Content Modeling 101

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Content Modeling 101

A Cross Agency Study


Don Bruns

June 14, 2006

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

About Aquilent

Aquilent is a solution provider focused on web
-
based
business automation of government initiatives.

Founded over 25 years ago as Century Computing, Aquilent
is a 150
-
person company delivering award
-
winning,
measurable results in the Federal marketplace.


Agency
-
wide Public and Private Web Presence


Enterprise Acquisition and Finance Solutions


Information Management and Access


Regulatory Management


Project

Recent Awards

USPS.com

Excellence.gov

Grace Hopper
Technology Leadership

InfoWorld

100

HHS.gov

E
-
Gov

Trailblazer

ClinicalTrials.gov

Innovations

in American Government

Time
Magazine
“Top 50”

FirstGov.gov

Hammer

Award

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Define Content Modeling

Identifying the data, metadata, and
relationships of an information
product.


Informs requirements for CMS design,
selection, and implementation


Often includes development of a
taxonomy


Drives content reuse


Crucial step in running a successful
CMS implementation


Think of content as collections of
discrete chunks of information.


Captured separately


Stored centrally


Reused, rearranged, and redeployed
according to business logic

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Process for Content Modeling

Perform content inventory


Identify content types


Find representative samples


Identify chunks


Document the content model


Confirm with stakeholders at every step

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Content Inventory

Different from traditional UCD content inventory:


Less emphasis on identifying navigation, site structures, page names, and ownership.


More emphasis on identifying content types, metadata, and opportunities for reuse.


© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Identify Content Types

Information products with a common set of metadata and common
purpose.


Aim for high value content types first.


Supports large amounts of content


Has high audience exposure


Has high potential for reuse


Crosses organizational lines


Recognize that 80% of content is unstructured (aka Generic web pages).


Confirm your analysis with stakeholders.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Find Representative Samples of Each Content Type

Choose several examples per content type.

Cross organizational lines if possible.

Find instances of reuse.

Look for difficult cases.

Confirm examples with stakeholders.


© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Identify Chunks

Separate content from presentation



Draw boxes around possible data and
metadata elements (a.k.a. “chunks.”)


Dig deeper


Many chunks won’t appear
on the page (keywords in source code,
content lifecycle dates).


Take a step back


Look for additional
chunks wherever content is reused.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Identify Chunks (continued)

Approach metadata from all angles.


Elemental (Title, Body)


Descriptive (Subject, Intended Audience, Content Type)


Lifecycle/Administrative (Publish Date, Expiration Date, Refresh
-
by Date)


Be realistic about chunking.


Over
-
enthusiastic chunking can create a burden for content contributors.


Do you really need 47 fields for a press release?


Are you really going to reuse

that?


© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Identify Chunks (continued)

Chunk appropriately


Granularity is
mainly dictated by reuse requirements.


Avoid under
-
chunking


Excessively coarse level of granularity


Inhibits content reuse


Avoid over
-
chunking


Excessively fine level of granularity


Imposes a burden on users


Can complicate reuse

Level of Granularity

Chunks

Excessively Coarse

Entire book

Coarse

Chapters

Medium

Pages

Fine

Paragraphs or sentences

Excessively Fine

Words or letters

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Document the Content Model

Things to capture:


Shared fields


common to all
content types


Additional fields unique to this
content type


Points of relationship between this
and other content types


Keep it conceptual at first.


Don’t infer database structures
from this… yet.


Try to break the content model.


Confirm with your stakeholders.

Press Release

Case Studies

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Office of Justice Programs (OJP)

Grant
-
making branch of DOJ


Federated web presence



Main OJP website


Five bureau
-
level offices with websites


Two program offices with websites


Each website has its own design,
navigation, content, web managers,
content contributors, etc.


Little content reuse across websites


Some content out
-
of
-
synch across
websites

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

OJP Example 1


State Administering Agency Contacts

State Administering Agency (SAA)

Contacts
-

Government officials in a
particular state who administer
federal grants on behalf of one or
more OJP bureaus.


The Problem:


Each of the five bureaus and HQ
maintained separate lists.


Lists were often out
-
of
-
synch with
each other.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

The Solution

Worked with web council to develop common content model for SAA Contact

Parsed content chunks for contact person

Included required dropdown lists for OJP Office and for State.

Captured SAA Contacts within the content management system

CMS deploys query
-
driven pages that display contacts by state, by agency, or both


© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

OJP Example 2


Topic pages

The Problem:
Very little content from
the five bureau level offices was
appearing on the main OJP website.


The Goal:


Unify OJP’s web presence.


Dissolve content silos.


Promote content reuse across
organization lines.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

First Attempt

Web manager developed topic pages



Linked off main OJP site


Topic driven


Draws content from all bureau level
sites


Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)
recruited to act as Topic Page editors.



Why it failed:


Topic page editors required to keep
track of new content on multiple sites.


Required manual updates.


Editors couldn’t keep up.


Content became stale.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Second Attempt

CMS implementation between July 2004 and October 2005.


Led web council in developing cross
-
agency content model


Led web council in developing cross
-
agency taxonomy


Six facets to taxonomy


Topic


Crime Type


Language


Information Type


Geography


Demographic

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Crime Type Facet

Drug Crime


Drug Related Crime


Manufacturing


Possession


Trafficking

Gangs

Hate Crimes

Organized Crime

Property Crime


Arson


Burglary


Electronic Crime
-

Cybercrime


Fraud


Identity Theft


Larceny/Theft


Motor Vehicle theft


Stolen Property


White Collar Crime

Public Order Offenses


Alcohol
-
related Offenses


Antitrust


Conspiracy


Driving Under the Influence


Environmental Offenses


Immigration Offenses


Money Laundering


Prostitution and Commercialized Vice


Racketeering and Extortion


Regulatory Offenses


Weapons Violations

Terrorism/Mass Violence

Trafficking in Persons

Violent Crime


Assault


Carjacking


Domestic/Intimate Partner/Family Violence


Gun Violence


Homicide


Kidnapping


Rape and Sexual Assault


Robbery


Stalking

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Applying Taxonomy within CMS

Authoring interfaces for all major
content types include Taxonomy
fields.


Most workflows include editorial /
tagging step.


Taxonomy terms and relationships
managed within the CMS.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Tagging OJP Content Using the Taxonomy

Topic Facet




Drugs



Legal Substances



Alcohol




Juvenile Justice



Child Health and Welfare



Underage Drinking




Law Enforcement


Crime Facet




Public Order Offenses



Alcohol
-
related Violations

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

OJP Topic Pages Redux

Query
-
driven topic pages



CMS
updates pages whenever relevant
content is published.


Dynamic content reuse



Made
possible by having a unified content
model and taxonomy applied cross
-
agency.


Empowers bureau
-
level content
managers act as stewards for larger
OJP site.


Required special training for
taggers



This taxonomy actually
does something.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

Independent Federal agency


Regulates Futures and Options markets in the US


Strong emphasis on preventing and prosecuting fraud


Diverse content reuse needs


No technical infrastructure to support content reuse


Web team working manually to meet reuse requirements


© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Legal Pleadings

Court documents


Complaints


Opinions


Orders


Decisions


Pertain to specific cases initiated by
CFTC against accused violators

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Enforcement Press Releases

Specialized media releases
pertaining to ongoing cases


Dynamic Reuse


Legal Pleadings


© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Case Status Reports

Updates on court cases initiated
by CFTC against violators


Intended for general public
(particularly victims of fraud)


Dynamic and manual reuse:


Legal Pleadings


Enforcement Press Releases

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

The Solution

Included “Defendant” attribute
in the content models for:


Legal Pleadings


Enforcement Press Releases


Case Status Reports


Value added


Good example of
how one metadata attribute can
add
lots

of value to content.


Press Release

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

The Solution (continued)

Probably will involve a combo box
or custom GUI control


Content contributors can add new
defendants.


Content contributors can also select
from existing defendants.




Worldwide Commodity

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Top 10 Best Practices

1.
Process leads technology decisions.

2.
Don’t skimp on your content audit.

3.
Separate presentation from content.

4.
Think reuse.

5.
Chunk appropriately (i.e. level of granularity.)

6.
Think of your users’ needs and pain points. (47 fields for a press release?)

7.
Add value to content (especially unstructured content) by applying a global
taxonomy.

8.
Base the content model on Dublin Core Metadata Standards.

9.
Unify the content model across organizational lines as much as possible.

10.
Involve key stakeholders at all levels at every step.

© Aquilent, Inc. 2006. All Rights Reserved

Contact Information

Don Bruns

Lead Information Architect

Don.Bruns@aquilent.com

202
-
415
-
1284


Peter Fogelsanger

Director

Peter.Fogelsanger@aquilent.com

301
-
939
-
1706