INZ TecH & TRade - Environment Canterbury

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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water table

root zone






Agricultural
exports
significant
to NZ’s
balance
sheet


Reliable &
Quality
supply

needed to
maintain market
entry


Increasing input
costs make
production
high
risk without
certainty

water table

root zone

Irrigation =
Tool for
Better Risk
Management

Opuha

2004/05


16,000ha


Gross Farm Revenue x2.74 ($900
-

$2,100/ha)


Farm Expenditure x2.33 ($644
-

$1,503/ha)


Cash Farm Surplus x2.74 ($210
-

$570/ha)


Employment x2.6 (74


192)


Whole Community:


$41 million value added per year


480 FTE’s jobs


Younger & better educated






NOIC 2009/10


10,000ha


Gross Farm Revenue x3.1 ($21million
-

$65million)


Farm Expenditure x3.1 ($13million
-

$43million)


most flows to local economy


Cash Farm Surplus x3.1 ($7million
-

$22million)


Employment x2.1 (71
-

147 FTE’s) direct


Farmers spent $62million in conversion


most flows to local economy




More than $$$’s...... but they are the enabler

Prosperity = Opportunity


Social (community)


resilience


quality of service provision


Recreation


New opportunities


improvements to existing


Cultural / Environmental


mitigation


restoration





Social (community)


direct property loss

Recreation


someone’s favourite swim hole / fishing spot

Cultural / Environmental


Direct habitat


Indirect impacts


water quality


It’s about establishing a ‘framework’

(CWMS targets) and testing options



Informing the politics and emotion


More complex than just use........

Need to consider
-


Supply (take characteristics)


Distribution (how gets to farm)


Use (how applied)



Many definitions (over 40)………


Technical (how much used)


Allocative

/ Economic


Highest value achieved (society)


Dynamic


Adjusting to above over time (flexibility)

Within Technical


Production


Hydrological


Profitability


Energy……….

But all easier said than done!!!


Loss component

Range

Typical

Leaking pipes

0
-
10%

0
-
1%

Evaporation in the air

0
-
10%

<3%

Wind blowing water off target (drift)

0
-
20%

<5%

Interception (canopy losses)

0
-
10%

<5%

Surface runoff (spray irrigation)

0
-
10%

<2%

Uneven application and/or

excessive application depths and rates

5
-

80%

5
-

30%

Lincoln Environmental Data

Ineffective

Inefficient

From A.J.
Clemmens

Canterbury
,
Hawke’s Bay & Marlborough

0 20


40 60


80


100

percent efficiency



Solid Set

Rotating Boom

Fixed Boom

Travelling Gun

Centre Pivot

Linear Move

*Multiple
sprayline

Side Roll

Drip

Microspray

Bubbler Low Head

Basin Paddy

Basin

Border Strip

Furrow Modern

Furrow


Reliability = Continuity of Supply

Measured by level of drought / security

High reliability usually requires a ‘storage’


Reservoirs / dams


Groundwater



Achieving ‘Good Management Practice’ more
complex than on
-
farm practices

Reliability of supply


key driver and an enabler


Also Drives Land Use (Risk Management)

Pastoral low reliability = OK

Alternative easy (import feed / dry
-
off)

Arable & Horticulture = Higher Reliability

No or reduced yield






Water Infrastructure (storage) NOT a reward
........... it’s essential to
the
Solution


Uncertainty


=
‘Just in Case
’ management

but

Certainty


=
‘Just in Time
’ management


Optimal water use = Optimal environmental
performance



Less water per hectare, less storage required

and less losses (leaching) =

Improved
W
ater
Q
uality

Environmental Performance

(
Minimise

cumulative effects
-

water use and
nutrient losses)


Security and Certainty

(Duration of right coupled with sureness of future
policy goalposts)
)

Reliability

(Multi
-
purpose

water storage)


Crop Diversity & Added Value

(Increased range of crops grown & more local
processing)

Investment
-

Water Use Efficiency

(Efficient distribution and application systems coupled
with ‘just in time’ management)


Reduced Energy

(Distribution and application system
optimisation
)


Resilient Communities

(Diverse local economy & greater
prosperity)



Reliability System
Linkages

.

.

.

.

Design

Installation

Evaluation

Operation

GMP
Irrigation

Deliver ‘right amount’ to farm so farmer can
deliver the ‘right amount’ at the ‘right time’



Tensiometers

Complex/Uncontrollable

Simple/Controllable

Increasing Uncertainty/Irregularity

Certain/Regular/Predictable

Complex/Uncontrollable

Regulate activities,
monitor & control

Economic instruments, incentivise
desired outcome thru ‘rational
choice’ market models

Biophysical and social resilience
and capacities
-

foresee, buffer,
adapt, & shape/vision a future;
innovative and initiating cultures

Scenario analysis;
adaptive
management;
monitoring


A

B

C

Public participation
,

co
-
management
,

motivation, ethical/value systems

knowledge systems, local governance systems

Regulate effects (set ‘outcome’
standards), monitor, top
-
down
‘educate’


Choices in Perspective


Transfer of day
-
to
-
day resource
management responsibilities to users,
under agreed terms (self management) and
subject to an accountability (audit) process’



Much Confusion Around ASM



But we have ventured into the space
informally and formally


What is Audited Self
-
Management

The Drivers


Harnesses community energy and knowledge


Align regulatory with market compliance and farm
management needs


Drives cost efficiencies
-

market for regulatory &
streamlines multiple needs


Decrease regulatory cost to general rate payer


More effective management comes through
partnership (compared to top down enforcement)


NZ environment and economy needs optimal
resource management……..



INZ Projects

Irrigator User Groups


Days of Individual consent holder numbered


Future = catchment / zonal based management


Prize = better environmental management


ASM for Rakaia
-
Selwyn


Cost efficiencies


Knowledge systems


Better environmental management


More effective use of available resource


Precision Resource Information


Linking of Supply & Demand


Real
-
time Management


Incorporation of Forecasting

(Resource Availability)


Reliable Supply


Efficient Use


Precision Irrigation


Environmental Outcomes Achieved