Biotechnology

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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1

Biotechnology

by

Ali Ghanbari

2

Competencies:


define biotechnology, DNA, and other
related terms


compare methods of plant and animal
improvement


discuss historic applications of
biotechnology


explain the concept of genetic engineering

3

Competencies:


describe applications of biotechnology in
agriscience


state some safety concerns and safeguards
in biotechnology

4

Terms to Know


Bio


Clone


Gene splicing


Improvement by selection


Genetic Engineering


Recombinant DNA technology


Selective breeding

5

Terms to Know


Nucleic acid


Gene mapping


Genetics


Bases


Insulin


Heredity


Adenine (A)

6

Terms to Know


Ice
-
minus


Genes


Guanine (G)


X
-
Gal


Generation


Cytosine (C)


Bovine somatotropin (BST)

7

Terms to Know


Progeny


Thymine (T)


Porcine somatotropin (PST)


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)


Mapping

8

Introduction


Biotechnology is a
tool of agriscience


Promises
unprecedented
advancements


Has real dangers


Definition of
Biotechnology

9

Historic Applications


Living organisms have been used for
centuries to alter and improve the quality
and types of food for humans and animals


Yeast to make bread rise


Bacteria to ferment sauerkraut


Bacteria to produce cheese and other dairy
products


Microorganisms to make alcoholic
beverages


Bacteria in silage production


10

Improving Plant and Animal
Performance


Improvement by
Selection


Improvement by
Genetics


Improvement by
Biotechnology

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Improvement by Selection



Soon followed domestication of the dog,
horse, sheep, goat, ox and other animals
thousands of years ago


Purchasing, selling, bartering and trading
got people animals with desirable traits


Mating plants and animals with desirable
traits resulted in selective breeding


Historical evidence in the development of
the horse

12

Improvement by Genetics


Gregor Johann Mendel


Austrian Monk who is credited with
discovering the effect of genetics on plant
characteristics


Experimented with garden peas


Published findings in 1866


People didn’t pay much attention

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Improvement by Genetics


Mendel’s work would have been lost if not
recorded


1900 other scientist reviewed, built upon his
observations, and conclusions


Today Gregor Johann Mendel is credited
for discovering the principles of heredity

14

Improvement by Biotechnology


Improvement by
manipulating the
genetic content of cells


Permits more choices
for the researcher,
more rapid
observation of results


New capability with
amazing implications

15

DNA
-

Genetic Code of Life


Over 300,000 kinds of
plants


Over 1 million kinds
of animals


All are different in
some ways


All plants and animals
are alike in some ways


All contain DNA

16


DNA
-

Genetic Code of Life


Cloning is common scientific knowledge


Early 1980’s Genetic Engineering
developed


1867 Friedrich Meischer discovered DNA
which is similar in all living cells


structure


function


composition


transmitter of hereditary information

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DNA
-

Genetic Code of Life


DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined


Connected by chemicals called bases


Likened to the two sides of a wire ladder


Bases likened to the rungs and include:


Adenine

(A)


Guanine

(G)


Cytosine

(C)


Thymine

(T)

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DNA
-

Genetic Code of Life


Examples of traits:


hair color


tendency for baldness


height of plants at
maturity


tendency of females to
have twins


Gene Splicing


Gene Mapping

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Solving Problems with Microbes


Microscopic plants and animals lend
themselves to genetic engineering


Produce quickly and can be genetically
engineered to produce products need by
other plants, animals, and humans


One of first commercial products was
insulin


Used by people with diabetes to control their
blood sugar levels

20

Improving Plants and Animals


1988
-

first use of ice
-
minus


1988 use of genetically
altered bacteria for Dutch
Elm Disease


BST and PST


Roundup and Liberty
Ready corn and soybeans


BT Corn

21

Improving Plants and Animals


Genetic engineering and
other forms of
biotechnology hold great
promise in controlling:


Diseases


Insects


Weeds


Other pests


Environment will be
enhanced

22

Waste Management


Environmental Pollution
is a major problem


Landfills are becoming
full


Old dump sites are
creating problems


Waste is piling up


Sewage and chemical
disposal is a constant
problem

23

Waste Management


Genetically altered bacteria are
used to feed on oil slicks and
spills


Bacteria are being developed to
decompose or deactivate dioxin,
PCBs, insecticides, herbicides,
and other chemicals


Bacteria are under development
to convert solid wastes into
sugars and fuel

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Safety in Biotechnology


Federal and state
governments monitor
biotechnology closely


Fear of genetically
modified organisms


Policies, procedures
and laws have been
developed


Gaining in public
confidence