EL PROGRAMA AMBIENTAL DEL CARIBE

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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EL PROGRAMA AMBIENTAL DEL CARIBE

Christopher Corbin


Programme

Officer

Secretariat for the Cartagena Convention

Convention for the Protection and Development of
the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean
Region


Cartagena Convention


Legal and Administrative Challenges of
Implementing a Regional MEA


Training Workshop on Environmental Legislative
Drafting

Georgetown, Guyana

2
-
5 August 2011


OUTLINE



What

is

the

Caribbean

Environment

Programme
?



Cartagena
Convention

&
Protocols



Major

Obligations

of
the

Convention



Legal &
Administrative

Barriers

to

Ratification



Legal &
Administrative

Barriers

to

Implementation



Conclusion

&
Opportunities

Regional Seas

The Caribbean Environment
Programme

is one of

18 Regional Seas
Programmes


comprising over
140
Countries

WIDER CARIBBEAN REGION

Curacao

St. Maarten

CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENT
PROGRAMME


MISSION



To promote regional co
-
operation for the
protection and development of the Wider
Caribbean Region”


OBJECTIVE



To achieve sustainable development of marine
and coastal resources in the Wider Caribbean
Region through effective, integrated management
that allows for economic growth and sustainable
livelihoods”


The

legal and
administrative

basis

for

the

Caribbean

Environment

Programme

is

the
:



Cartagena
Convention

for

the

Protection

and
Development

of
the

Wider

Caribbean


Only

Legally

Binding

Regional
MEA
for

the

Protection

and
Development

of
the

Marine
Environment

of
the

Wider

Caribbean

Region

CARTAGENA CONVENTION

Oil Spills Protocol
Adopted in 1983

Enteretd into focrce in
1986

Specially

Protected

Areas

and
Wildlife

Protocol

(SPAW)
Adopted

in 1990

Entered

into

force

2000

Protocol

concerning

Land
-
Based

Sources

of
Pollution

(LBS)
Adopted

in 1099

Enteretd

into

force

in
2010

Cartagena
Convention

Adopted

in 1983

Entered

into

force

1986

Cartagena
Convention
: 25
countries

Oil

Spills

Protocol
: 25
countries


SPAW
Protocol

: 13
countries

LBS
Protocol
: 9
countries



Unplanned

Coastal

Development


Land

Based

Sources

of
Pollution


Marine
-
based

Activities


Overfishing


Habitat

Destruction


Climate

Change


Invasive

Species

Major Environmental Threats

Major Environmental Impacts


Loss

of
Biodiveristy

Pollution

Flooding

The Cartagena Convention as a Regional
MEA addresses several different coastal
& marine environmental threats affecting
the countries of the Wider Caribbean
Region.


The three Protocols to the Convention
identify additional obligations for the
protection and development of the
Caribbean Sea thus reducing negative
impacts to the coastal and marine
environment.


CARTAGENA

CONVENTION


Biodiversity

Air

Sea/River
-
Bed

Dumping

Land Based

Ships


Protect marine & coastal environment

from oil spill incidents




Establish & maintain

means to respond
to oil spill incidents & to reduce the risks
associated with such incidents

What are the Objectives of the
Oil Spills Protocol?


Protect, preserve & sustainably manage

fragile areas & threatened or endangered
species of flora & fauna



Regulate &/or prohibit activities

having
adverse effects on protected areas &
wildlife (biodiversity)

What are the Objectives of the
SPAW Protocol?


Reduce pollution

through establishment
of effluent & emission limitations and/or
best management practices




Exchange information

on land
-
based
pollution through cooperation in
monitoring & research

What are the Objectives of the
LBS Protocol?

Biodiversity

CITES

BASEL

Desertification

Climate Change

RAMSAR

Stockholm

Cartagena

Rotterdam

Oil Spills

Not
another
one...

THE MEA DILEMMA



How do we implement?

Challenges to Ratification/1


Limited financial, technical & human
resources to assess implications of the MEA;



Lack of political priority for environmental
protection & sustainable development;



Lack of interest or perceived relevance of the
MEA
to national priorities;

Challenges to
Ratification/2


Lack of involvement
by country in
the
negotiation process;



Lack of
understanding
of
implications
,
benefits &
costs of implementing the MEA;



Lack of
dedicated national
focal points
responsible for treaty
acceptance;

Challenges for MEA Implementation/1


Lack of expertise & inadequate financial/human
resources to ensure
compliance with obligations;



Lack of interest or perceived relevance
of MEA
obligations to
national priorities;



Lack of media
& public awareness/interest
;



Lack of integration of MEA obligations into national
work
programmes
, projects & activities;

Challenges for MEA Implementation/2



Project
rather than
Programme

Focus by MEA
enabling activities;



Competing

MEAs, projects and/or priorities;



Lack of
enabling Legislation that provides for
standards, enforcement, reporting etc.



Lack of effective administrative structure for
monitoring MEA compliance;

Unique Challenges for Regional MEA



Reduced financial support compared with
Global MEAs


often lesser visibility & profile;



Obligations cover a wide range of thematic
areas
-

implementation requires coordination
& collaboration among several agencies & may
require amendments to existing policy,
legislation, regulations, &/or
institutional/administrative mechanisms;

Unique Opportunities for Regional MEA



Facilitates joint implementation of a larger
number of related Global MEAs;



Responds more directly to unique national,
sub
-
regional & regional priorities, socio
-
economic circumstances & political realities;



Fosters regional cooperation in the protection
of a shared resource


the Caribbean Sea;


Checklist for MEA Implementation/1



Retain drafting skills & technical expertise;


Seek assistance of Convention Secretariat for
technical assistance;


Ensure that implementing legislation
provides for institutional, policy
-
making &
administrative tools & mechanisms;


Ensure that implementing legislation
provides for adequate enforcement measures

including incentives to promote compliance;


Checklist for MEA Implementation/2



Resolve conflict between MEA principles and
domestic legislation;


Ensure that the national legislation
implements all of the mandatory MEA
obligations;


Conditions may change and provisions may
become inadequate. Include provisions in the

national legislation for MEA amendments;

What
direct support can be provided?


Policy & Legislative Reforms



Training & Capacity Building



Public Education & Awareness



Technology/Equipment



Solutions for
“Hot Spot” problems through
pilot interventions;

EL PROGRAMA AMBIENTAL DEL CARIBE


THANK YOU


UNEP
-
CAR/RCU

14
-
20 Port Royal Street

Kingston, Jamaica

(876) 922
-
9267
-

phone

(876) 922
-
9292
-

fax

rcu@cep.unep.org

Website:
www.cep.unep.org