An Overview of Sustainable Practices at the US Automotive Manufacturing Industry

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Nasr Alkadi, Ph.D., CEM

Energy and Transportation Science Division

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)



Key Note Speaking Session:

SDP111


Sustainable
Materials
and Components


Detroit, Michigan, USA

April
16
-
18,
2013

An Overview of Sustainable

Practices at the US Automotive
Manufacturing Industry

2

Presentation name

Agenda


What is Sustainable Manufacturing?


The Evolution of Manufacturing Systems


Why
Sustainable Manufacturing?


Sustainable Manufacturing in Auto Industry:


1
-

Sustainable Materials and Components


2
-

Emerging Manufacturing Technologies


3
-

Energy Management Practices

4
-

Supply Chain Sustainability


5
-

Use of Green Energy Technologies

3

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What is Sustainable Manufacturing?


Sustainable Manufacturing is the creation of manufactured
products that use processes that
minimize negative
environmental
impacts, conserve energy and natural resources,
and are
economically

sound and
safe

for communities and
consumers.”

(Definition by the U.S. Department of Commerce)


triple bottom line

4

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The Evolution of Manufacturing Systems
*


From
Craft Production to Sustainable Manufacturing


Sustainable manufacturing relies
heavily on
energy efficiency


Energy efficiency is supported by incremental and structural changes


Monitor, control and improve current processes


Introduce new materials


Adopt new
process technologies


Challenges:


Fear
of change


Fear
of
unmet
expectations

(*) Alkadi, Hilliard, LDRD Proposal STEPS Model, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory

5

Presentation name

Why Sustainable Manufacturing
?


Government regulations, penalties, and
tax incentives


Continuous improvement / Cost savings / Remain
competitive


More with less

in these times of budget cuts and
constraints


Drives a
positive

culture in the organization


Positive
public

image


Resource
Responsibility

versus
Resource
Entitlement


6

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Key Sustainability Elements in Automobile Industry

7

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Sustainable Materials and
Components in
Automotive Manufacturing

8

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Significance of Vehicle Weight on CO
2

Emissions

Current Car Manufacturers

Status Against
EU
Target
*

(*)
Ricardo

9

Presentation name


Significantly
reduce automotive
vehicle body
and
chassis weight
without

compromising safety
,
performance, recyclability,
and cost
.


Priority light weighting materials include:


Advanced
high
-
strength
steels


Aluminum
, magnesium,
titanium


Composites
including
metal
-
matrix materials
and
glass


Carbon
-
fiber reinforced thermosets and thermoplastics
.

Automotive Lightweight Materials
*

* U.S
. Department of
Energy’s (DOE’s
) Office
of Freedom CAR
and
Vehicle Technologies
Program (FCVT
)


A study by
Sujit Das, Center for Transportation
Analysis, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory

10

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Example: Weight
Distribution of a
F
-
150
Pick
-
up
Truck
*


* Sujit
Das, Center for Transportation
Analysis, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory

11

Presentation name

Mass Savings Analysis of Pick
-
up
Trucks
*


* Sujit
Das, Center for Transportation
Analysis, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory

Vehicle
curb weight (2,300 kg)

12

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Life
Cycle Energy Impacts
of
Stamped
S
teel
Versus

Cast A
luminum
Liftgate
I
nner

for
Light
-
Duty Vehicle
Applications
*

energy used during
vehicle operation

dominates the overall
life cycle energy use

* Sujit
Das, Center for Transportation Analysis, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

aluminum poses
energy penalty
at the
manufacturing life cycle
stage

net savings of 1.8
GJ/vehicle

compared to steel.

13

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Carbon Fiber as a Light Weight Material
-

Still has a
High Price Tag


Research Problem*

* Sujit
Das, Center for Transportation
Analysis, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory

Material cost contributes
a major share of total
part
cost
, mainly due to the
higher carbon fiber cost
limited to
military
applications today
.


DOE is currently

focusing its carbon fiber
R&D activities towards
the development
of
cost
-
effective carbon
fiber
production technologies
for a widespread use
in
light
-
duty vehicles
in the
near future.


Cost
distribution of a carbon fiber reinforced
polymer composite body part
*

14

Presentation name

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility
at ORNL

Demonstrate
alternative carbon fiber precursors and
advanced manufacturing process at a semi
-
production level

ORNL Carbon Fiber
Facility Produces
up to
25
t/year
of carbon fibers

15

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Emerging
Manufacturing Technologies

16

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Four
Fundamental Manufacturing Principles
*



Subtractive:

Material is successively removed from a solid
block until the desired shape is reached
(2.6M BC


Paleolithic man)


Fabricative:

Elements or physical material are combined and
joined
(6,000 BC


Western Asia, basket making)


Formative:
Mechanical
forces and, or heat are applied to
material to form it into the desired shape such as bending,
casting and molding
(3,000 BC


Egyptians, investment casting)


Additive:
Material
is manipulated so that successive pieces of
it combine to make the desired object
(1984


Californians)


*
Dr
Phil Reeves
-

Managing Director, Econolyst Ltd, UK


17

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Quick Comparison:

Additive Manufacturing “AM”
Versus

Subtractive Manufacturing “SM”


AM
is the Production
of parts through successive
additions of
layers directly from a
digital model
.

“If you can
Draw

it in a 3D
CAD
you can
print

it using “AM”


AM

Benefits: creation of geometrically
complex

shapes
without

wasting excess
material with minimal
tools in a
cost

effective
manner.


SM: P
arts
and pieces are removed during
product
manufacturing.


SM

drawbacks:
waste
of material and energy,
multiple
production process steps, more lead
time
to market.

18

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3D
Printing is
Also Referred
to as:


Direct
Digital Manufacture (DDM)


USA


Freeform
Fabrication (FFF)


USA


Solid
Freeform Fabrication (SFF)


USA


Fabbing


USA


Layer
Manufacturing (LM)


Scandinavia


Constructive
Manufacturing


Germany


Generative
Manufacturing


Germany


E Manufacturing
-

Germany


Rapid
Manufacturing
-

Global


Additive
Manufacturing
“AM”
-

Global


19

Presentation name

What
is 3D Printing


What
ARE 3D
Printers Methods*?

3D
Printers are
automated systems
that take
2
-
dimensional layers
of computer data and rebuild them into
3D solid
objects.

Realizing
the Promise
of Next Generation Manufacturing, MDF, ORNL

www.ornl.gov/manufacturing

20

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Why Not Just Print
the
Parts
?

21

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Example:

Automotive Parts that can
be Printed
using AM

*

*
N
. Skrynecki, Kundenorientierte Optimierung des
generativen Strahlschmelzprozesses
, 2010

22

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So Why
are
Companies Adopt
AM
for Production?

1. Economic
low volume production

2
. Increased
geometric freedom

3
. Increased part functionality

4
. Product personalization

5
. Improvised
environmental
sustainability

Additive
MFG (AM)

A titanium prosthetic hand produced via additive
manufacturing.
Photo
courtesy of Oak Ridge National
Laboratory.

Additive
MFG (AM)

23

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What’s in “AM” for the Automotive Industry?

Holds
great
promise:



Vehicle
bodies and engines could be made using fewer
parts


Rapidly
redesigned to minimize
failures


Traditional
assembly line could
become
a thing of the past
for some
industries


Enables
the economic manufacture of low volume complex
geometries and assemblies


Reduces
the need for tooling (
moulds
/cutters
)


Reduces
capital investment & inventory


Simplifies
supply chains & reduced lead times


24

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Example


Bentley
is a subsidiary of Volkswagen


Vehicles
from $250K
-

$1M


In
-
house
polymeric and metallic AM capacity

Images
courtesy of Bentley

25

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Example, Cont.

Problem
:

customer
with
limited
mobility needed a
reversed

dashboard

-
Production substrate produced by
RIM “
Rapid Injection
Molding”.

-
Manual modification time consuming

Solution:
Laser Sintered AM part with leathers and veneers
-
veneers


Images
courtesy of Bentley

26

Presentation name

Example


Delphi Diesel Pump


Conventional
product manufactured by cross
drilling an
aluminum
die casting


Multiple
machining operations


Multiple
post processing ops (chemical
de
-
burring
, hole blanking, pressure testing)


Final
product prone to leakage


Produce
the part as one piece using
Selective Laser melting on
Aluminum

27

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Example: Energy Absorption

28

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Example: Heat
dissipation surfaces

29

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ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration
Facility (MDF)

House of Additive Manufacturing

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/manufacturing/mdf.shtml

30

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Energy Efficient
Manufacturing Processes and
Systems

31

Presentation name

Electrohydraulic Forming
(EHF) of
Near Net Shape Automotive Panels


EHF
is an automotive panel manufacturing
process


EHF reduces
the energy needed to produce automotive
structures and the energy embedded in
vehicles.


This transformational technology will produce very thin
near net
shape panels, decrease the thickness of materials in
automotive structures, and eliminate traditionally energy
-
intensive processing
steps


The EHF process can consolidate forming, piercing, trimming,
flanging, and
other
processes into a single process, eliminating
50% of equipment and equipment
-
related manufacturing
energy consumption for many types of sheet metal panels.


DOE, EIP,
Advanced Manufacturing Office

32

Presentation name

Energy
-
Efficient Thermomagnetic and
Induction Hardening



An
alternative to conventional heat treatment processes
.



The idea is to hybridize
thermomagnetic processing with
inductive high
-
frequency heat treatment to reduce
the
amount of
energy needed to induce the required component
properties.


Improves
process yield and reduce the reworking of metals
suitable for reprocessing.


This
precise method can be
30% more energy
efficient
than
conventional heat
treatment
and post
-
processing
methods.


Applicable
to nearly all ferrous materials that undergo industrial
heat treatment processes, including those used in
automotive
,
aerospace, and hydraulics applications.


DOE, EIP,
Advanced Manufacturing Office

33

Presentation name

Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir
Welding (FSW)
Technology



FSW
adoption can reduce the amount of energy consumed during welding by
up to
70%
, improve welding quality, reduce materials used and eliminate
labor
-
intensive pre
-
and post
-
weld heat treatments.


Transforming FSW from a specialty welding process into a technology with a
broad range of applications can lower costs while increasing
the
competiveness
of many industrial sectors, including aerospace,
automotive
,
chemicals, oil and gas, power generation, and shipbuilding.


DOE, EIP,
Advanced Manufacturing Office

34

Presentation name

Induction Consolidation and Molding of
Thermoplastic Composites Using Smart
Susceptors



Exploring
the feasibility of induction consolidation and molding of
thermoplastic composites for real
-
world applications in the automotive,
aerospace, and wind energy markets.


Evaluating
the technology’s ability to increase the performance and
affordability of components produced while reducing the cycle time and the
amount of energy used in manufacturing.


Smart
susceptors

eliminate
the need to heat the tooling, which is required in
conventional composite manufacturing methods,
and
the induction molding
process can be
40%

75%

more
efficient
than competing processes used to
make such components.


These
lightweight components can
Vest as
Wind Systems replace steel and
thermoset materials in vehicles, helping to reduce fuel consumption and
carbon emissions.


DOE, EIP,
Advanced Manufacturing Office

35

Presentation name

Near net shape manufacturing of new
titanium powders


A paradigm
shift in the titanium market by enhancing current processes that
reduce titanium into a powder metal form.


Processing
new titanium powders into fully consolidated, near net shape
components at a much lower cost
than
conventional processing routes.


The
new approach can reduce the
cost
of titanium parts by 50%

95% while
reducing process energy use by
50
%.


Producing
titanium components fabricated from powder metallurgy can
generate less than 5%

10%

metal
scrap.


Improving titanium
recyclability, reducing the cost of components, and
shortening the length of manufacturing cycles will benefit the aerospace,
automotive
, chemical processing, and
power generation
industries.

DOE, EIP,
Advanced Manufacturing Office

36

Presentation name


Source: Energy
Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly
Industry: An
ENERGY STAR
®
Guide for Energy and Plant
Managers,
Christina
Galitsky

and Ernst Worrell

Cross
Cutting Energy Efficiency Measures
for the
Vehicle
Assembly Industry

37

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Cross
Cutting Energy Efficiency Measures
for the
Vehicle
Assembly Industry, Cont.

Source: Energy
Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly
Industry: An
ENERGY STAR
®
Guide
for Energy and Plant
Managers,
Christina
Galitsky

and Ernst Worrell

38

Presentation name


Paint application using “3 wet” process


Compact spray booth
design



Elimination
of prime spray booth and oven


Re
-
circulated air in prime, base, and clear zones


Lower temperature phosphate process


VFD’s on fan and pump motors


White PVC roof


Dedicated chillers


Dedicated natural gas hot water generators


Sub
-
metering of energy sources

Example: Nissan’s New Paint Shop
(30% ER)*

* Nissan, NA

http://
www.murfreesboropost.com/smyrna
-
is
-
home
-
to
-
most
-
advanced
-
paint
-
plant
-
in
-
the
-
world
-
cms
-
34317

http://nissannews.com/en
-
US/nissan/usa/channels/Facilities/releases/nissan
-
debuts
-
efficient
-
new
-
smyrna
-
paint
-
plant

39

Presentation name

Energy Management
Practices
*

* Author’s
work as a Plant Energy Manager
(2003
-
2009) in
a Major US Auto
Manufacturer and as a
Technical Account Manager (TAM) for Major US based Automobile Plants

40

Presentation name

(Bottom
-

UP
and Top


Down)

Use Inverted Pyramid Approach (IPA)

Develop & Deploy
Plant Energy
BUSINESS PLAN

Determine how many BTUs you
need to CUT to make the GOAL

Provide Real
-
World
Proof

Identify Actions Per
Business Unit


Know your
Plant Energy
GOAL

Discuss

Actions

with

Each

Business

Unit

-

Set

Realistic

Targets

for

Each

Business

Unit



Help

make

it

happens

Show Results to Gain Confidence
and Sustain Momentum


Define Goals/Objectives/
Methods/Owners/Targets


Publish
-
Share
-
Follow up

(Tools: Plant Energy MODEL )

(Weekly Meetings with Business Units (BU)

41

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Start with the End in mind and
work backwards!

GAP Analysis
Tool

Detailed Energy Action
Items

42

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Strive for Green Weekends!

Setting the shutdown
Goal requires Familiarity
with Equipment/Devices
that Can be safely
shutdown during Non
-
production hours

How?

1. Give
Each Business Unit their Energy
Thermometer. A
Visual that shows the
Weekend Energy Shutdown Goal (If
Applicable to your Plant/Process)

2. Report
Performance to Management on a Weekly Basis

43

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Fatty Electricity + High LDL Cholesterol CA System + Unhealthy NG/Coal

During Weekdays


Need to Cut down

Fatty Electricity + High LDL Cholesterol CA System + Unhealthy NG/Coal

During Weekends
Need to Cut down

(*)
Alkadi, N.M.,
“Energy and Productivity, two sides of a coin in US Auto Industry
”,
SAE, Detroit, USA, April 2006

Required BTU For Production should all Energy Waste
Streams are Eliminated + Design for Energy is Considered


Develop your Plant Energy Model

“Plant Health Approach”
(*)

44

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Lead with Vision

Source: Thomas
W.
Neelands
,
Retired
, GM Global
Director, WFG


Energy & Utility Services

45

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Enabling Governmental
Programs:

1. DOE’s Better Buildings, Better Plants Program

BBBP is a national initiative of the DOE that aims to drive a 25

percent reduction in energy intensity in Industrial and Commercial

Sectors in 10 years

(25 in 10).

Through this program, Better Plant Partners receive technical
assistance from DOE Technical Account Mangers (TAM) to help with:


Energy
GAP Analysis Study to prioritize energy efficiency focus areas


Energy Baseline
Study to validate energy efficiency
results


Plants
Energy Profiling Study to pinpoint energy intensive
processes


Capacity Building through In Plant Training


Exposure to Sustainable Manufacturing Technologies


Technology Deployment Activities.


Participating Automobile Companies in BBBP

118 Companies Signed for BBBP to date

46

Presentation name


Enabling Government Programs:

2. DOE’s Superior Energy Performance (SEP)

47

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DOE’s SEP: VOLVO
AND NISSAN are
Among the First
Certified
Partner
Facilities in the US!

Facilities Achieving

Superior Energy Performance

Certification

% Energy
Performance
Improvement

Performance
Level

Cook Composites and
Polymers

Houston, TX

14.9

Gold

Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

West Austin, TX

6.5

Silver

Owens Corning

Waxahachie, TX

9.6

Silver

Dow Chemical Company

Texas City, TX (Manufacturing
facility)

17.1

Platinum

Dow Chemical Company

Texas City, TX (Energy systems
facility)

8.1

Silver

Volvo Trucks, NA

Dublin, VA

25.8

Platinum

Nissan, NA

Smyrna, TN

7.2

Silver

Allsteel

Muscatine, IA

6.4

Silver

Volvo Trucks,
NA and Nissan NA

48

Presentation name

Enabling Governmental Programs:

3. Energy STAR
-

EPA

49

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Supply Chain
Sustainability

50

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Significance of Supply Chain*

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Economic Impact
(Total = $46,000)
Energy Use
(Total = 121 GJ)
GHG emissions
(Total = 10 mt CO2e)
Relative Contribution (%)
Remaining supply chain
First tier suppliers
Auto manuf acturing (336110)
Most
reduction
opportunities
may be
in the extended
supply
chain!

*Source: Sathaye
, J.A., Lecocq, F., Masanet, E., Najam, A., Schaeffer, R., Swart, R., and H. Winkler (2009). “Opportunities to Change Develop
men
t
Pathways Towards Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Energy Efficiency.” Journal of Energy Efficiency, Volume 2, Number 4.

Economic Impact, Energy Use, and GHG Emissions Associated with
the Manufacture of an Average Midsize U.S. Passenger Car

51

Presentation name

How Thinking has Changed!

Source: Porter, 1985

52

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Supplier Selection Process in a Sustainable
Market*

*Dai
and Blackhurst,
Forthcoming

53

Presentation name

Value Chain Matrix

54

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Supplier
Engagement


Scorecards

The
Supplier Environmental
Sustainability
Scorecard
assesses
the
supplier’s
environmental footprint by
measuring energy use, water use,
waste disposal,
and GHG
emissions
on a year
-
to
-
year basis.

55

Presentation name

Fulfillment of
Regulations
and
Guidelines
for
Environmental Product
Compliance
is
Produced
with
Varying Degrees
of
Capability


Figure
1
:

.
Source:
iPoint
-
systems, 2011

56

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Example:
Nissan’s Approach
to Sustainability
*

*Nissan, NA

57

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Example:
Nissan’s Supply
Chain
Sustainability
*

Nissan’s Challenge to their Supply Chain:



Reduce greenhouse gas emissions



Prevent air, water, and soil pollution



Save resources and reduce waste



Manage chemical substances responsibly



Overall conservation of Ecosystem


How can YOU increase the QUALITY of
your processes
NOW in support of these initiatives?

*Nissan, NA

58

Presentation name

Example: Ford’s Supply
Chain Environmental
Sustainability*


Ford has worked with
their suppliers
for decades to improve the
sustainability of their products
and processes and
to gain their support in
improving
their own
sustainability performance.


Ford provides suppliers
with a range of support and
assistance based on
their experiences in this area.


Ford
was the first automaker to require its suppliers to certify
their
environmental
management systems to the globally recognized standard,
ISO 14001.


Ford regularly engage
with
their
suppliers on sustainability issues and have
focused initiatives to
improve understanding
of environmental impacts and
improve practices in several areas,
including greenhouse
gas emissions,
materials management and
logistics.

*Ford Motors, NA

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Thank you

Nasr Alkadi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

alkadine@ornl.gov


865
-
946
-
1558

636
-
734
-
4143

60

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References


Sujit Das, Automotive Lightweight Materials Assessment, Center for Transportation Analysis, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL).


Dai
, J. and J. Blackhurst. Forthcoming. A hierarchical AHP
-
QFD approach for supplier
assessment: A
sustainability perspective.
International Journal of
Production Research
.


Alkadi, N., Gopalakrishnan, B., Chaudhari, S., “Product Design for Energy Reduction in Concurrent Engineering: An Inverted Py
ram
id Approach”,
International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering,
2012
.


Alkadi, N., Kissock, J.K., “Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants
-

Practical Examples and Implementat
ion” SAE International,
April 2011.
http://papers.sae.org/2011
-
01
-
0325


Alkadi, N., “Energy and Productivity, two sides of a coin in US Auto Industry”, SAE, Detroit, USA, April 2006


B. Gopalakrishnan, Alkadi, N., Product Design for Energy: An Inverted Pyramid Approach, Twenty
-
fourth Industrial Energy Technolo
gy Conference, April 17
and 18, 2002, Houston, Texas.


Prof. Dr. Reinhart Poprawe, M.A.,
A Paradigm shift in Production technology: Laser Additive Manufacturing, RWTH
Fraunhofer Institute for
Lasertechnology,
Aachen University,
Aachen,
Germany,

April 2011



Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the
Promise
, DOE/EE
-
0776, August 2012


Supply Chain
-

Sustainability 2011/12
-

Ford Motor Company,
http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability
-
report
-
2011
-
12/supply[3


Sustainability Report Summary 2011/12, Ford, NA., corporate.ford.com/go/sustainability


Newport Consulting Group, LLC A client
-
sponsored White Paper Meeting the Automotive Challenge of Creating Sustainability in a C
omplex Supply Chain
Environment


By Liz Garnand, Principal, Newport Consulting Group (December, 2011) Renewable Choice ::
www.renewablechoice.com


Sustainable Supply Chains, A Guide for Small
-

to Medium
-
sized Manufacturers, The Center for Industrial Research and Service (CIR
AS), IOWA State
University Extension, 2012