2012-12-11-Human Security - Peace and conflict studies

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Human Security

New Approach to Security

National
vs

Individual Security


Security should be the individual rather than the state.


Human security holds that a people
-
centered view of security is
necessary for national, regional and global stability.


Human security , a rough parallel to well
-
being or quality of life but for
everyone rather than just the middle class and above.


The
United Nations Development
Programme’s

(
UNDP
) 1994 Human
Development Report

is considered to be a milestone publication in the field of
human security, with its argument that insuring
"freedom from want"
and
"freedom from fear"
for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of
global insecurity.


Concept
-

post
-
Cold War

development; multi
-
disciplinary understanding of
security involving a number of research fields, including
development
studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights.

UNDP’s definition of Human
Security


The UNDP's 1994 Human Development Report's definition of human security
argues that the scope of global security should be expanded to include
threats in
seven areas:


Dr.
Mahbub

ul

Haq

first drew global attention to the concept of human security in
the
UNDP's

1994
Human Development Report

and sought to influence the
UN's
1995 World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen.

Economic security


An assured basic income for individuals, usually from
productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed
safety net.


Currently, 1/4
th

of the world’s people are presently economically secure.


Economic security is a serious problem in developing countries, concern also
arises in developed countries as well.


Unemployment
problems constitute an important factor underlyin
g
political
tensions and ethnic violence

Seven…..


UN, "the key is to tackle the problems relating to access to assets, work and assured
income (related to economic security)."

3.
Health security



Health Security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from
diseases and
unhealthy lifestyles
.

2.
Food security :

All people and at all times must have both
physical and
economic access to basic food
.


UN, "the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the problem often
is the poor distribution of food and a lack of
purchasing power
."


In the past, food security problems were dealt with at both national and global
levels.


UN, "Both developing and industrial
countrie's

threats to health security are
usually greater for poor people in rural areas, particularly children. This is due to
malnutrition

and insufficient access to health services, clean water and other basic
necessities


Developing
countrie's

major causes of death traditionally were
infectious and
parasitic diseases
, whereas in industrialized countries, the major killers were
diseases of the
circulatory system
.


Lifestyle
-
related chronic diseases are leading killers worldwide, with 80 % of deaths
from chronic diseases occurring in low
-

and middle
-
income countries.

Seven….

4.
Environmental security


Aims to protect people from the short
-

and long
-
term
ravages of nature, man
-
made threats in nature, and deterioration of the
natural
environment.


5.
Personal security



Personal security aims to protect people from
physical
violence
, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub
-
state actors, from
domestic abuse
, or from predatory adults. For many people, the
greatest source of anxiety is
crime
, particularly violent crime


Developing countries, lack of access to clean
water resources
is one of the greatest
environmental threats.


Industrial countries, one of the major threats is
air pollution
.
Global warming
,
caused by the emission of
greenhouse gases
, is another
environmental security issue
.

Seven….

7.
Political security



Political security is concerned with whether people live in
a society that honors their basic human rights.

Amnesty International, "
political repression
,
systematic torture
,
ill treatment
or
disappearance

is still practiced in 110 countries.


HR violations are most frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with
repressing individuals and groups, governments may try to exercise control over
ideas and information.

6.
Community security



Community security aims to protect people from the
loss of
traditional relationships

and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence.

Traditional communities (minority)
ethnic groups
are often threatened. About
half of the world’s states have experienced some inter
-
ethnic strife. The UN
declared
1993 the Year of Indigenous People
to highlight the continuing
vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a
widening spiral of violence.

Freedom from Fear
vs

Freedom
from Want and beyond


Freedom from Fear



Human Security to protect individuals from
violent conflicts and these
threats are strongly associated with poverty, lack
of state capacity and other forms of inequities. Emergency assistance,
conflict prevention and resolution, peace
-
building

are the main concerns of
this approach. Canada, banned landmines and has incorporated the
"Freedom from Fear" agenda as a primary component in its own foreign
policy.


Freedom from Want



It is a holistic approach; argues that the
threat agenda should be broadened to include
hunger, disease and
natural disasters
because they are inseparable concepts in addressing the
root of human insecurity. They
kill far more people than war, genocide
and terrorism combined.

Different from "Freedom from Fear", it
expands the focus beyond violence with emphasis on
development and
security goals.

Security and the Threats

S.No
.

Security from whom ?

Source of security

threats

Military

Non
-
Military or both

1.

States

National security
(conventional realist
approach to security
studies)


Redefined security
(e.g., environmental
and economic
[cooperative or
comprehensive]
security)

2.

Societies, Groups, and
Individuals


Intrastate security
(e.g., civil war, ethnic
conflict, and
democide
)


Human security (e.g.,
environmental and
economic threats to
the survival of
societies, groups, and
individuals)


Traditional and Human security

Traditional Security

Human Security

Referent

Promotes
demands ascribed to the
state

a
nd not the people. Protects a
state's
boundaries, people, institutions and values.

People
-
centered
.
A
ims

to
protect

and l
ooks
for
the well
-
being of individuals
. Respond
to
ordinary people's needs in dealing with
sources of threats.

Scope

Defends
states from external
aggression.

S
tate security is a
state's ability to deter or
defeat an attack
.
It makes uses of
deterrence strategies to maintain the
integrity of the state
.

In addition to protecting the state from
external aggression, human security would
expand the scope of protection to include a
broader range of threats, including
environmental pollution, infectious
diseases
and economic deprivation.

Actor(s)

State



a
sole
actor,
ensures
its own
survival. Decision making power is
centralized in the government, and the
execution of strategies rarely involves the
public.

It
involves not only governments, but a
broader participation of different actors
,
viz.
regional and international organizations, non
-
governmental organizations and local
communities.

Means

It
relies upon building up national power
and military defense. The common forms it
takes are armament races, alliances,
strategic boundaries etc.

It
not only protects, but also empowers
people and societies as a means of security.
People contribute by identifying and
implementing solutions to insecurity.

Human development and Human Security

Variables

Human Development

Human Security

Values

Well
-
being.

Security, stability, sustainability of
development gains

Orientation

Moves forward, is progressive and
aggregate: “Together we rise”

䱯ok猠s琠w桯 wa猠汥晴 扥桩湤ba琠瑨攠
individual level: “Divided we fall”

Time Frame

Long term

Combines short
-
term measures to deal
with risks with long term prevention
efforts.

General
objectives

Growth with equity. Expanding the choices
and opportunities of people to lead lives
they value.

“Insuring” downturns with security.
䥤敮瑩晩捡瑩f渠o映物獫猬s灲敶敮瑩潮e瑯tavo楤i
瑨敭 瑨to畧栠摥慬楮g w楴栠roo琠捡畳敳Ⱐ
灲数e牡瑩潮t瑯tm楴楧i瑥t瑨敭Ⱐa湤n
捵獨楯湩湧 w桥渠摩獡獴敲 獴物s敳e

Policy goals

Empowerment, sustainability, equity and
productivity.

Protection and promotion of human
survival (freedom from fear), daily life
(freedom from want), and the avoidance
of indignities(life of dignity).




Human Rights and Human security

Human rights are commonly understood as
"inalienable fundamental rights to
which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human
being.


Human rights are thus conceived as
universal
(applicable everywhere)
and
egalitarian (
the same for everyone). These rights may exist as
natural
rights

or as
legal rights,
in both
national
and
international law.
The doctrine
of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and
regional institutions, in the
policies of states
and in the activities of non
-
governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of
public policy
around
the world.
The idea of human rights

states, "if the public discourse of
peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is
that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine of
human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about
the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Indeed, the
question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of
continued philosophical debate

Relationship with NGOs

The generally accepted understanding of the term NGO refers to independent
development actors existing apart from governments and corporations. NGOs have
major contributions to human development, including fields of health and
nutrition, education and the environment. They are also key players in
international development and prominent advocates of international human rights,
both of which are critical components of human security. The focus, expertise and
infrastructure developed by NGOs through their activities linked with human
development and human rights allow them to make unique contributions to human
security provision.

Relationship with environment

human security can be broken down into a series of subcomponents to better
achieve optimal environmental and social security. Environmental security is
composed of two subcomponents: (a) Rational resource utilization, that is
resource use that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
[30]

Social security can be
simplified to components of (a) Established political safeguards, (b) Economic
safeguards, (c) Personal safeguards, and (d) Military safeguards.
[28]

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) states that a
major goal of comprehensive human security is to “transmit practical
recommendations to policy
-
makers on how to strengthen human security
through better environmental management and more effective natural resource
governance.”
[31]

The overreaching goal being a pervasive global mindset that
recognizes the interdependent natures of the natural environment and our
collective social security.


Gender and human security


Human security focuses on the serious neglect of
gender

concerns under
the traditional security model. Traditional security’s focus on external
military threats to the state has meant that the majority of threats women
face have been overlooked. By focusing on the individual, the human
security model aims to address the security concerns of both women and
men equally. Women are often the worst victims of violence and conflict:
they form the majority of civilian deaths; the majority of refugees; and,
are often the victims of cruel and degrading practices, such as rape.
[32]

Women's security is also threatened by unequal access to resources,
services and opportunities.
[32]

Human security seeks to empower women,
through education, participation and access, as gender equality is seen as
a necessary precondition for peace, security and a prosperous society.
[32]


Humanitarian Intervention

These principles on humanitarian intervention are the product of a debate
pushed by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan. He posed a challenge
to the international community to find a new approach to humanitarian
intervention that responded to its inherent problems.
[34]

In 2001, the
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (
ICISS
)
produced the "The Responsibility to protect", a comprehensive report detailing
how the “right of humanitarian intervention” could be exercised. It was
considered a triumph for the human security approach as it emphasized and
gathered much needed attention to some of its main principles:

The protection of individual welfare is more important than the state. If the
security of individuals is threatened internally by the state or externally by other
states, state authority can be overridden.

Addressing the root causes of humanitarian crises (e.g. economic, political or
social instability) is a more effective way to solve problems and protect the long
-
term security of individuals.

Prevention is the best solution. A collective understanding of the deeper social
issues along with a desire to work together is necessary to prevent humanitarian
crises, thereby preventing a widespread absence of human security within a
population (which may mean investing more in development projects).


Conclusion

Human Security; Insecurity

Economic

Environmental

Personal:
HDI

Political
\
Food

Health

Community

Cause violence: Structural, Direct, Indirect

Human Development

Emancipatory

vs

Confirmity

(Regulated) and (free)

Survival
vs

Self expression (Basic needs
vs

demanding) transfer
from one to another

Egoistic
vs

Humanistic (Individual
vs

Humanity)

Human Development Index


Income, Knowledge, Health





Conclusion

South Asia

Suffering from Migration, discrimination, political instability, ethnic
dispues
,
Povertty
, unemployment, poor health, natural and man made disasters, proper
education.

Girls trafficking

Life
expentency



Economic Insecurity and violence:

Revolution in Child Survival:
Mnitoring

the growth, Infant mortality, Breast
Feeding, Observance of children