20-22 November 2006

tansygoobertownInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

8 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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1

Challenges in Web Governance in a
Complex International Organization:

The Case of the World Bank


Robert Valantin


Third Web4Dev Conference

UN, New York

20
-
22 November 2006


2

The World Bank and the Bank Group

World Bank:

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
and the

International Development Association (IDA)
.

Affiliates:


International Finance Corporation (IFC)



Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency


International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

Membership:
184 countries

Headquarters:

Washington, DC, and more than 100 country offices

Staff:

Approximately 10,000
employees
in offices around the world

Established:

July 1, 1944
during a conference of 44 countries in Bretton Woods, New
Hampshire

3

4

The Web @ The World Bank


The
External Web

helps businesses, civil society, client
governments, investors, job seekers, journalists,
parliamentarians, youth, and students to help them to achieve
their development
-
related objectives



The
Intranet

provides Bank staff with easy access to a wide
variety of practical information useful to their work, as well as
an environment to initiate different kinds of transactions related
to travel, time recording, leave, services (translation, visitor
passes, etc.), operational lending (PCNs, PADs, ISRs, etc.).



Extranets

such as
Client Connection

and the
Online Media
Briefing Center

provide restricted access to specialized
information for specific groups.


5

The External Web @ The World Bank


In one six
-
month period, the External Web served some 45
million pages views to over 6.5 million individuals and recorded
8.2 million visits.In any month, it attracts about a million unique
visitors, who view eight million pages during 1.4 million visits.


Over 300,000 downloads are recorded each month.


Bank staff account for about 7 percent of page views


The Bank’s internal content management system has logged
over 175,000 content items on 1,283 sites since 2003. These
items were published by 932 individuals.


In 2005 alone, over 76,000 content items were published. A
small number of publishers tend to carry the burden


86
percent of the content items are posted by 26 percent of
publishers.


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The External Web @ The World Bank

For additional details on the Bank’s External Web site and
findings from our recent “Web in Review” …



See Nick Harrison’s presentation “From Good to Great:
Managing an Effective International Web Site” provided
in the Web4Dev conference materials as a resource


7

A challenge for the Bank’s Web

“The challenge for the Bank is to provide
a state
-
of
-
the
-
art, reliable Web
presence with interesting, fresh, and
relevant content covering the large
variety of countries, topics, projects and
activities in which the Bank is engaged
while meeting the information and
transactional needs of a very diverse set
of clients and users within the Bank and
around the world.” (Robert Valantin)


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Current Approach

Utilize the Bank’s technological infrastructure
and organizational base, using common tools,
institutional systems, guidelines, and “look
-
and
-
feel” while maintaining an essentially

decentralized

(VPU*
-
based) system for
content production, quality control,
management, and resourcing.


*VPU=Vice Presidential Unit (i.e. a “department” in the
Bank

9

Current Approach: Web Publishing Policy


Management sponsorship


Formal clearance for External Web content


Guidelines: style, naming, site management, etc.


Common technical platform (and exceptions)


Site archiving


User feedback


Reporting


Accessibility


Access to Bank publications


Enforcement




10

Current Approach: External Web Goals


Provide a coherent, easy
-
to
-
use
-
and
-
navigate entry point into the
World Bank and its knowledge resources and development activities


Provide authoritative information on key development issues through
research, project findings, lessons learned, datasets, etc.


Support development practitioners in their work through online
communities, relevant knowledge products, training opportunities, and
other means


Facilitate better Bank operations through streamlining business
processes, increasing transparency, and customer care



Play a global advocate role for development issues by communicating
with educating the media, students & teachers, the general public
interested in development issues, and other stakeholders


Carry out best practice in website management (design, architecture,
policy, management, governance)


Exchange lessons learned in using the Web for development (e.g.
Web4Dev!) and develop joint products and activities through
partnerships.



11

Current Approach: Some Institutional
Groups


Information Policy Council (IPC) and Business Sponsors Group
(BSG)


two formal governance mechanisms which review
requests for IT
-
related capital funding, including capital
spending for the Web


E
-
Publish Working Group


more formal (representative)
group which “governs” development of the “E
-
Publish” tool


Regional Webmasters Group


informal group of Webmasters
representing Bank regions; work on issues of common
interest (e.g. “look
-
and
-
feel for regional and country pages)


Central Web teams (in ISG+EXT and in other VPUs)


see the
next slide


Web Community


informal group of people working on the
Web in the Bank








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Current Approach: Web Teams


Small Central Web Teams in EXT and ISG manage common
issues, policy, guidelines, oversight (“enforcement”), plus
selective content quality enhancement efforts, site reviews,
Web Community events/training, business
sponsorship/requirements/coordination of development of
corporate systems/applications for the External Web.


Other Teams in ISG handle the Intranet and Extranets.


Technical teams in ISG handle common content management
platform (“E
-
Publish”), databases, servers


“ISP”


Web teams in each VPU actually create content and “sites”
following overall guidelines and using resources provided by
their own management





13

One VPU’s Approach


Over to …


The Case of South Asia

by

Daria Lavrentieva

14

Issues with the current approach


Need for an overall Bank (Group) Web Strategy in
the context of a Bank (Group) Information Strategy
and IT Strategy


Need for clearly identified/responsible Web Business
Sponsors in VPUs to ensure strategic business value
of sites, adequate resourcing, monitoring of use and
effectiveness, and archiving [Bank Web Policy]


Need for effective institutional oversight of content
quality and monitoring of adherence to
standards/policies


Better integration of the Intranet, the External Web
and Extranets


and integration within The Bank
Group
--

has potential for additional synergies.


15

Issues with the current approach


Multiplication of sites (language sites, different sites dealing
with similar content), and duplication of content are not efficient
… e.g. there are 13 sites that address trade, published by 8
different Units


Most traffic (77 percent of page views) is served on 10 percent
of the sites.


The “system” is supply
-
driven/organized vs. demand
-
driven/organized.


How to balance the desire to make information widely available
(the Bank’s Disclosure Policy) with the need for quality control?


How to build in technological innovation while dealing with
complex institutional systems: Are we ready for Web 2.0?




Need for more clearly defined and active (pro
-
active?)
governance


16

A key question …

Should the Bank change its overall approach to content from
decentralized, supply
-
driven (“sites
-
based”) approach to
“something else”?


A model where VPUs and others “contribute” content
which is shareable and reusable


A model where suppliers and users of content “help
design customizable delivery mechanisms” for the
content”


A model which actively uses metrics to inform the
choice of content and allocation of resources?


A model which supports technological innovation and
encourages user
-
involvement and partnerships?




17

And despite all of the challenges and issues …


Somehow … it all works … and not too
badly at that!


The Web “system” in effect mirrors the
organizational structure of the Bank and
ways that the Bank works.

18

Functions that are required of “Web
Governance”


1 Web
-
related strategy and policy
development and review

2 Content policy and editorial focus

3 Monitoring and evaluation

4 Technical enhancements and
improvements

5 Management oversight.



19

1. Web strategy and policy development and
review



Define the Bank’s objectives for use of the Web in light of the
Bank Group’s mission and current priorities and policies.


Develop an overall Web strategy for the Bank Group covering
both internal and external Webs in the context of overall
Information and IT Strategies (which also need to be
developed).


Selectively review VPU
-
level strategies and implementation
plans and share best practices with a view to harmonizing
these.


Review the Bank’s Web Publishing Policy and make changes as
appropriate.



20

2. Content policy and editorial focus



Review existing content
-
related/editorial policies and
guidelines and recommend changes as appropriate.


Review proposed major changes to the overall site
design.


Suggest major new content features and themes.


Develop guidelines for linkages to external sites and
to potential external partners (e.g. private sector)


Develop guidelines for cooperation on Web content
-
related matters with other international development
organizations.


21

3. Monitoring and evaluation



Review periodic reports on the overall site and on
sets of sites (e.g. by VPU, network, theme). Such
reports would cover both quantitative and qualitative
measures.


Review annual reports of major components of the
Bank’s Web (e.g. the Web in Review for the External
Web), and make recommendations as appropriate.


Monitor compliance with the Web Policy. Provide
appropriate incentives and dis
-
incentives.


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4. Technical enhancements & improvements



Review input from the Web community and other
sources to identify promising strategic changes in
approach/technology for the Web at the Bank.


Assess the impact of proposed significant changes to
overall system architecture to the Web Community in
the Bank and users.


Provide guidance on major technological investments
related to the Web and suggest priorities.


Act as a catalyst for innovation and technology
development


23


5. Management oversight




Review Web
-
related requests to central Bank
budget, capital investment, and knowledge
management processes.


Maintain an overview of Bank
-
wide resourcing of the
Web (based on inputs from the various units
involved)


Liaise with other Information and IT governance
processes as appropriate.


Serve as “ambassadors” to Management (both VPU
-
level and Senior Management) to ensure support for
Bank
-
wide policies and initiatives.


Report back to the Web Community.




24

Reactions from South Asia


Over to Daria for comments …

25



Some parting thoughts …




Does it even make sense to use “Web”


as a differentiator any more ???


The Web is just another “interface”
between information repositories and
business processes within the Bank, and
users both inside the Bank and outside.





26



Some parting thoughts …





The Web is a set of software applications and tools.
Its development and funding are governed by the
existing processes covering all IT investments.



The Web is a collection of content.

It adheres to
standards and guidelines which cover various aspects
of “information” at the Bank. It should be governed
by whatever mechanisms are put in place for
governing them. Key aspects include: the Bank’s
Disclosure Policy, the Records Management Policy,
and the proposal for Information Governance


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Some parting thoughts …





The Web is a distinct medium for information
delivery, communication, and transactions.

It is
covered by the Bank’s Web Policy and related
guidelines.



As a part of the World Wide Web,

the Bank’s Web
adheres to technical standards and industry
practices. As a leading development agency, the
Bank collaborates both formally and informally with
other organizations, both private and public sector, to
increase the availability, reach and usefulness of its
information and that of the development community
more generally.


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THANK YOU!


Robert Valantin

Manager, Development Information

World Bank

RValantin@worldbank.org