SNF- Kampala Turning Environmental Burdens into Livelihood ...

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Productive Urban Spaces and Indigenous Vegetables: policy dialogues and experiences
from Kampala

1.
Abstract


The irrevocable urbanizing trends of the world and developing
countries has led to municipalities and cities overwhelmed by the
need to find efficient, means of making urban life livable including
provision of food and employment to many urban dwellers
(Brockerhoff 2000; UN 2005). As a response to the trends, recent
literature highlights critical issues of special urban policy to deal
with urban poverty particularly in the developing world (Brockerhoff
2000; Enyedi 2003; IHDP 2005; Sánchez
-
Rodríguez, Seto et al.
2005). Urban and peri
-
urban agriculture has developed into a
topical research
-
policy issue gaining recognition.

2.
Need for Policy


Although urban agriculture policy recommendations are dotted in
urban literature, these policies have not been implemented or not
undergone comprehensive review. On this premise, policies are
not only a direct derivative from research recommendations but
rather a more inclusive process of action
-
research that engages
policy makers and all actors in urban and peri
-
urban agriculture
(Lwasa 2006). Policies are needed to respond to the revealed
needs of the urban populations including food requirements,
employment and income requirements as well as the
environmental challenges.

4.
Experiences in Kampala


Sustainable urban development strategies such as urban and peri
-
urban agriculture, which would ease urban poverty require to be
grounded in policies, regulations and laws. Kampala city recognized
this linkage and started on a process of reviewing policies and
ordinances to legalize and control urban agriculture (KUFSALCC,
Harvest et al. 2005). Bringing together different actors and
stakeholders, the process yielded policy statements and five sets of
ordinances including; Fish Ordinance, Livestock and Companion
Animal Ordinance, Meat Ordinance, Milk Ordinance, and the Urban
Agriculture Ordinance. Two lessons are worth noting: First, the
inclusion of policy makers in the process and secondly the
realization that municipalities can dynamically review policies The
greater benefit of the ordinances is the connection between food
and income security on one hand and environmental sustainability
on the other.

References


1.
Brockerhoff
, M. P. (2000). "
An Urbanizing World
."
Population Bulletin

55
(3): 48.

2.
Enyedi
, G. (2003).
The social sustainability of large cities
. International Conference on Social Science and Social Policy in the 21st Century, Vienna, ISSC.


3.
IDRC (2006).
Urban Poverty and Environment (UPE) Program. Linking environmental management, natural resource use, and urban poverty
. Ottawa, IDRC.
2006
.

4.
Lwasa S.,
Pulling the Strings for Policy; The urban bias and environmental challenges in Uganda
, IHDP Update, 3 No. 4, 2006

5.
Walter V. Reid, H. A. M., Angela Cropper, Doris Capistrano (2005).
Ecosystems and Human Well
-
Being.

Millennium Ecosystems Assessment
. A. W. Jose
Sarukhan
. Washington, World
Resource Institute
:
131.

6.
Urban Harvest, 2004, Identifying Market Opportunities for Urban and
Peri
-
Urban farmers in Kampala, Uganda



3.
The Place for Indigenous Vegetables; Kampala’ case


Urban Harvest (2004) conducted a market opportunities study and
among the eight selected agro
-
products were leafy vegetables which
ranked third. Reasons for selection included high demand,
intermittent supply due to reliance on rain fed production and
relatively small space requirements. Leafy vegetables are currently
commercialized and can be sold to several outlets. Estimated annual
yield is 1300 kg per acre with relatively stable prices and IRR of
2,740% in comparison with the other seven products identified by
farmers. Leafy vegetables are adaptable to space confined areas in
urban zones but also in peri
-
urban areas. Leafy vegetables including
indigenous vegetables can play a significant role in food and income
security for urban dwellers.

5.
Urban Policy; which Way?


Policy is much about the grass root people and their needs


Empowering grassroots people coupled with negotiations with
policy makers can produce sustainable policies


Urban Harvest has worked on urban productive systems utilizing
limited space in the region;


Approaches;


Building strong advocacy system in community


Demonstrating good practices of urban space utilization
and impact assessments


Dialoguing with policy makers on issues among others
improved nutrition through production of vegetables


Dialoguing with policy makers utilizing economic analysis
and feasibility of indigenous vegetables


Institutionalization as the ultimate objective

Poster by Shuaib Lwasa, Project Leader, Focus Cities Research Initiative, funded by Urban Poverty and Environment group of ID
RC

For the International Policy Dialogue Workshop: The promotion of Indigenous Vegetables in African Urban and Peri
-
urban spaces;
23
rd

to 26
th

January 2008, Rhodes University, Grahams town,
South Africa