By: Aayza Asim, Ariana Macau,

swimminghersheyΠολεοδομικά Έργα

25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

58 εμφανίσεις

By:
Aayza

Asim
, Ariana Macau,
and
DaSom


A military
stalemate strategy


Soldiers
lived in deep trenches and
underground
bunkers


Troops
fought to break through enemy
lines by attacking in suicide charges
into machine gun
fire


T
he
first trenches were hurriedly
made
as people expected a short war


The trenches
were holes dug by
soldiers to protect themselves from the
enemy


Often
flooded and
collapsed



As the front line
stabilized
, these
trenches became
deeper


Trench construction was
difficult



I
t
took nearly
6
hours for 450
men to construct 250 meters of
trench.



After this, they
would have to
add the other materials
necessary: barbed wire, board
walks, and sand
bags


A
dvances
in firepower did not match advances in
mobility; resulting in the invention of trench warfare


D
efender
held the
advantage


In
World War I, both sides constructed
trenches
with
dugout systems opposing each other along a
front


No Man’s Land was
fully exposed to artillery fire
from both
sides


Germany used reinforced concrete to construct deep,
shellproof, ventilated dugouts


France relied on artillery and reserves, not
entrenchment




C
onsisted
of three parallel lines
:

1.
Front Trench
:

point at which a
communication
trench intersected

2.
Support
Trench
: the battalion would retreat
when the front trench was attacked

3.
Third
Reserve Trench
: reserve troops
assembled for a counter
-
attack if the front
trenches were
breeched



The

barbed

wire

removed

any

chance

of

a

surprise

attack

since

the

other

side

would

always

have

plenty

of

warning


Reconnaissance

aircrafts

could

spot

troops

on

the

roads

leading

up

to

the

trenches


Trenches

were

very

difficult

to

capture

because

a

trench

system

consisted

of

at

least

three

lines

of

trenches



the

increased

fire
-
power

made

frontal

attacks

suicidal

and

made

cavalry

useless,

and

there

was

plenty

of

warning

before

a

surprise

attack
.






The trenches of World War One were
decidedly
unhygienic



Pests roamed around the land, including
giant rats


L
imited
access to running
water


The
toilets of the trenches were usually
just large buckets in a side
trench



Dead bodies littered the land, and
continuous gunfire was heard all
around


T
rench foot


B
lindness
or burns from mustard
gas


T
rench fever was found
to be
caused
by
lice



In
the last year of the war, the "Spanish
Flu" hit
the
trenches of
Europe



Usually

about

12

feet

(
3
.
7

m)

deep


Never

straight



Dug

in

a

zigzagging

or

stepped

pattern


Dugouts

would

be

built

in

the

rear

of

the

support

trench



British

dugouts

were

usually

8

to

16

feet

(
2
.
4

to

4
.
9

m)

deep


German

dugouts

were

typically

deeper,

usually

a

minimum

of

12

feet

(
3
.
7

m)

deep

and

sometimes

dug

three

stories

down,

with

concrete

staircases

to

reach

the

upper

levels


To

allow

a

soldier

to

see

out

of

the

trench

without

exposing

his

head,

a

loophole

could

be

built

into

the

parapet

Entrenching


A man would stand on the surface and dig downwards


Most efficient


A
llowed a larger digging party to dig the full length of the trench simultaneously


L
eft the diggers exposed above ground and could only be carried out at specific
times of the day


Sapping


Involves extending the trench by digging away at the end face


Only one or two men could work on the trench at a time


Diggers are not exposed


Tunneling


A

“roof” of soil was left while the trench was being built and then later removed
when the trench was ready to be used


The trench would require constant maintenance due to weather and shelling


C
reated
a "stalemate"
between the Triple Entente
and
the Triple
Alliance)




Made the fighting harder



A

combination of old
military techniques and
modern
technology



Developed as
a response to
the introduction of certain
weapons, such as machine
guns
and
tanks
.


“The water in the trenches through which we waded was alive with a
multitude of swimming frogs. Red slugs crawled up the side of the
trenches and strange beetles with dangerous looking horns wriggled
along dry ledges and invaded the dugouts, in search of the lice that
infested them.”

(unknown journalist
)



“If you have never had trench foot described to you, I will explain. Your
feet swell to two to three times their normal size and go completely
dead. You can stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If
youare

lucky enough not to lose your feet and the swelling starts to go down, it
is then that the most indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry
and scream with pain and many have had to have their feet and legs
amputated. I was one of the lucky ones, but one more day in that trench
and it may have been too late.”

(Harry Roberts
)


Lieutenant Bernard Pitt, letter to his parents (25th December, 1915
)


What is life like in the trenches, well, muddy, and cramped, and filthy. Everything
gets covered with mud; you can't wash, for water has to be fetched for a mile. There
is no room, and if you walk upright in many of the trenches, you run grave risks;
and you sleep, huddled together, unable to stretch. All day long shells and rifle
bullets go banging and whistling, and from dark to midnight the Huns fire rifle
-
grenades and machine
-
guns at us
.



Private Victor Wheeler, a Canadian soldier, was involved in digging some of the
Allies first trenches.

With pick and shovel we dug trenches through beautiful fields of grain, fully
realising what damage we were doing to the farmers' hopes of reaping small
harvests that would enable them to stem hunger during the coming winter. The
patriarch with his ox
-
drawn plough, the matronly gleaner, and the young woman
gathering grass and leaves, roots and truffles, stood arms akimbo, wordlessly,
helplessly, hopelessly watching. The depressing effect on the morale of the men
-

to
many of whom raising grain on the Western prairie also meant their livelihood
-

could not be easily dismissed
.

Credits


Aazya

Asim



PowerPoint, What
T
hey Are, Construction, Illnesses,
S
ignificance


Ariana Macau


History, Trench Systems, Specifications, Building Ways


DaSom

Lim


D
ifficulties, Primary Sources, Quotes