Web Building - Web Development Course

tacitmarigoldInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

25 Ιαν 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Web Building

Web Building

Every Web developer has to know the building

blocks of the Web:


HTML 4.01


CSS


XHTML


XML and XSLT


JavaScript


ASP or PHP


Managing data with SQL

HTML 4.01


HTML is the language of the Web.


HTML 4.01 is very different from HTML 3.2.


When tags, like <font> and color attributes, were added to
HTML 3.2, it started a developer's nightmare. Development of
web sites where font information must be added to every
single Web page is a long and expensive job.


With HTML 4.01, all formatting can be moved out of the
HTML document, and into a separate style sheet.


HTML 4.01 is also important because XHTML 1.0 is HTML 4.01
"reformulated" as an XML application. Using HTML 4.01 in
your pages makes the future upgrade from HTML to XHTML a
very simple process.

CSS


Cascading Style Sheets


Styles define how HTML elements should be
displayed, just like the <font> tag in HTML 3.2.


Style sheets are normally saved in external files.
External style sheets enable you to change the
appearance and layout of EVERY page in your
Web site, just by editing a single document. If you
have ever tried changing something like the font
or color of all the headings in all your HTML
pages, you will understand how CSS can save a lot
of work!


XHTML


XHTML stands for Extensible HyperText
Markup Language.


XHTML is a reformulation of HTML 4.01 in
XML, and is supported in all major browsers.


XML


XML
-

A Tool for Describing Data


XML is NOT a replacement for HTML. XML
describes data, while HTML displays the data.


XML is as a cross
-
platform, software
-
, and
hardware
-
independent tool for storing and
transmitting information.


XML is as important to the Web as HTML was to
the foundation of the Web, and XML will be the
most common tool for all data manipulation and
data transmission.


XSLT


XSLT
-

A Tool for Transforming Data


XSLT is used to transform XML documents into
other formats, like HTML, WML, etc.


XSLT can transform an XML file into a format
that is recognized by a browser.


XSLT can also add HTML elements, rearrange
and sort data, make decisions about which
data to display, and more.

Javascript


JavaScript
-

Client
-
Side Scripting


Client
-
side scripting is about "programming" the
behavior of a browser.


Delivers more dynamic web content.


JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool


JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page


JavaScript can react to events


JavaScript can change HTML elements


JavaScript can be used to validate data


ASP or PHP


ASP or PHP
-

Server
-
Side Scripting


Server
-
side scripting is about "programming" an Internet server.


Delivers more dynamic web content


Dynamically edits, changes, or adds content of a Web page


Responds to user queries and forms data


Accesses databases and returns the result to a browser


Accesses files and returns the result to a browser


Transforms XML data to HTML data and returns the results to a
browser


Customizes a Web page to make it more useful for individual
users


Provides security and access control to Web pages


Tailors your output to different types of browsers


Minimizes network traffic


Managing Data with SQL


SQL is the standard language for accessing and
manipulating databases.


SQL is used to access and manipulate data in
MySQL, SQL Server, MS Access, Oracle,
Sybase, DB2, and other database systems.


Knowledge of SQL is a must for anyone
wanting to store or retrieve data from a
database.


Web Design


Less is More


Keep the paragraphs as short as possible.


Keep the pages as short as possible.


Keep the chapters as short as possible.


Use a lot of space! Pages overloaded with text
will kill your audience.


If you have a lot to say, break your information
into smaller chunks and place it on different
pages!


Navigation


Create a consistent navigation structure that is
used by all the pages in your Web site.


Don't use hyperlinks inside paragraphs, to
send visitors to every page of your Web. This
will destroy the feeling of a consistent
navigation structure.


If you must use hyperlinks, add them to the
bottom of a paragraph, or to the menu.


Download Speed


Sometimes developers are not aware of the
fact that some pages take a long time to
download.


Most visitors will leave a Web page that takes
more than 7 seconds to download.


Test your web pages over a low
-
speed modem
connection. If your pages take a long time to
download, consider removing graphic or
multimedia content.


Visitor’s Monitor


Not everyone on the internet has the same
monitor as you.


If you design a Web site to be displayed on a
monitor with a 1024x768 resolution, visitors
with lower resolution monitors (like 800x600)
might have problems reading your pages.


Make sure you test your Web site on different
monitors.


Browsers


Don't forget to test your Web site on different
browsers.


The most popular browsers today are Internet
Explorer, Firefox and Chrome.


One wise thing to do when designing Web
pages is to use correct HTML (or XHTML).
Strict and correct coding will help a browser to
display your pages correctly.


Web Standards


To make internet a better place, for both developers and
end
-
users, it is important that both browsers and Web
developers follow the Web standards.


When developers follow the Web standards, the
development is simplified, since it is easier for a developer
to understand another's coding.


Using Web standards will help you to ensure that all
browsers, will display your Web site properly, without
frequent and time
-
consuming rewrites.


Web pages that conforms to the standard are easier for
search engines to access and index, easier to convert to
other formats, and easier to access with program code (like
JavaScript and the DOM).