Module 8 Topic 3: Leadership and management in the Learning City Workplace
This topic deals with the new perceptions of Leadership and Management in the 21
century workplace. It follows on naturally from the concepts of the Learning
ganisation discussed in topic 2. It covers not only the traditional view of leadership
and management, but also the tools and techniques that managers can use in order
to assist the learning process. Thus notions of the measurement of learning (quality
urance), coaching and mentoring, learning audits and personal learning plans are
also discussed. The 21
century workplace does not foster learning by hazard; it
incorporates it into the management system. Equally it is now becoming increasingly
hat the learning process respects no work
nonwork divide. Increasingly
public and private sector workplaces are adopting a whole
life approach to the
learning of their employees, incorporating learning for leisure, for personal
development, for family a
nd for community contribution into the whole
learning equation. The topic therefore introduces these elements into the following
lessons. It is impossible to replicate the complete curriculum of a management
training college but the lessons shown
below are intended to encourage more
effective thinking about the leadership and management function.
The major objective of this topic is to improve understanding of management and
leadership principles and practice as it affects learni
ng in 21
This will also include some of the tools and techniques that managers and leaders
are adopting to encourage the workforce to take up continuous and lifelong learning.
The target audiences for this topic ar
e managers and leaders in public and private
workplaces, but also university and adult education students will gain much from the
Toolkit for Lesson 1.1.1
Toolkit Item 2.a Handout
your Leadership ability
What would you say are your leadership traits?
What would your friends/co
workers say are your best qualities?
How can you improve upon your weaknesses?
How can you best react in a crisis situation?
s who you lead make a difference to you?
Would you prefer to lead all groups the same way and why/why not?
When have you motivated others to make sacrifices for your goals?
Now, discuss in your group what useful things could
you say to Paul if he temporarily slipped back into his old ways
of thinking; that he ‘cannot’ do the presentation, that he is a ‘failure’? For example
is he mistaking feelings for facts?
Is he minimizing his successes? And how could he be mistaken in t
Now, in your group, pick one or two of these self limiting thoughts and suggest some questions that you
could ask a person to help persuade them that the thought is just a belief
it does not have to be reality.
For example, question
s relating to where the thought originated from, if that is logical, if the person is
mistaken about the belief, if the person would think the same of a colleague who was in the same
Toolkit for Lesson 1.1.2
Toolkit Item 6 Handout
ding to Change
Model of Change
[based on Prochaka et al. 1994]
It all begins with thought*…
[back into old ways]
Thinking about Change*
Preparing for Change
Using this Model of Change, briefly and in point form, track the main stages you think are
likely in order to help
permanent change to occur.
Paul has just received feedback from his supervisor at work
about his latest project
the committee/Board of Directors loved
it and would like him to give a presentation on it.
However, Paul has a se
and that is giving
presentations or anything involving public speaking. Paul is
excellent at research and report writing though and loves
explaining things to his work mates. His first and last time giving
a presentation was at a night class he
took 3 years ago
feels he made a complete mess of it, forgetting half of the main
points because he was so nervous that he dropped his cue
Paul has one month to prepare. He is now actively thinking
about changing this situation because h
e knows that this fear is
Step by step, how would you suggest Paul ensures that the
changes he makes in relation to overcoming this fear become
Toolkit for Lesson 1.1.2
m 5.a Handout
Responding to Change
No more than those useless things we see when we
fail to focus on our goals’
Thoughts as obstacles?
These are some of the thoughts of a group of people working together in a small office.
deal with difficult situations as well as other people can”…
“I am not capable of ever finishing anything on time”…
“I am always going to be like this
this is just the way I am”…
“I have to do it myself if anything’s going to ever get done around here
“I have to be the best or else…”…
“I must do this well or else I am a complete failure”…
3. Quality Learning
Quality in Learning
Notes for Group Leaders
(see also 'Lifelong Learning' P 60 and Making Lifelong Learning
Work' Chapter 4
ter van den Berghe, 'Achieving Quality in Training
Guide for collaborative Training Projects))
Quotation from book
'In the past decade, efforts concentrated on rationalisation and automation in order to
increase productivity, an important de
terminant of unit labour costs and thus price
competitiveness. The strategic means to achieve this was investment in fixed capital. To be
more productive and competitive in the future will call for a greater emphasis on improving
quality and innovation thr
ough investment in education and training for skills'
(European Commission, 'Guidelines for Community Action')
1. Quality has been the driving force to improvement in companies
cf quality standards BS
5050 and ISO 9000 in Education and Training for
2. This was expanded in the movement towards continuous improvement and now even
further in lifelong Learning. Companies have yet to catch up with this.
3. Training Departments in some companies are now catching up
they are becoming
departments' and applying themselves to the competence development of all
employees. But only some companies
the link between the company bottom line and
effective education and training has yet to be seen.
4. An effective quality training programme wil
l use all the tools and techniques of Lifelong
personal learning plans for all employees, targets, mentors, education technology,
and measure and monitor individual progress. It will cooperate frequently with
external education pr
oviders, and also ensure that these providers adhere to high quality
standards, invite participant comment and apply these tools themselves.
5. Many companies in UK are now using the Investors in People guidelines, which outline 38
quality standards for t
he development of employees.
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. Look up the section on Personal Learning Plans and invite participants to develop a
personal learning plan template for use by all
practice on one or two people in the group.
Relate this to
2. Discuss with the group how mentoring programmes can help in industry. Who are the
mentors? How should they be used? Use the Europro example given in the toolkit. Find out
more about Europro from the internet.
3. Either get a Visitin
g Speaker to talk about Investors in People or obtain a copy of the IIP
guidelines for the toolkit and initiate a discussion on how they can be practically implemented.
4. Discuss the 5 recommendations for industry made by ERT in the toolkit. Then put thi
the context of the partial and total learning concepts given in the toolkit.
5. Get the group to brainstorm a set of indicators which would define a good quality company
training scheme. Turn the results into a set of questions for use by a compan
specialist or manager. The toolkit gives some headings which can be turned into questions.
6. Ask the group to read and comment upon the paper by Peter Warr in the toolkit
Group Leaders Toolkit
) Investors in people
can you pl
ease try find a set of guidelines for Investors in People (IIP) for the toolkit
it may be in the DFEE or the CBI site or have one of its own)
b) 5 Recommendations to Industry from ERT 'Lifelong Learning in Europe)
1. Industry will not solve its proble
ms of competence or competitiveness by taking a short
term view only.
2. Companies must think strategically and accept some responsibility for developing and
providing Lifelong Learning opportunities.
3. Large companies should have their own Lifelong Lea
4. SME’s could cooperate in providing these services to their employees.
5. If training budgets must be decreased technical training and education should not suffer.
c) Learner Support Network
The European Professional Devel
opment Programme EuroPro is as an example of a learner
support network. EuroPro is a customized continuing education programme offered, for
example, at the Helsinki University Lifelong Learning Institute Dipoli. The programme is based
on the employee’s an
d corporate’s competence development needs. Therefore, every
participant has an individual study plan supported by the learner support network. The learner
support network helps the learner to choose appropriate studies and to get them completed.
e involved in the support network act in their roles on a part time voluntary basis
while carrying out their normal work duties.
The learner support network in professional development consists of
i) a manager, who is the nearest supervisor of the learner.
The manager conducts
development discussions, draws up development plans, directs studies and gives support.
ii) a tutor, who is a professor at the university. He is the academic expert and ensures the
scientific standards of studies. Tutors' duties also
include directing the projects, providing
contacts and evaluating studies.
iii) a mentor, who is the senior expert in the company. A mentor gives support, helps with
career planning as well as directing studies.
iv) a study counsellor at the university. A
study counsellor informs about education and
training possibilities, keeps study register approves studies and acts as a contact person.
v) other learners. Other learners play a key role in the learner support network. Discussions in
the peer group are imp
ortant in the learning process.
d) Partial and Total Learning Environments
Total Learning Environment
Everywhere (Every situation is a
ticularly at the
beginning of one's working life.)
All of the time (Every moment is a
Trainees/Students are Learners
receivers of knowledge(Trainers
are dispensers of knowledge.)
Everyone is a learner
rainees (All are searching for new
Company Manager sees learning
as the responsibility of the
Company Manager promotes learning
as a natural activity in all departments.
Learning is concerned wi
(Technological and organisational
competencies are learned
Learning is concerned with solving
problems which arise/dealing with
issues(Learning is 'whole context based'
so technological and organisational
mpetences are dealt with together in
relation to a context
People learn a set curriculum in a
passive manner as competing
People learn in an open manner,
through flexible interacting/cooperating
with others, and on their own, to
espond to group and individual needs.
Paper by Peter Warr
Learning in the workplace
Professor Peter Warr
University of Sheftield
The Institute of Work Psychology at the University of Sheffield is examining the processes
and outcomes of learning by
people at work. The general research thrust is that, although
lifelong learning is in principle generally desirable, in practice we need to distinguish between
learning which is more successful and that which is less successful. Two questions are being
dressed: what factors influence participation in learning and development activities, and
what factors influence the effectiveness of learning and development activities?
If is common to draw attention to increased pressures for continuing learning by t
workforce: new technologies and new working practices: the shift from manual to mental
work; an ageing population in need of new skills; increased international competition; flatter
organisations, with in
creased needs for lateral career moves; and na
tional and European
pressures for more "learning organisations". Despite these pressures, there is often a large
gap between abstract ideals and practical possibilities in the workaday world. It is essential to
look closely at what goes on in orga
s in order to translate the ideals into genuine
vements. Our project starts from two issues of concern, the uneven distribution of
employee learning, and the limited transfer of new skills and knowledge into work settings.
Uneven distribution of lea
rning Research studies have consistently shown that adults who are
active in learning tend to be those who are relatively well educated. In many countries,
employees who receive more training are young, have higher educational qualifications, work
e, are employed in large organisations, and more often are men. Encouraging learning
for these people is not a great pro
blem. However, making changes for traditional non
learners is difficult: older employees who have been in a job for a long period, part
women employees, people in small companies, and temporary staff with short
Attention needs now to be directed at the low level of lear
ning in those groups; the
constraints are both organisation and personal.
Limited transfer into th
e workplace Other investigations have drawn attention to the fact that
much (perhaps most) job
related learning fails to be applied in a work setting. Although
companies are often very concerned to set and monitor targets in other areas (production,
quality, etc.), the attainment of workplace objectives after training is often ignored: no
one is responsible for checking and enhancing the follow
up of training. Companies may
strive hard for immediate learning at the end of a programme, but this is of
little value unless it
is applied later. For learning at work to meet company goals. we need to understand and
reduce the obstacles to transfer.
Issue one: Factors influencing participation in learning
Although much survey research has indicated in broad
terms who takes part in learning and
who does not (above), there is a need for more detailed information about what encourages
and prevents participation. Armed with that information we could change the situation, so that
more people became active learne
rs. In one company we asked over 3,000 employees about
four types of development acti
vity: required training courses, work
activities (project work, temporary attachments, etc.), volun
tary learning in one's own time,
ties. Participation was found to be strongly affected by per
motivation to learn and support received within the workplace.
Learning motivation Although education level and jot) grade were regularly important (as
previously found), we obser
ved the additional effects of individuals' learning moti
each level of education and job grade. some people could see personal gain in development
activities whereas others were less motivated. The unmotivated staff were substantially less
ly to have taken part in learning in recent months.
The mere offer of development opportunities will not attract these unmotivated employees. It
is essential to address their concerns about personal costs in terms of time and effort, their
ty about entering threatening set
tings of new learning, and perhaps their lack
of basic skills of numeracy or literacy or a limited understanding of computer terminology and
procedures. People in this group tend to see no potential rewards from additional
either in terms of job achievements or personal gains; their percep
tions need to be changed
if they are to become active in lear
ning. (Other research has shown that employees who do
take part in development activities often subsequently value
learning, and may come to
experience greater confidence in their learning ability.)
Management support In many companies, junior mana
gers are under considerable pressure
to meet immediate goals, handle crises, and generally take a short
term view of the
facing them. They are unlikely to encourage their subordinates' longer
term development. In
part, this arises from lack of encouragement from their own bosses, and in part it is due to a
limited awareness of possible ways for
ward. Managers themselv
es need guidance about
available development opportunities for their subordinates and about rewards and costs
associated with each one.
It is clear that "learning organisations" or a "continuous lear
ning culture" will not emerge
unless detailed and susta
ined attention is paid to motivating the traditional non
unless junior managers are converted to the cause. There is often a long way to go.
Factors influencing the effectiveness of learning
Other projects at the University of Shef
field are examining company training activities, to
determine what makes them more and less effective, and to identify which learners are more
and less successful. Based on information of that kind. future programmes can be improved.
Our general approach
is to use a framework of training evaluation which examines employee
reactions, their immediate learning (in terms of a comparison between pre
training and post
training performance), and follow
up information about transfer info job settings. In addition
gathering data about overall, average impacts, special attention is paid to differences
between individuals and their work environments.
Variations in immediate learning success have been found to depend
upon trainees' initial motiv
ation to attend a programme. This is partly a question of general
learning confidence and anxiety, but the perceived personal relevance of a programme also
nes motivation; if staff see little personal value in taking part, they will have
imited motivation to learn. and they are less likely to change. Unfortunately. the analysis of
individuals' training needs to identify who should attend a particular learning activity is often
low down a company's priority list.
Age We have repeatedly con
firmed the problems experienced by older employees. Age is
negatively associated with learning success. That does not mean that older staff can
learn, but it does indicate that special attention to their needs is required if training is to be
. In part. this is a question of providing sufficient time for older learners, but many
more specific procedures are available. guided discovery learning, self
assistance, ensuring early learning achievement, practical emphasis, externa
l aids to reduce
the load and working memory etc.. Given that lifelong learning necessarily concerns older
staff, it is clear that changes for that group are needed if genuine success is to he achieved.
(Incidentally, research evidence suggests that there
is no age
difference in retention or for
getting, providing that older and younger people have lear
ned material to the same degree in
the first place: but the problem is that initial learning differences are often present.)
We have al
so examined differences between learners in the strategies
they adopt, using a nine
Cognitive learning strategies
processes of rehearsal, elaboration and mental organisation of material to be learned;
clude interpersonal help
seeking, seeking help from written
material, and applying material in practice; and
include emotion control (warding off anxiety and encouraging concentration). motivation
up an interest in the task) and comprehension monitoring (checking one's
progress and making adjustments if necessary). The value of some of these strategies varies
between different kinds of learning. but evidence is accumulating for their significance.
order to increase the effectiveness of learning, it is important to examine which strategies aid
learning in a particular case, and to ensure that people are competent in the appropriate
Transfer climate In parallel with interventions to mod
ify those individual factors. attention
should also be directed at organisational features. Does the climate in which a person works
reward learning and encourage the application of material from training courses? Follow
studies to identity on
utcomes from training schemes show large differences
between people, and these are associated with variations in the support provided by
managers and colle
agues. It is certain that training will not be fully applied unless a transfer
climate is positive.
The general picture about learning effectiveness is clear. Some staff use material from a
training programme. but many do not, either because they did not fully learn it or because
their transfer climate is inadequate. Research is increasingly providing d
etails of these
obstructions to effec
tive lifelong learning, and suggesting ways to remove them. The
overriding practical need is for more evaluation; only by measuring learning and its correlates
can improvements be made.
Research reports about these iss
ues are available trom Professor Peter Warr, Institute of Work Psychology,
University of Sheffield, Shettield Sb 21N, United Kingdom. E
Quality Indicators in Learning
a) Company Learning Policy
tion of learning
c) awareness/information strategies
d) design and development of learning
e) delivery of learning
f) Evaluation of learning
g) management of learning
h) ownership of learning
j) quality management tools
k) encouragement of learning
it of learning requirements
m) purpose of learning
n) financing policies
o) content of learning
p) partnerships in learning
q) assessment and accreditation of learning
r) scope of learning policy
s) results of learning
t) ease of learning
u) methods of l
v) learning support structures
w) sharing of learning
x) technology in learning
effectiveness of learning
z) relevance of learning
4. Skills and competencies
Skills and Competencies for a Lifelong Learning Age
Notes for G
(See also ‘Lifelong Learning’ Intro, and pp 60
62 of Lifelong
Learning, and Chapter 2 of ‘Making Lifelong Learning Work’)
Opening quotation: 'Individuality, creativity, the ability to think for oneself
the values we
treasure in modern indu
were, in the industrial society, hardly considered to be assets on
the assembly line, or even in the executive office' (Aburdine and Naisbitt
So what has changed? And what are its implications? This section of the
module explores the
future skills needs and how the ways they can be satisfied affects all parts of the education
and social system.
1. The movement from an industrial to a post
industrial age demands new skills, attitudes and
2. Workers are no
longer regarded as a ‘resource’ in much the same way as machinery, a
computer, and the company fleet of delivery vehicles.
3. In an effort to humanise the protocols, the old personnel department became the
‘Department of Human resources’. Has this made t
he situation better? The worker is still
regarded as a resource. (See suggestions below).
4. Skills needs are changing fast with the nature of the task (see 2.
New Work Paradigms in
this module). So are ‘awareness’ needs
the wider perceptions of each
individual worker vis
vis his/her job.
5. Because jobs change rapidly, future employees can expect to change their job several
times in a lifetime
whether or not they change company. That means that each person
should have a career development plan,
and be learning for the next one while in the present
6. At the same time there is a need for increased personal development skills to enable one
to cope with change.
7. Increasingly companies are looking at skills and competencies development as a
life’ activity. Those acquired away from the job are as relevant to those acquired for the job
versa. Thus the emphasis is on the development of the whole person in skills,
knowledge and values inside and outside of the workplace. The
Learning Audit (Section 7 of
this module) expands on this.
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. Ask the group to suggest a new name for the ‘Department of Human Resources’ which
would improve the perception of the employee from a resource to an active contr
would this affect the transition from training to learning?
2. Brainstorm the skills of a modern manager with the group. Aim for a list of 30 skills,
attributes and competencies. Afterwards compile a list of the things he/she must do in orde
acquire those skills etc.
3. Now produce a list of the skills and attributes of the modern employee
do this in smaller
groups and bring them together in plenary. The check
list in the toolkit under ‘Modern skills’
4. Give each indivi
dual a list of the skills shown under ‘Creative Education’ below
to list them in order of importance for the modern workplace. In plenary, list the order chosen,
on a flip chart or blackboard.
Compare these with the list produced by the Creati
ve Education Foundation in the toolkit and
5. Cut the skills and competencies table in the toolkit into individual squares (several copies)
and give small groups the set to put together into a table.
6. Having done this, let each group take a di
fferent topic and discuss HOW the skills in that
topic can be developed. Plenary session to bring this together.
7. Who is responsible for skills and competency development? What are the responsibilities
of a) the employer b) the individual c) the Univer
sity, d) the Adult Education College e) the
secondary schools f) Professional associations and Trades Unions and g) who else has a
responsibility? This may be done in small groups each taking a different organisation.
Group Leaders Toolkit
large technical base
In 1990, the
Foundation carried out a survey taken of the future skills
requirements of the Fortune 500 list of the world’s top companies produced the
order of importance.
9. Goal Setting/Motivation
3. Interpersonal Skills
4. Oral Communication
11. Organizational Development
7. Creative Thinking
c) Skills and competencies table
Core Competencies for the Lifelong Learning Age
Knowing one's learning style,
Being open to new learning techniques and
ng to learn with self
Seeing the connection between theory and
Transferring knowledge into action
Being continuously aware of changes
Continually wanting to improve proc
Never being satisfied with the status quo
Setting realistic personal targets
Recognising the gap between the current
and the target and understanding how to fill
Continuously developing personal skills
Collecting, storing, analysing and combining
Using information technology
xpressing oneself clearly orally and
in formal and informal situations
Listening to oth
Sharing information and knowledge,
Receiving information and knowledge
Participating in goal
Achieving common goals
Creativity and innovation
Facing change with confidence
ing to the new situations and tasks
Being ready to change personal direction
Continuously upgrading personal skills and
Cherishing the habit of learning
d) Tables and graphs on skills needs
can you please look
for these on the internet
OECD is probably the best site but
there are many others based on national education ministries eg DFEE in UK)
Employment and Employability
Notes for Group Leaders
(Please also see 'Lifelong Learni
64 and 'making Lifelong
Learning Work' chapters 3 and 5)
Quotation from Book.
'The concept of work is constantly changing. An individual not only has several jobs in a
lifetime, but may also have several careers. Therefore, everybody needs continu
and upgrading of skills and competence throughout working life'
(European Round Table of Industrialists)
1. Lifetime employment in one company is no longer possible for most people. Down
and outsourcing are the phrases of the moment.
2. Charles Handy coined the equation 1/2x2x3 to describe the working future
It means that
companies will employ half the staff that they do at present, pay them twice as much and
expect three times the productivity.
3. Other practices likely to go are
the annual milk round trawl by industry to universities
industry is likely to find other ways of assessing talent and earlier. (cf footballers)
4. Core staff in industry will be innovative, adaptable and highly educated. Lifelong Learning is
al value they will adopt.
5. The companies to which the work is outsourced will also need to be nimble, innovative and
entrepreneurial. Lifelong Learning is also the essential value.
6. This puts pressure on every individual to make him/herself employabl
e through constant
learning and pressure on employing organisations to provide the support systems which
enables this to happen.
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. Discuss down
sizing, outsourcing and the equation 1/2 x 2 x 3 with the class. What are
2. Get each individual to write down 4 actions which will make him/her more employable.
Discuss these in a plenary session.
3. Put the Case study in the toolkit in front of the class. Discuss what this means a) as a
vehicle for creatin
g employability b)for large companies c) for SMEs and d) for your own
is it transferable and if so how? If not what are the creative alternatives?
Group Leader's toolkit
A Case Study for creating employability
is a resource
sharing example, quoted in the European Round Table of Industrialists
book on job creation, involves collaboration between large and small companies and local
government employment offices in the Netherlands. Here, small and medium sized
panies have difficulties in training their own people. They rarely have the resources to
seek or train recruits. So, in order to address this problem, the Philips company makes room
in its Dutch divisions to give a year's work experience to 800 long term
mostly into 4 categories:
those with no, or the wrong, qualifications
entering the labour market,
foreign nationals who need training or re
The students are chosen in cooperation with the loc
al labour office, and between them they
match the training to the current and future demands of local companies. So far over 7,500
long term unemployed have been trained and about 80% of the trainees find paid jobs after
their training. In addition, SMEs
acquire new staff who are immediately productive. One
interesting aspect of the course is that it is essentially a learning by doing experience
concentrating on satisfying the future, as well as the present, market
place. The company
maintains that the pr
ogramme does not cost very much to run. The number of work
experience places is set at 2% of the regular Philips payroll staff in the Netherlands.
Partnerships for Learning
Notes for Group Leaders
(See also 'Lifelong Learning' Pp 64/65 a
nd Making Lifelong
Learning Work' chapters 2, 3 and 5)
This module deals primarily with partnerships between industry and higher education to
enable learning to take place in both. However, it is noted that other partnerships exist
l government, schools and other organisations in the community. These are
dealt with in their respective chapters. In particular there are excellent Case studies of
industry relationships in module 4.
Quotation from Book
'Dialogue between industr
y and higher education needs to be maintained and strengthened,
working towards new modes of partnerships with clear goals and actions. If Higher Education
industry relationships are to thrive they must be based on a clear understanding of the nature
gher education and business. Aims and objectives are best shared when the partners
respect the differences in the primary functions of business and higher education.'
(European Commission 1992)
1. An increasing number of large companies is outsourcing its
competitive general and
management education requirements to specialist organisations, some of them universities.
2. Small and medium sized enterprises often do not have an education department and are
reliant on external sources for keeping staff u
3. Both these have led to the establishment of small specialist education companies and
consultancies offering a range of courses and educational opportunities, in addition to those
offered by more traditional learning provides such as universiti
es and colleges.
4. The problem for large and mall both is how to select appropriate organisations which will
not charge the earth to provide such education and how to transmit their requirements.
5. Those companies following the learning organisation (
see module 8) route have an extra
that of persuading many of their employees to take education at all
themselves into the habit of learning.
house large company training in the past has been delivered to a set of well
ity control guidelines with constant feedback from the student and regular updates by the
7. Most companies wishing to continue such quality control over the education they are
paying for will want to create close partnerships with the
appropriate organisations. In some
cases there is an exchange of staff.
8 Such partnerships with universities, adult and further education colleges etc are burgeoning,
but there is a need to know on both sides what the rules are.
9. An additional dimen
sion is the extent to which principles of corporate social responsibility
and educational donations can be used to reduce the educational requirement for courses
supplying expertise and advice which increases the level of understanding and commitment
e entry point.
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. Small group exercise to identify the types of inter
organisational activity which might
enhance a University
Industry partnership. Plenary to bring them all together. Item a) of the
toolkit identifies a fe
w as examples
2. Use the quotation shown in part b) of the toolkit as discussion stimulators
3. What are the requirements of a good partnership between companies and other
organisations? In small groups and then plenary put up a list at the front. Compar
e it with the
diagram in part c) of the toolkit.
4. Use the 5 examples of University
Industry Cooperation to stimulate discussion in the group.
Ask the group to quote additional examples
there are thousands and then to debate
whether these methods with
highly motivated people would work with those less motivated.
Group Leaders Toolkit
a) University Industry Partnership cooperation examples.
i) Participation of industry people on university academic and decision
making Boards and
rticipation of University people on Company Boards and advisory panels
iii) Involvement of company training staff in university curriculum development
iv) People mobility between the organisations for short or longer periods of time.
by practitioners in each organisation.
vi) Attachments for course preparation in each organisation
vii) Common quality control guidelines.
viii) Internships for students prior to or during the course of study
ix) Involvement of students in research project
s sponsored by industry
x) Sandwich courses in both organisations.
i) After centuries of mutual scepticism and distrust, university continuing education
departments are developing tailored courses in collaboration with industry, for deliver
y in one
or both organizations. The outsourcing policies of large corporations for example have
presented opportunities for universities to take over large parts of the delivery of pre
competitive courses for industry. The Southampton University Management
example, negotiated with IBM UK to deliver several thousand student hours to IBM personnel.
Making Lifelong Learning work)
ii) Such partnerships break down stereotypes, provide work experience, share research,
provide new resourc
es and insights and can furnish good learning experiences. Only the
more dogmatic of people on both sides find a reason to refuse to cooperate. Companies
provide educational resources on the internet, help with curriculum development, and make
ces available to educational organisations.
iii) Not all partnerships are based on philanthropy and altruism. In many cases, there is a
large element of self
interest, but where the objectives of the company coincide with those of
its partner, and contro
l of the project is properly established, it can become a win
for both. Business has much to teach the schools about teamwork, learning, management,
evaluation, the use of equipment, motivation, the world of work and many other subjects.
erly organized and controlled, and given a genuine two
way interaction there is a wealth
Making LL Work)
Engines of Organisational Change
1. Partnerships should provide benefits for a
ll partners. A one
way flow of
information or service will lead to a loss of motivation
2. Partnerships should involve as many people as possible in the respective
organisations in its activities
All people in the organisations should be informed abo
ut the partnership's
objectives and progress
People in the organisations should be free to suggest
partnership and its activities
5. Each partnership should have clear objectives and goals, with time
scales and benchmarks for a
6. At least one high level person from each organisation should be
responsible for ensuring the success of the partnership
7. Regular meetings of the partnership should be held, at least once per term
8. The partnership should have
a manager with secretarial support and
ownership of making it happen
9. Partnership management should be pro
active, encouraging people to
contribute and participate
10. The partnership should be celebrated as frequently as appropriate to
est and commitment
The NETTUNO Consortium is a partnership between higher education institutions, companies
and TV channels in the Naples area. It uses the sort of technical and pedagogical resources
which can give students
the ownership of their own learning at their own pace and according
to their own needs. Courses and curricula are developed jointly by University lecturers and
company experts and are delivered through a variety of means
satellite TV, video
, multimedia software and distance teaching. They can be accessed at home, in
the university, on company premises
wherever the learner requires it. Tutoring facilities are
available through video
conferencing. This is an excellent example of university i
cooperation in course development and delivery tailored to the needs of the user.
In 1988 Shell began cooperating with Henley College to organize a continuing programme in
business and management studies for young technically
potential managers. Using a
modular approach and distance
learning material that is Shell
based or Shell
programme is run by Henley College, but uses Shell personnel as outside speakers and leads
to an internationally acknowledged MBA. Partici
pants study while they hold full
time jobs, but
are allowed to use 21 days of company time for workshops and examinations. In addition, the
employees contribute eleven days of their own time.
Pilkington bases its tailor
made management de
velopment programme on an integrated
system of education, training and practice at each level. The programme for trainee
managers, for example, consists of four elements: in
company courses accredited by an
institute of higher education, external courses,
distance learning using Open University
materials, and a "live project" requiring new skills to be used on current Pilkington issues. The
distance learning is the sole responsibility of the adult student. The four elements are
combined and certified by She
ffield Business School for the junior manager's programme and
by other business schools and universities for programmes for more senior managers.
Nokia in 1987 began a major educational drive, cooperating with several universities to supply
loyees in technical jobs with programmes towards master's and doctoral degrees. The
universities provide the teachers and outside speakers, and tailor the courses and research
projects using Nokia
selected subjects. Classes are given partly during work
rs in the
workplace, using video
conferencing to reach the diverse locations. Nokia pays all the costs.
The programme proved so successful that several companies and educational institutions in
Finland have followed the example. Since the Nokia programme b
egan in 1987, the number
of postgraduate degrees in the applied sciences in Finland has almost doubled.
National Technological University
The National Technological University takes state of the art technical courses from several American
and beams them directly to industrial sites right across the United States. It uses a candid
camera technique of putting the camera in the classroom with the regular students and provides a
Masters degree programme across a wide range of disciplines. Tutor
ing is local on the company site
and via email to university lecturers. Using channel splitting technology, several courses can be
transmitted from the same transponder and companies reckon that this method of training their high
level personnel not only c
uts costs dramatically but saves them the trouble of finding expertise
themselves. Degree award ceremonies are also carried out by satellite links. EuroPACE, its European
equivalent, also delivered high level courses from Universities to Industry by this m
ethod with the
additional option of a computer conferencing system for course participants. However, this folded in
the early 1990s largely because satellite costs in Europe were almost 8 times those of the USA, channel
splitting was illegal in some countr
ies and corporations stopped paying during a time of recession.
7.Auditing Learning Needs
Auditing Learning needs
Notes for the Group Leader
(see also ‘Lifelong Learning Pp 65
67 and ‘Making Lifelong
Learning Work Chapter 4)
‘There is a par
ticular challenge for manufacturing and service industries and business. It is to
recognise and act upon the strong relationship between learning investment and profit. Large
and small firms alike should entrust the role of ‘champion of company learning’ t
o a named
board director to provide leadership, while ensuring that the learning culture is embedded
throughout the company’
(Action Agenda on Lifelong Learning
1. This topic deals with the commitment a company can make to the learning of all its
s by finding out their learning requirements and helping to satisfy them from many
2. This is based on a learning audit, a method adopted by the European Lifelong Learning
Initiative to discover the learning needs of all a company’s employee lear
3. The suggestions and toolkit below gives guidelines about carrying out such a study. It is not
expected that a company would satisfy all the learning requirements of its employees, but it
may wish to negotiate with learning providers in the
locality a) to carry out the audit and b) to
act upon the results.
4. Local Authorities would also be interested in the results to help in their planning.
5. In the Learning Audit carried out by ELLI, data was entered into an excel spreadsheet and
, charts and graphs produced for management action.
6. One addition to Learning Audits will be the dimension of what the respondees can
contribute to the learning of others.
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. Small group discussions to establish the need
for learning. Use the quotations in the toolkit
2. Role play
get the group to interview each other
find out each others learning needs.
Followed by a plenary
what questions did they ask? Make a list on the board or flip chart
end the problem to whole populations. Your group is easy and committed to learning
what questions do we ask to those who are not? What additional things would they need?
Use the toolkit guidelines under item b) to help
4. Hand out copies of the diagram
get the group to devise a learning audit, based on
this can be done as a shared task. If available a piece of software like
‘Question Mark’ can be very helpful
this will entail some teaching about how to use the
his can be a very valuable practical exercise to be used externally in their own
5. Look at the papers section. ‘Question’ was the first learning audit used by ELLI. Print it out
and get the group to complete the questionnaire in pairs, one
acting as the interviewer and
then exchanging roles. Discuss afterwards. Then give members the opportunity to update
6. Look at the papers section again. ‘Audit’ is the report of the Skills Europe project,
describing the methodology,
content and results of the Learning Audit in 4 countries. Ask the
class to read and comment.
7. Introduce a discussion on how audits can be extended to find out what and how people can
contribute to the learning of others
it doesn’t have to be content
a ‘learning mentor’ could
contribute information, emotional support, advice and many other things.Would this
strengthen a commitment to learning in the mentor? What happens when everyone is learning
mentor for someone else? Further modification of the qu
8. What are the group’s views on how to administer Learning Audits? If they are not from
Industry ask them to modify the questionnaire to suit a particular target audience.
Group Leaders Toolkit
The successful expansion o
f workplace learning to all will have to be based on a broad,
inclusive policy framework which:
develops learning skills and widens participation
updates and enhances skills, competence and knowledge within a continuing learning culture
ion and progression of learning
encourages the development of centres of learning in the workplace
is supported by incentives such as funding and a proper structure
is developed in partnership with the stakeholders
establishes links with family and commun
links into programmes of work experience for the unemployed’
ii) ‘There is a particular challenge for manufacturing and service industries and business. It is
to recognise and act upon the strong relationship between learning
investment and profit.
Large and small firms alike should entrust the role of ‘champion of company learning’ to a
named board director to provide leadership, while ensuring that the learning culture is
embedded throughout the company’’
(Action Agenda on L
Industry cannot satisfy the learning needs of workers without knowing what they are. Only
when the company knows the extent of the need, and in a learning organisation it will be a
rapidly growing need, can it provide the infrastruc
tures to satisfy its employees. The number
of unexpressed, and therefore unsatisfied, needs is probably as much as five times the range
of satisfied needs. The learning audit carried out by the European Lifelong Learning Initiative
in 1995 bears out this t
hesis. Fifty percent of the people interviewed had never before been
asked what their learning needs are. In many cases it was believed that they had none. In the
event the very asking produced an explosion of unsuspected, unfulfilled learning dreams.
Making Lifelong Learning Work)
Good employers look after the employability, as well as the employment, of their
workforce. They provide employees with information about future job requirements and
competence needs, encourage people to pursue
learning outside of work and organize
opportunities to study by bringing universities and educational institutions to the workplace.
They support studies financially and reward educational achievement, using learning
counsellors and encouraging the use of
personal learning plans
Guidelines for creating Learning Audit
i) Take into account the whole learning needs of the individual
work leisure, life
ii) Always explain why you are carrying out the questionnaire and wh
at use will be made of
iii) Word it in such a way that it is a participation exercise by the interviewee
iv) Personal interview by sympathetic outsider for confidentiality and interest
v) Make results available to all
vi) Ask advice and opinion
both in the questions and in the interview.
vii) Put in ‘leads’
information asking for opinion followed by questions related to the
viii) Make it easy to enter data
ix) Choose manageable populations
the ELLI project was carried out in
companies of 50
x) Ask everyone in the population not just some
xi) Ask about the past as well as the present and the future
xii) Put questions into the context of everyday life issues eg employment in the future
questionnaire becomes a de
tailed personal discussion about the world as he/she sees it.
xiii) Ask questions which encourage self
xiv) Encourage observations
eg about the company
xv) Include dreams as well as facts
Learning Audits Topics and Content
Learning Audits T
opics and Content
Opinions on its relevance
in and out of the company
Your Past Experiences
Why should I learn
can I learn?
What is there to learn
Opinions on Learning
Who should pay
Your present requirements
8. Adult Accreditation
Notes for Group Leaders
‘It is no longer sufficient to learn
and qualify in the early part of a career and then seek to
make a living out of that process for a further 40 or 50 years’
Learning for Life)
1. This topic explores the needs of industry for a qualification and accreditation system for
2. A deeper discussion of qualifications, assessment and evaluation generally is carried out in
modules 3 and 6. This deals with the accreditation of adults, who generally need more
flexibility than the state systems allow.
3. Recognition a
nd reward are strong motivating factors for many learning adults. The piece
of paper or the addition to the pay
packet (preferably both) act as a great incentive.
4. Some universities and other adult education organisations are beginning to develop
r courses for people in companies and yet others are offering such courses at distance
to satisfy the increased mobility of many employees.
5. Similarly in some countries, new vocational qualifications have been developed eg NVQs
and GNVQs in the UK. But
there is little outside the traditional qualifications for adults.
Future World and Life
Future Learning Needs
Who is responsible for your
Need for Qualificat
Leisure and work learning
Your future needs
6. There is little cooperation to recognise qualifications internationally. ECTIS is a European
organisation established to do this. Sometimes the problem is ‘not invented here’ for a goo
new system, sometimes it is cultural incompatibility.
7. Some progress is also being made on the ‘Learning Passport’
a personal booklet which
shows the individual’s qualifications, thus allowing Lifelong Learners to transport their
knowledge and skill
s from region to region.
8. Smart cards are also coming into vogue and are being used in a variety of ways to market
learning, to store data, to offer discounts for quantity learning etc
even to link to the award
of other promotional offers with rewards
9. While this topic may be outside the mainstream of industry preoccupations, it will not get
the qualification system it needs, to turn on its employees to learning unless it cooperates with
the accreditation bodies. For this it needs knowledge itself.
It is not a minor issue in a Lifelong
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. The group leader is asked to initiate discussions on 2 aspects of accreditation
a) The role of industry itself in helping to create the conditions under which its em
be accredited for 3 populations
i) leading edge scientists and technical workers
ii) managers developing their personal skills
iii) people who are not switched onto lifelong learning
What are the accreditation needs of each? How can they be br
ought into being? Is something
new needed or can an existing system be modified?
The Quotations in the toolkit in item a) may be of assistance
b) Assessment of Prior Experiential Learning
The quotations in item b) may help to explain this. There are many
internet examples in
addition to the scheme described in iv)
Group Leader’s Toolkit
. ‘The following features are important bases for Lifelong Learning:
the modularity of studies
so that they can be more flexibly attuned to the needs of
the availability of education and training from multiple sources and through a variety of
the possibility to accredit all studies
irrespective of where the course is taken
the transfer of credits throughout Europe
ce the design of credible evaluation
study plans for each individual
based on personal need
faceted cooperation between training providers and industry’
(European Round Table of Industrialists)
‘Recognition and reward act as great mot
ivators for learning, and most people want some
acknowledgement of their personal investment in learning’
‘there is little room for belief that the current system of SAT scores, Bacs, GCSE, Abiturs,
I.B.s etc does any
more than test a good memory and the ability to use certain parts of the left
hemisphere. Further, failure is writ large into the whole system, success for an increasing few
being dependent on failure for a decreasing, but still, many.’
ng Lifelong Learning Work)
'the effects of bad practice (in assessment) are more potent than for any aspect of
teaching. Students can, with difficulty, escape from the effects of poor teaching; they cannot
escape the effects of poor assessment. Assess
ment acts as a mechanism to control students
that has more effect on students than most teachers or administrators are prepared to
(UNEVOC study on Technical and Vocational Education)
v) ‘Examinations, sir, are pure humbug from beginning to
end. If a man is a gentleman, he
knows quite enough, and if he is not a gentleman, whatever he knows is bad for him.
The Picture of Dorian Gray)
A new assessment vision would predicate a national system of education which
ate development, interpersonal competencies and different approaches to
learning, and which values equally practical/vocational and academic achievement. It would
focus on the improvement of personal performance rather than efforts to prove it inadequate.
It would be as applicable to adults in industry as to other parts of the system. It would use
examinations as part of a continuous learning situation rather than a terminal point in a period
of learning, and an opportunity for educators to say 'gotcha'.
Making Lifelong Learning Work)
vii)Some are born with knowledge, some derive it from study, and some acquire it only after a
painful realization of their ignorance. But the knowledge being possessed, it comes to the
same thing. Some study with
a natural ease,some from a desire for advantages, and some by
strenuous effort. But the achievement being made, it comes to the same thing.
Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius)
‘New delivery technologies, smart
cards and learning passports take away the time
space constraints in present systems…….A potential student should be able to define the
content and methodology of a course of study with a personal tutor and agree the credit rating
for it. This is then posted into a database such that a variety of tu
tors can advise, teach and
accredit. In practice most students will stay with the same tutor, but there should be the option
to change on grounds of mobility or incompatibility. The student who believes that he or she
has studied enough to achieve the stan
dard and wishes to prove it should then be allowed to
do so within a period of time
one week being normal
at any of the organizations accrediting
the vast increase in Corporate Universities based on multinational companies
Aerospace, Motorola and the Disney Corporation to mention just a few
offers the prospect of
much greater competition in the years ahead, to which the universities will need to respond.
Standards at many of these are high, and degree courses are
normally taught jointly by
University and Company lecturers, and accredited accordingly. Disney Managers for example
receive courses via satellite from places like Carnegie Mellon University, Babson and the
highly regarded Wharton School of Business.
Assessment of Prior Experiential Learning
i) ‘Assessment of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) might be simply described as giving
credit for learning gained from work and life experiences. For a variety of reasons, many of
adult students do not have
the qualifications to enter the courses, but they have acquired
knowledge and skills gained from years of working and living. A system such as APEL looks
at ways of formally recognising such learning. It takes away more than one of the barriers to
frequently quoted in polls and surveys, by potentially making it less expensive,
providing initial encouragement and self
worth and by ensuring a better use of public funds.
Making Lifelong Learning work)
ii) 'There should be an extensive pr
ogramme to develop the capacity of educational
institutions to assess skills. Once sufficiently standardized and high
quality facilities have
been put in place, a system should be developed from the network of educational institutions
or parts of it to pro
vide private citizens with generally acknowledged certificates or diplomas
on their skills in relation to the certification system. It is a public recognition of previously
acquired knowledge which forms a necessary part of the programme for raising the
owledge and skills level of adults with the weakest educational background’ '
(Finnish National Strategy)
‘In practice, APEL is much more complex activity than would initially seem to be the case.
It strikes at the heart of education's current pre
cupation with assessment as a means of
preventing people from taking education, and this is supported by some sections of the press
as a process of 'dumbing down' educational achievement’
iv) ‘The American Council on Education operates the PONS
I programme which offers
recommendations for the accreditation of non
college training courses. Its purpose is to help
individuals to obtain academic credit for formal workplace learning and translate these into
college credits. Assessment teams of experts
in the various subject areas examine learning
achievement. ACE/PONSI publishes credit
recommended courses in the National Guide to
Educational Credit for Training Programs, a standard reference tool used by USA Colleges
and Universities to award credit fo
r workplace education and training.’
(American Council on Education.)
9. Information Strategies
Notes for the Group Leader
1. Most workplaces have strategies for giving information to the employees for whom they are
Some of them include suppliers and customers. This topic looks at those
information strategies which will increase the incidence of learning in the workplace.
2. An information strategy should be holistic. Openness and honesty demand that there
t be a separate set of information actions for customers, employees, suppliers and
shareholders. This is particularly true with reference to learning information.
3. The lifelong learning workplace articulates its vision to everyone involved. This is one
ten commandments of the Learning Organisations (see module on Learning Organisations).
The vision itself needs to be followed up by learning experiences in which the employees can
feed back their interpretation of the vision and suggest improvements
4. The empowerment of the workforce means a much stronger information policy
it has to
communicate what needs to be known, what needs to done and what needs to be learned
and of course why all these are important to everyone involved with the workpl
ace. That is not
an easy task.
5. In a flat hierarchy situation in which managers are now mentors, discussing learning
opportunities for the people for whom they are responsible as well as performance issues,
information flows sideways as well as downward
6. In this situation everyone, and not just the information and communications department is
responsible for giving, receiving, analysing and discussing information. They are learning
7. Where electronic communication systems exist (most
workplaces) forums should be
established to allow feedback, discussion and the initiation of new information by all people in
the workforce. Where they do not, special verbal and written feedback facilities should be
present. Both systems should be establ
ished in a learning context.
learning from each
other, learning from management, learning from case studies and examples, learning from
doing the job. (cf Rover’s 3
‘everyone has two jobs
the job and
improving the job.’
panies should be careful to ensure that essential information is received and
understood. A message communicated is not always a message received and/or understood.
9. The Learning ladder (see module xx topic xx) also gives a clue to information quality.
information, knowledge or understanding that is being passed on? How to enable employees
to climb the ladder is a major task for information departments.
10. Information is an essential part of the job of the Learning Counsellor in the workplace (se
module 6 topic 3). It will include external as well as internal sources.
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. In pairs get each person to describe to each other where he/she gets information from in
the workplace, how it is communicated, the extent to whic
h they have feedback facilities, how
much info is received and a guess on how much is missed.
2. Follow this up in plenary to make a list of the issues involved in workplace information
strategies. The quotations in item a) of the toolkit may help. Throw
the into the discussion as
necessary to stimulate new thoughts. Continue to discuss and list the sources of information
within the workplace, how it is communicated and who are the people responsible for
initiating and processing it.
3. Look at the Lea
rning Ladder in module 6 and carry out recommended exercises or your
own to illustrate the point about quality of information. Ask the group to tell their neighbours
on each side one piece of information they have received today that they did not have
erday and ask for an incidence of the furthest point they have climbed the ladder at any
one time during the past day.
4. Similarly, if this has not already been done, introduce the idea of the learning counsellor
from module 6 as a passer on of learning
information. In module 6 the emphasis is on
schools, though it is said that a learning counsellor should be equally at home in the
play in pairs a Learning Counsellor session. Afterwards in small groups ask
people to write a job description
for a Learning Counsellor in a company. (cf quotation i)
below.) Discuss in plenary.
5. Group members should search individually on the web some examples of workplace
information home pages. How much information is there about company communication and
earning strategies for its employees?
Group Leader’s Toolkit
'Large companies should have their own lifelong learning counsellors, who can initiate
cooperation and collaboration with universities and advise employees about Continuing
(European Round Table of Industrialists
Lifelong Learning in Industry)
ii) ‘In Learning and Growing, a monthly company magazine for all employees, workers are
encouraged to develop new skills, whether for the job or not, past learning succes
celebrated and some of the opportunities to learn and grow are described. 'Open your Mind' it
suggests, 'and your eyes and ears and your senses, and we will support and encourage you
to expand your knowledge in work and personal development.’
s information sheet)
‘Good companies and employers look after the employability of their work force. They
provide employees with information about future job requirements and competence needs,
encourage them to pursue continuing education aside of t
heir work and even organize
opportunities to study by bringing universities and educational courses to the work sites, by
supporting studies financially, and by rewarding educational achievements. Good companies
can also provide study counselling and assis
t people to make personal Lifelong Learning
10. Education Technology
Education technology for all audiences is dealt with in Module 9. Please go there if wishing to
include in this module
1. Managing Survival
1. Managing Survival
Notes for Group Leaders
(see also Pp 57
59 in ‘Lifelong Learning’ and Part 1 of ‘Making
lifelong Learning Work’
a) Quotation from Book
‘The need for a learning society to convert and compete is not just urgent.
It is a matter of
social success or disaster. It is a matter of Survival’ (Tony Cann
in ‘Bringing Learning to
So what is different about competition? What are the new pressures? How can they be met?
This section of the module examines the issues
concerning change, globalisation and
1. Fierce industrial competition increases the need for learning
2. New ‘Tiger’ economies from Pacific Rim ahead of many in the old industrialised world
present problems will create an even greater need
3. Especially so in times of slump
only the fittest will survive.
4. Plans and Strategies therefore have to be long
term as well as short
term, and take into
account the unknown as well as the known.
5. Additional pressures produced by:
) Environmental concerns (see Module 1)
b) Changes in work skills (see toolkit below)
c) New management structures in the move towards Learning Organisations (see
d) Workforce empowerment and learning strategies (see P 59 in ‘Lifelong Learnin
and module 7)
Suggestions for Group Leaders
1. Refer back to discussion on the effect of globalisation in previous section
if the exercise
was not carried out
do it here. Concentrate particularly on the workplace.
2. Discuss what the group un
derstands by ‘empowerment’
3. Get the group to interpret the tables in the toolkit either in small group sessions or as a
Group Leader’s Toolkit.
here we need some tables, charts, diagrams etc to show how world trade
over the past ten years.
particularly on developing countries output like
Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil etc)