it easy for scientists to cite authors of the
data


The site will have rudimentary tools to work on visualizing or
fitting data


The site will make it easy for nonspecialists or scientists from
other fields to find and use data (interoperability)


The site will promote “discussion” between other portals or
other cyberinfrastructures


Fundamental
Critical Zone
Science

ChemxSeer

(cybertools

for chemistry
)

CZEN.org

(social networking,

data management)

EarthChem

(databases)

CZEN

(field sites)

CZEN is a network of


Sites (network of field sites)


Ideas (network of model development)


Tools (network of tools tested on sites
and cybertools for using data)


People (network of international
scientists and students)

www.czen.org


Social networking site for Critical Zone scientists


Content management system


566 registered users


Growing at a rate of about 4/day


500 pages


33 groups including international groups


14 post types are available


Biggest problem: teaching geochemists how to
use a content management system!



Claire Hoff
, U. of New Hampshire, Calcium leaching dynamics, Hasselt
University, Belgium


Heather Buss
, USGS Postdoctoral Fellow, Guadeloupe and Puerto Rico.


Heidi Albrecht
, Penn State U., Frasassi Cave, Italy.


Julie Pett
-
Ridge
, Cornell U., Oxford U., UK


Mark Waldrop
, USGS Postdoctoral Fellow, Lancaster U., England.


Sarah Hayes
, U. of Arizona, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.


Simon Mudd
, Vanderbilt U., Oxford U., UK


Susan Crow
, Purdue U., Queen’s University, Belfast, Ireland.


Susan Riggins
, U. of Colorado
-
Boulder, British Geological Survey.

CZEN International Student Scholars

received NSF
funding to work in Europe in 2006/07

Current ongoing competition for students to receive
funded to attend the SoilCritZone meeting in Crete
in Sept 2008

Fundamental
Critical Zone
Science

USDA

EPA

NASA

DOE

NSF

EAR

BIO

The U.S. funding
perspective

If CZ scientists build the science…the funding will come

The problem is not just crossing disciplines but
also crossing timescales from seconds to
millenia…earth scientists must continue to
emphasize the time component so that we can
earthcast the surface earth system

Anderson et al., 2004