Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture

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Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Urban and Peri
-
urban Agriculture

Sustainable Food Production Issues
for the 21
st

Century

LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio

Fall 2011

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Glossary of Agricultural
Terms

USDA



United States Department of Agriculture

Conventional Cultivation


as defined by the USDA,
the use of chemical inputs to maximize agricultural
production to provide healthy safe and cost efficient food
stuffs for the American public.

Organic Cultivation
-

as owned by the United States
Government, organic is a labeling term that indicates
that the food or other agricultural product has been
produced through approved methods that integrate
cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster
cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and
conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage
sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be
used.
Learn more
.

Chemical Free Cultivation


as defined by the
European Union and the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, the use of natural
minerals and organic carbon sources for food
production.

Sustainable Agriculture



Sustainable

production
practices involve a variety of methods. Specific
strategies take into account topography, soil
characteristics, climate, pests, local availability of inputs
and the individual grower's goals.

Urban Agriculture
-

the growing of plants and the
raising of animals within and around cities.
Learn more
.

Local Food


as defined by
Slow Foods International
is
less than 300 miles.




LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

On the Farm


Valentine Hill Farm an
Overview

LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm


Valentine Hill Farm

Valentine Hill Farm.

Our goal is to provide
healthy, locally grown
and produced, chemical
free foods for you and
your family.

The Bakery at Valentine
Hill Farm


We specialize in growing chemical
free vegetables and fruit on our farm
and producing artisan bakery products
in our bakery.


We also provide membership
opportunities in our Community
Supported Agriculture (CSA) services.


We exceed the
USDA National
Organic Program

standards through
sustainable chemical free farming
practices.


To insure the health of the land for
this generation and future generations
and we strive to do so with the
smallest possible carbon footprint.


We pledge non
-
GMO and chemical
free.


We use100% certified organic
ingredients.

Mission of Valentine Hill Farm


Located in southeastern Boone
County, Zionsville, Indiana


Serving the greater Indianapolis
metropolitan area since 2005


Using ecologically sustainable
agricultural practices


Preparing and educating
farmers, educators and students
for optimal local food production



LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Business Strategies

How to meet the bills

Organic Certification

Business Costs

Living Costs

Savings and Cash Flow

Commodity Prices

What to Grow

How To Grow

Where to Grow

Other Income Centers, Farmers Markets

Agritourism

Workshops

Educational Sessions

Bed and Breakfast

Internships

Externships

Classes and Tours

Value Added Products

Bakery

Lectures

Education






Income

LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Cultivation Strategies

Site Conditions

Topography

Soil Types

Soil Fertility

Soil Chemistry

Access and Equipment

Sun Study

Wind Pattern

Soil Moisture

Climate Data

Cultivation Types

Low Density

Medium Density

High Density

Cropping Types

Monoculture

Mixed single family species

Plant or animal or mixed

Specialty Cash

Truck or Subsistence

Sustainable (optimal) Conventional (maximal)



LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Why Urban Farming

Food Safety

Large scale operations for plant and
animal production and finishing is
susceptible to breakdown and loss of
adequate food production

Increased number of stops along the
supply chain results in a loss of
custody

Consumer Demand

Fear that contaminated food is
everywhere

Uncertain about the safety and quality of
the food being sold

Higher exposure to a wider variety of
food products

Cosmopolitan and cultural diversity
increasing in smaller market areas

Transportation Costs

Increasing dependency on large farm
operations (CAFO) isolated and
removed from major markets



Why Change Farming
Locations?

LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Food Production Issues

Affordable

Population Density

Production Parcel Sizes

Climate Changes

Habitat Intrusions

Micro Weather Patterns

Plant and Animal Natural History and Cycles

Zoning Requirements

Land Use Planning

Local Economies

Local Regulation, Inspections and
Certifications

Consumer Education

Urban Ecology

Agricultural Ecology

Mixed Use Compatibility

Air Rights (Height restrictions)

Sun Rights

Water Rights




What to Think About

LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

At the Market

How has the outdoor shopping market
changed?

Still have local foods

Still have crowds

Still have seasons

Still have fun

Producer vs. reseller

Organic vs. conventional

Seasonal vs. year round

Focus on local production vs. nationwide

Are there Design Standards for a
market?

Minimal Design Standards specifically for
farmers markets standards are
controlled by local jurisdiction and
inspection

Most design elements are up to the
designer

LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Bibliography and Readings for Urban Ecology,
Urban Farming and Design


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Urban Farming Planning Readings

American Planning Association. (2007).
Policy guide on community and regional food planning
. Retrieved from
http://www.bracrtf.com/documents/APAPolicyGuide
-
CommunityandRegionalFoodPlanning.pdf


Balmer, K., Gill, J., Kaplinger, H., Miller, J., Peterson,M., Rhoads, A., …Wall, T. (2005).
The diggable city:Making urban agriculture a planning priority
. Nohad A.Toulan
School of Urban Studies and Planning.Retrieved from
http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=122587


Bingen, J., Colasanti, K., Fitzpatrick, M., & Nault, K.(2009). Urban agriculture. In L. Phoenix (Ed.),
Critical food issues: Problems and state
-
of
-
the
-
art solutionsworldwide
(pp. 109

122)
.
Santa Barbara, CA: ABCCLIO,LLC.


Brown, K. & Jameton, A. (2000). Public health implications of urban agriculture.
Journal of Public Health Policy, 21
(1), 20

39. oi:10.2307/3343472


Campbell, M. C. (2004). Building a common table: The role for planning in community food systems. Journal

of Planning Education and Research, 23
(4)
,
341

55.
doi:10.1177/0739456X04264916


City of Flint Zoning Ordinance. Article II. Chapter 50:Zoning, A
-
1: Single
-
Family Low Density District,
§
50
-
17: Principle Permitted Uses, p. 26. Flint,
MI.Retrieved from
http://www.ci.flint.mi.us/Planning/ZONING_ORD.pdf


Conner, D., Montri, A. D., Montri, D. N., & Hamm, M.W. (2009). Consumer demand for local produce at extended season farmers’
mar
kets: Guiding farmer

marketing strategies.
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 24
(4), 251

259.doi:10.1017/S1742170509990044

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Bibliography and Readings for Urban Ecology,
Urban Farming and Design


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Heller, M. & Keoleian, G. (2003). Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective.
Agricultural Systems, 76
(3), 1001

1041.
doi:10.1016/S0308
-
521X(02)00027
-
6


Urban Farming Business Readings

Kaufman, J. & Bailkey, M. (2000). Farming inside cities: Entrepreneurial urban agriculture in the United States. Working pape
r,
Lincoln Institute of Land

Policy, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved from
http://www.urbantilth.org/wp
-
content/uploads/2008/10/farminginsidecities.pdf


Morland, K., Wing S. B., Roux A. D., & Poole, C. (2002). Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food st
ore
s and food service places.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
,
22
(1),23

29


Pothukuchi, K., & Kaufman, J. (1999). Placing the food system on the urban agenda: The role of municipal institutions in food

sy
stems planning.
Agriculture and

Human Values, 16
, 213

24. doi:10.1023/A:1007558805953


Pothukuchi, K. & Wallace, R. (2009). Sustainable food systems: Perspectives on transportation policy. In Malkefzali, S. (Ed.)
,
Healthy, Equitable Transportation Policy:
Recommendations and Research
(pp. 113

130). Oakland, CA: PolicyLink.


U.S. Census Bureau. (1990). 1990 Census of Population and Housing: Population and housing unit counts. CPH
-
2
-
1. Retrieved from
www.census.gov/prod/cen1990/cph2/cph
-
2
-
1
-
1.pdf


U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). Median household income for states: 2007 and 2008 American Community Surveys. Retrieved from
http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/acsbr08
-
2.pdf

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Bibliography and Readings for Urban Ecology,
Urban Farming and Design


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Food
-
From Farm to Table 1982 Yearbook of Agriculture

by United States Department of Agriculture. (1982). United States Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C.


Urban Farming and Health Readings

Fighting Poverty and Hunger: What Role for Urban Agriculture?

Alberto Zezza and Luca TasciottiFAO ES
-
Policy
-
Briefs, August 2010.



For more information on FAO urban agriculture and policy briefs visit
http://www.fao.org/economic/es
-
policybriefs/briefs
-
detail/en/?no_cache=1&uid=45052


The Call of the Land: An Agrarian Primer for the 21
st

Century

by Steven McFadden. (2009). Nashville, IN: Norlights Press. 119 pp. $12.95, paperback. See
the book’s website at
thecalloftheland.wordpress.com
.


Ecology, Urban Environmental Challenges and Engineering Primers

Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity
by William Ophuls. (1977). W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, CA


Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural by

Donald Hammer. (1989). Lewis Publishers, Inc, Chelsea, MI


Ecological Engineering An Introduction to Ecotechnology
Edited by William Mitsch and Sven Erik Jørgensen. (1989). John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY


Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems Volume 1
Edited by John Cairns, Jr. (1988). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Bibliography and Readings for Urban Ecology,
Urban Farming and Design


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Ecology, Urban Environmental Challenges and Engineering Primers

Landscape Ecology
by Richard Forman and Michel Godron. (1986). John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY


René Dubos, 1976, Symbiosis Between the Earth and Humankind, Science 6 August 1976: Vol. 193 no. 4252 pp. 459
-
462 DOI: 10.1126/s
cience.193.4252.459
(
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/193/4252/459.citation
)


The Soil Resource Origin and Behavior Ecological Studies Number 37

by Hans Jenny. (1980). Springer
-
Verlag, New York, NY


Urban Soil in Landscape Design

by Phillip Craul. (1992). John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY


Storm Water Collection Systems Design Handbook

Edited by Larry Mays. (2001). McGraw Hill Companies, New York, NY


Design With Nature

by Ian McHarg. (1992). John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY


Route Location and Design Fifth Edition

by Thomas Hickerson. (1964). McGraw Hill Companies, New York, NY

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Bibliography and Readings for Urban Ecology,
Urban Farming and Design


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Electronic PDF Files Available from your Instructors


Family Farm
-
Owned Cooperative Grocery Stores Alternative Retailing Strategy for North America?
Copyright 2008 Duncan Hilchey, New Leaf
Associates, Inc. 295 Hook Place, Ithaca, NY 14850



Feeding the Region: Assessing Local Agricultural Productive Capacity to Meet Demand in Tompkins County, NY
Produced for the Tompkins
County Cornell Cooperative Extension Monika Roth, Agriculture & Horticulture Program Leader



The impact of green roof and green façade on urban agriculture
by Nazanin Nafici


Shared Harvest A Vision for a Sustainable, Organic Urban Farm in Arlington County, VA
ENVR E
-
105, Spring 2010 Strategies for Sustainability
Management Harvard University Extension School Environmental Management and Sustainability Dan Redmond
RedmondDK@mac.com

HUID # May 4,
2010

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Web Resources


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Food Commons is a proposed national network of physical, financial and organizational infrastructure that allows local and re
gio
nal markets to
operate efficiently and foodshed
-
based enterprises to cooperate, compete and thrive according to the principles of sustainabilit
y, fairness, and
public accountability. It is a whole systems approach to localized food economies that includes three integral components: 1)

Th
e Food
Commons Trust 2) The Food Commons Bank, and 3) The Food Commons Hub. For more information contact: Larry Yee
lkyee@ucdavis.edu

jimcochran50@hotmail.com

FOOD SYSTEM Wiki

A Collaboration of the
Department of Urban and Regional Planning

at the University of Wisconsin Madison and
AgDevONLINE
This Wiki and its companion annotated bibliography were initiated as a class project for Urban and Regional
Planning 711,
Markets and Food Systems
, at the University of Wisconsin


Madison and is administered by
AgDevONLINE
. This
Wiki aims to present a comprehensive guide to all food system and agriculture development

related terms. It is our hope that
these terms provide an accurate, normative overview of some everyday and some not
-
so
-
common phrases about this growing
field

The Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program and The Reinvestment Fund have
released a new online video and interactive map addressing the challenges of
making sure low
-
income neighborhoods have access to something most of us take
for granted

a supermarket. An estimated 2 million people do not live near a
supermarket, which makes it harder and more expensive for them to purchase
food and costs their communities millions of dollars in economic activity.

The
new video, “Getting to Market,”
describes why locating supermarkets in low
-
income communities is so important and what obstacles prevent this essential
economic development. The interactive map offers local stakeholders detailed
information on the opportunities for supermarket placement and area economic
development. The focus is on 10 metropolitan areas across the country.

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Web Resources


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Don't believe Land Grants are providing leadership and resources on local food systems? Have a look at what's going on in Nor
th
Carolina

A sample of some of their projects:

Farmhand Foods, LLC

A business development project geared toward scaling the supply of local, pasture
-
raised meats. (www.farmhandfoods.com)

WFI: Wayne Food Initiative

A community
-
based food initiative in Wayne County (www.waynefoods.org).

RTI
-
CSA

A workplace
-
supported agriculture initiative at Research Triangle Institute (www.rti.org/csa).

Farm to Fork Statewide Initiative

A yearlong exploration of action opportunities for building a local, sustainable food system (www.cefs.ncsu.edu/cefsfarmtofor
k/h
ome.html)
with stakeholders across the state.

Buy 10% Local Food Campaign

A public education initiative to encourage consumption of foods grown and raised in North Carolina.

SARE PDP Community
-
Based Food Systems Training

Six new local food projects now well underway in counties across the state after the first year of training. First
-
year project
teams are currently
training second
-
year project teams on building local food systems.

Sustainable Local Foods Advisory Council

A new statewide legislated body tasked to facilitate the development of a sustainable local food economy in North Carolina.


This report was developed with leadership from the C.S. Mott Group for
Sustainable Food System at Michigan State University, the Food Bank Council of
Michigan and the Michigan Food Policy Council. This report, along with the
others in the series, provides the foundation for the goals and agenda priorities put
forth in the Michigan Good Food Charter.



From the Introduction:
The good food problem we face is that most of the infrastructure
needed for local and regional markets, which are growing, has washed out over the years like
neglected roads and bridges. We have invested instead in building a superhighway to large
national and global markets for Michigan food and farm products. These investments came
primarily since the 1940s, when public and industry policy began to focus on producing food that
is, as one industry insider describes it, “fast, convenient and cheap,” and government and industry
leaders advised farms to “get big or get out.”

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Web Resources


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Urban Agriculture: Growing Healthy, Sustainable Places

By Kimberley Hodgson, Marcia Caton Campbell, and Martin Bailkey

Urban agriculture is rising steadily in popularity in the United States and Canada

there are stories in the popular press, it ha
s an increasingly
central place in the growing local food movement, and there is a palpable interest in changing urban environments to foster b
oth

healthier
residents and more sustainable communities. From community and school gardens in small rural towns and commercial farms in su
bur
bs to
rooftop gardens and bee
-
keeping operations in dense cities, urban agriculture is sprouting up across the country. This report pr
ovides
authoritative guidance for dealing with the opportunities and challenges faced by cities and counties of varying sizes, econo
mie
s, and locations in
supporting and expanding urban agriculture. Through case studies, the report illustrates the range of local government effort
s,
policies and
programs both emerging and in place, and reveals the differences among local governments in their approaches as they respond
to
the needs of
the urban agriculture community.

For more information about this new report, visit
http://planning.org/apastore/Search/Default.aspx?k=urban%20agriculture

Regional Food System Infrastructure

NEW REPORT from the National Association of Development Organizations
(NADO)

The Western North Carolina Regional Livestock Center under construction (photo courtesy of WNC
Communities)
Limited access to regional processing facilities, slaughterhouses, dairy
-
bottling plants, cold
-
storage
facilities, auction markets and distribution hubs hampers growth among small
-

and medium
-
size producers and limits their
ability to offer their products to the regional market at affordable prices. Facilities that are needed in many regions to
support regional food purchasing include shareduse or cooperative facilities such as processing, storage and distribution
facilities, commercial kitchens or kitchen incubators for small businesses, and mobile processing facilities. Many regional
development organizations (RDOs) and councils of governments are exploring how they can develop and support regional
food systems infrastructure. Promoting small
-

and mid
-
size agricultural operations offers numerous benefits to a region,
including sustained economic development, protection for regional farmland and rural landscapes, and reduced vehicle
miles traveled (VMT) and greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, sourcing food that is locally or regionally grown fosters a
better understanding of food safety and supply issues in case of foodborne illnesses or contamination

something that is
harder to trace in global food distribution networks. Finally, strengthening connections between regional farmers and area
consumers can advance community nutrition and healthy living programs, such as farm
-
to
-
school projects and initiatives
that support low
-
income populations, seniors and children. By developing partnerships with area farmers and other
stakeholders, RDOs can help to develop regional food systems infrastructure that will support economic development
initiatives and other program goals.

Contents of this digital presentation are covered by US and international Copyright 2011Valentine Hill Farm

Selected Web Resources


LA301 Housing and Community Planning Design Studio Fall 2011
www.valentinehillfarm.com

Kenyon College Food For Thought Program

Food for Thought
is an initiative to build a sustainable local market for foods produced in and around Knox County, Ohio. Directed by the
Rural Life Center at Kenyon College
, this collaborative effort is developing a countywide food system to enable area farmers to market their
products to individual consumers and institutional buyers, including schools, hospitals, restaurants, grocery stores, and cat
ere
rs. Food for
Thought benefits its community by: offering farmers a stable and profitable market for their products providing consumers wit
h h
ealthy, tasty,
and nutritious food educating the public about their food choices, farming, and local rural life keeping more of the $130 mil
lio
n in annual food
purchases within the county supporting independent businesses maintaining
green space
and rural character by sustaining family farms Email:
rurallife@kenyon.edu

Tel: +1
-
740
-
427
-
5850 The director of the Rural Life Center is Howard Sacks, senior advisor to the president and National
Endowment for the Humanities distinguished professor of sociology. Professor Sacks wrote a commentary in the JAFSCD Issue 1 V
olu
me 1
entitled

Why Aren’t There Any Turkeys at the Danville Turkey Festival?

This article includes a description of the innovations and
accomplishments of the Food for Thought program.