An example of development in Science and Technology that man brings about is:

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Group 3 Members
:
Crystal Chew (2), Tan Ying Hui (9), Ryan Wee (25),

Muhd Dhafer (19), Rohith Srinivas (22
)


P6 Victorious,
Rosyth

School



An example of development in Science and

Technology that man brings about is:



Description

Biotechnology is the use or modification of living organisms or

their processes for human purposes, such as to develop new

medicines or to enhance crops. In biotechnology, humans alter

biotic factors to achieve the desired outcomes. There are four

main ways in which biotechnology is applied


red
,
white,

black,

green
and
blue
.


Description

Red

Biotechnology

Red

biotechnology is the medical application of biotechnology.
In red biotechnology, man alters the genetic makeup of
organisms to produce or improve on a medical product, or to
observe the reactions of a genetically
-
modified organism to a
medical product.




Description

White

Biotechnology

White

biotechnology is industrial
-
centred. Man alters the
genetic makeup of organisms or uses cells or their components
to create products which are industrially useful, destroy harmful
products, or simplify industrial activities such as leaching.



Description

Green

Biotechnology

Green

biotechnology

is

applied

agriculturally
.

It

is

used

to

find

or

modify

the

genetic

characteristics

of

crops

or

livestock
.

Man

alters

the

genetic

makeup

of

organisms

to

produce

the

desired

outcome
.


Description

Blue

Biotechnology

Blue

biotechnology is applied to marine environments and
ecosystems. Man alters the genetic makeup of organisms
and introduces them to a marine environment or introduces
existing substances or organisms to ensure marine safety.



Description

Black

Biotechnology


Black

biotechnology is
applied in the energy field
.

It is
used to make renewable energy sources that replace
fossil fuels that are running out.

Man alters the genetic
makeup of organisms

to make it a clean, natural source of
energy, compared to the harmful fossil fuels
.


Guiding Questions


Human Activity

-

Should man bear responsibility
towards the environment from which he draws his
resources?


Technology

-

Is technology good or bad in itself?



Human Activity


Humans carry out many activities to meet their needs and to

build better lives. These activities have a great impact on:


the Earth,


the human race,


the environment


the organisms that inhabit the Earth.


As we live, we:


take many resources from the environment.


release harmful substances to the environment, such
as

wastes
and
poisonous gases.

Human Activity

Over time, this causes many environmental problems which

may be difficult to fix if left unchecked for a long time. Our

activities can completely change the ecosystem to such an

extent that nature can no longer repair the damage. Thus,

to satisfy our needs, we inadvertently sacrifice the future of

the Earth and the organisms that live on it.







Technology

Pros:


Saves lives (medicine)


People have more access
to knowledge


Saves time


Brings enjoyment


Always connected to
others

Cons:


People get lazier


Expensive


People lose social skills


Cyber
-
bullying


Easier for criminals to
carry out crimes


Technology is good as long as it does not become out of
hand, and is used responsibly and appropriately.

Benefits to Man and the Community


Fermentation
-



Food
Production


Medicinal Benefits
-


Red
Biotechnology


GM Foods
-



Green

Biotechnology


Industrial Benefits
-


White

Biotechnology


Marine Benefits
-


Blue

Biotechnolog
y


Energy Benefits
-


Black
Biotechnology


Fermentation

What is fermentation?


Fermentation is a process of chemical change caused by organisms
or their products, usually producing effervescence and heat.


Fermentation is the oldest of all biotechnological processes, an
anaerobic process where energy is produced without the participation
of oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors.

How is fermentation useful to organisms?


In the absence of oxygen, yeast and bacteria carry out fermentation to
obtain energy for growth and respiration.



Fermentation

Examples of fermentation at work:


Production of beer, wine and bread involve fermentation of sugar by
yeast.


Bread
-

Yeast ferments sugar in the dough. Carbon dioxide is
produced and forms gas bubbles. They expand and cause the dough
to rise when baked.


Production of cheese and yoghurt involve the fermentation of milk by
bacteria.


Medicinal Benefits

Red
Biotechnology


Vaccines

o
Safer and more
effective



New cures for genetic diseases (Gene therapy)

o
Genetic modification of organisms so that they produce new medicines,
such as
antibiotics



Study of how a person's genetic inheritance alters his
or her response to drugs (pharmacogenomics)

o
Modifying organisms' genetic makeup to test their reactions to certain
medical products

o
Medical products that are tailored to an individual's genetic needs, more
accurate dosage of drugs
.



Better genetic testing

o
Scientists can design probes to examine the DNA molecule
.

GM Foods

Green

Biotechnology

Farmers
will harvest more crops (Better crop yield)




Explanation
: GM Crops are pest
-
resistant, which would result in lesser
crops lost to insect attacks.



GM
Crops can also be modified so that
they reproduce more quickly

.
This is a solution to the problem of a dwindling food supply due to a rapid
increase of world population.




Example
: Cotton (cottonseed oil): Pest
-
resistant due to Bacillus
thuringiensis (Bt) crystal
protein
gene added/transferred
to
plant
genome
.

GM Foods

Green
Biotechnology

Healthier
food for consumers

Explanation: There will be a decrease in the usage of pesticides so the
food will contain less chemicals
.


Better
working conditions for workers (farmers)

Explanation: Less exposure to harmful chemicals found in pesticides, as
there is no need to use them anymore
.


Pesticides can cause:


Toxic Effects


Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome


Cancer

GM Foods

Green
Biotechnology

More
environmentally
-
friendly

Explanation: Less harmful chemicals such as those found in pesticides will be
released into the air, as less pesticides will be needed.


Harmful Effects of Pesticide on the Environment that will be avoided:


They harm other non
-
target species of medicinal value

o
Cocoa plant
-

Used for anaesthetics

o
Cinchona Tree
-

Used for quinine, a cure for malaria

o
Curare Liana
-

Used as tubocurarine, a muscle relaxant for surgery

o
Calabar Bean
-

Used as neostigmine, a cure for glaucoma

o
Wild Yams
-

Used to make cortisone, an ingredient in birth control
pills.

o
Rosy Periwinkle
-

Used to make vincristine, which treats paediatric
leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease.



They may contribute to soil contamination


They may cause water pollution


Reduce biodiversity when species are killed
.

GM Foods

Green
Biotechnology

More nutriti
ous

food

Explanation: The creation of GM foods allows the foods to contain more
nutrients from the genes that are inserted into the organism.

Examples: Golden Rice
-

Increased iron and Vitamin A

Canola (seeds are used for producing edible oil) with oils that have lesser
cholesterol


Normal Rice

Golden Rice

GM Foods

Green
Biotechnology

Better
storage properties and Improved
taste

Example
: Flavr
-
Savr tomato

To develop their full flavour, tomatoes need to ripen on the vine.
However, as they ripen, they become soft, making it hard to harvest and
to maintain in ideal conditions for sale. Hence, farmers harvest before
tomatoes are ripe and make them ripe using ethylene gas which results
in the loss of flavour.

Flavour
-
Savour tomatoes ripen on the vine
longer

while
maintaining
firmer skin.


GM Foods

Green
Biotechnology

Crops
are
disease
-
resistant

Examples:


Hawaiian Papaya: Resistant to Papaya
Ringspot

Virus


New gene transferred into plant genome



Squash (Zucchini): Resistant to watermelon, cucumber and zucchini
yellow mosaic viruses


Contains coat protein genes of viruses



Sweet Peppers: Resistant to virus


Contains coat protein genes of the virus



GM Foods

Green
Biotechnology

Crops
can have increased tolerance to unfavourable
conditions

Explanation: Wheat, rice and maize crops that are drought
-
tolerant are
currently being created. These crops can grow in water
-
deficient lands
and prevent harvest shortfalls in the event of a drought. This enables
more crops to be produced though in dry land.


Industrial Benefits

White

Biotechnology


New and valuable chemicals that can act as catalysts to
speed up industrial processes

o
With the correct processes and modification, enzymes can be used
to create chemicals needed for industrial
processes



More environmentally
-
friendly processes

o
When organisms are used to speed up or complete biological
processes, less carbon emissions are
produced
.



Bioleaching

o
Easier extraction of metals from their ores by bacteria
.



Cleanup of waste and sites contaminated by industrial
activities

o
Organisms can be designed to break these harmful chemicals down.


Marine Benefits

Blue

Biotechnology


Cleaning up of Marine oil spills.

o
Organisms are designed to break down crude oil from oil
spills. E.g.: Scientist Ananda Chakrabarty developed a
bacterium that breaks down crude oil.

o
The organisms introduced remove the oil.

o
They help to clean up the crude oil faster than a human
can, hence reducing the damage caused by oil spills
.



Increase of supply of certain seafood

o
Organisms can be designed in order to do this
.



Control of spread of certain dangerous seafood

o
Organisms can be designed to limit the spread of this
seafood.

Energy Consumption

Benefits

Black

Biotechnology


Cleaner Energy Sources


Microbes can take up CO2 and convert it to a more
complex molecule using energy. Burning coal on the other
hand is very damaging, as coal will still hold on to gasses
as well as metals like mercury and lead and releases old
CO2. Most of the mercury contamination of our oceans
comes from burning coal


Renewable Energy Source


The time cycle of producing energy is short, new CO2
converts to a macro molecule and then back to CO2. Coal
however takes extremely long periods of time (based on our
lifespan) to form,


Future
of Biotechnology


Chemical Engineering of Medicine


New sources of medicinal benefits of plants that can slightly slow
down growth Congenital Diseases like
AIDs

and Cancer can be
genetically modified to cure and even prevent these diseases


Industrial development


New advances suggest that cleaner and more efficient oil can be
used to power machinery in factories. These oils were obtained
from plants that contain oil which were genetically modified


Green



New research suggests that widespread cloning may be possible for the
crops in near future. Though scientists had failed in the first experiment
of “Dolly the sheep”, new, safer method has been discovered to clone
these crops quickly.




Future
of Biotechnology


Energy structuring


New research suggests that microbe harnessers can be
used in homes that allow energy consumption to be 2 times
less and reduces consumption of earth’s natural resources.
They can also can be used to speed up fossil fuel forming


New species of Phytoplankton


Scientists have been able to engineer a species of
phytoplankton that is able to reproduce faster, increasing
supply of food for the animals in the sea.


Impacts of Biotechnology on
the Environment and Ecology


Positive Effects

o
Cleaning up of Oil Spills more efficiently

o
Less chemicals such as those found in pesticides are
released into the environment


Negative Effects

o
Unintended harm to other organisms in the ecosystem when
modifying crops

o
Crops: Cross
-
pollination with other non
-
GM crops resulting in
potentially hazardous offspring

o
New weeds or pests due to the GM crops and livestock
which are hard to control

Credits

Group Member (s)

Contribution (s)

Crystal Chew

Human activity, Technology,
Fermentation
, Script

Tan Ying Hui

GM Foods, Impacts of
Biotechnology on the Environment
and
Ecology
, Script

Ryan Wee

Description, Benefits
-

Industrial,
Marine, Impacts of Biotechnology on
the Environment and
Ecology
, Script

Muhd Dhafer

Description of Black Biotechnology,
Benefits of Black Biotechnology,
Future of Biotechnology, Images,
Design of slides, Script

Rohith Srinivas

Script