A Comparative Study With and Without

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Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Biodegradation of Phenol :

A Comparative Study With and Without
Applying Magnetic Fields

Jongtai

Jung


(Professor/Ph. D)

Major of Environmental Engineering

Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering

University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon



Every community produces both liquid and solid wastes



The Liquid portion

wastewater




is essentially the water supply of the community


after it has been fouled by a variety of uses




From the stand point of sources of generation,


wastewater is defined as a combination of the liquid or


water
-
carried wastes removed from residences, institution,


and commercial and industrial establishment,


together with such groundwater, surface water, and storm



water as may be present

Wastewater

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Treatment

Descriptions

Preliminary

Removal of
wastewater constituents
such as rags,

stick, floatables
, grit
, and
grease that may
cause


maintenance or operational problems

with
the treatment operations
, processes,

and
ancillary systems

Primary

Removal of a portion of
the
suspended
solids

and organic
matter

from the wastewater

Advanced

Primary

Enhanced removal
of suspended solids

and
organic matter from the wastewater.

Typically accomplished
by chemical
addition
or

Filtration

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Treatment

Descriptions

Secondary

Removal of
biodegradable organic matter

(
in
solution
or suspension) and
suspended
solids
.

Disinfection
is also typically included in the definition
of conventional secondary treatment

Secondary

with
nutrient

Removal

Removal of biodegradable organics, suspended solids

And
nutrients

(nitrogen, phosphorus, or both nitrogen

and

phosphorus
)

Tertiary

Removal of
residual suspended solids

(
after secondary treatment), usually by granular

medium
filtration or
microscreen
.
Disinfection is also

typically
a part of tertiary treatment,

Nutrient
removal is often included in this definition

Advanced

Removal of
dissolved and suspended materials

remaining
after normal biological treatment

when
required for
various
water reuse applications

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

1)
Physical Treatment Method



-

Screening,
C
omminution
, Aeration, Mixing, Flocculation,


-

Sedimentation, Filtration, Adsorption, Gas Stripping,


-

Membrane Processes, etc


2) Chemical Treatment method



-

Disinfection, Precipitation, Coagulation,


-

Chemical oxidation,

Ion exchange, etc


Wastewater Treatment Methods(1)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

3) Biological treatment Method



-

Conventional Activated Sludge Processes,


-

Trickling Filter Processes


-

Rotating Biological Contactor Processes


-

Oxidation Pond Process


-

Anaerobic Biological Treatment,


-

A/O (Advanced Oxidation) Process


a)
Phostrip

Process


b)
Bardenpho

Process


** Nitrogen and Phosphate removal process

Wastewater Treatment Methods(2)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

1)
Purpose


-

To convert the colloidal and dissolved


carbonaceous organic matter into various


gases and into cell tissue.


2) Advantages


-

Less operation cost


-

Byproduct (CH
4

etc)

Biological Treatment Process

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

1. Depends on supplying
o
xygen




Aerobic process : presence of oxygen




Facultative process : indifferent to the presence of DO





Anaerobic process : absence of oxygen




A combination of the aerobic/anoxic or anaerobic


process

2. Microorganisms



1) Suspended
-
growth processes


2) Immobilized
-
growth process


-

Attached microorganism


-

E
ntrapped microorganism

Biological treatment Process

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

1) Techniques




Entrapment in a gel, polymer matrix


(like alginate,
carageenan

and polyurethane)




Attachment on the surface of inert supports


(like diatomaceous earth, glass bead, and polymeric membranes)


2) Advantages


-

No wash out


-

Reuse of biomass


-

Operation flexibility


(
Possible to choose the different operating mode for reactors)


-

Protected from high concentrations of toxic compounds


which are inhibitory


-

A desirable change in biological activity of the biomass

Immobilization Techniques and Advantages

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

To

study

the

effect

of

magnetic

fields




on

the

rate

of

phenol

biodegradation



using

immobilized

activated

sludge



with

a

recirculation

flow

bioreactor
.


The objective of this work

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Fig.1 Batch recirculation flow
biomagnetic

reactor with


immobilized microorganism

Schematic Diagram

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Experimental Set
-
up(1)

1) Recirculation flow
-
type bioreactor,


-

Reactor size : 6.4 cm in diameter


20 cm in length..

2) Reservoir


-

Reservoir size : 11.4 cm in diameter


25.4 cm in length

3) Total reaction volume


-

2 liters including the reservoir.


Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Experimental Set
-
up(2)

1) Culture medium


-

100
ppm

MgCl
2
,
-

0.5
ppm

FeCl
3


-

10
ppm

MgSO
4
,
-

10
ppm

K
2
PO
4

2) Air flow rate : 1.5 liter/min.

3) Recirculation flow rate : 325ml/min.

4) Magnets size


-

Rectangular block ,
-

Dimension 5x15x1 cm.


Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Experiments set
-
up and Run(3)





Chosen Substrate : Phenol




Operating period : 1200 hr




Magnet strength : 0.49 Tesla

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon



Activated sludge(Mixed microbial population)


from Waste water treatment plant



100 g alginate
-
immobilized activated sludge



How to immobilize



-

Distilled water



-

Concentrated sludge(50 mg dry biomass/ g of pallet)



-

0.5% sodium chloride



-

1% sodium alginate



-

0.1 mol/liter CaCl
2


-

Distilled water and Conc. Pellets in a ratio 5:2 mixed


with
NaCl

and Sodium Alginate in a blender


-

The homogeneous cell suspension was then extruded


using a syringe pump into CaCl
2

solution to obtain the


immobilized bacterial beads


Microorganism

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon


1) Control experiment without applying magnetic field,




2) Experiments with magnetic south pole


applied to the reactor,



3) Experiments with magnetic north pole


applied to the reactor,



4) Experiments with alternating magnetic north


and south poles.

Experiments to be performed

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon


1)
Rate of oxygen consumption


(
nmol
/min

ml)


2) Secreted protein concentration (

/ml
)


3) Rate of phenol biodegradation(
ppm
/hr)

Parameters to be monitored

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

1)
Oxygen consumption :


-

Clark
-
type dissolved oxygen probe



-

C
hart recorder

2) Phenol Concentration :


-

Varian 3300 Gas Chromatograph,



-

Detector :

FID

3)
Protein concentration :


-

S
tandard Lowry test(color response measurement)


-

Bovine serum albumin (Sigma Chemicals)


as a protein standard

Analytical Methods

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Results and Discussions(1)

-

Results obtained from the above studies under the


influence of north pole, south pole and during the


control experiments are given in
Table 1.



-

It can be seen that the highest average rate of phenol


biodegradation and oxygen consumption occurred


when the south pole was attached to the bioreactor.

-

When the magnetic south pole was applied,


the biological oxidation activity (measured as


dissolved oxygen consumption rate) increased by a


factor of two as compared to the control experiment


without magnetic field (0.615 to 1.546
nmol
/min/ml).

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Control

South pole

North pole

Rate of

O
2

consumption

[
nmol
/
min∙ml
]

0.615
±

0.053

(
±
7.5%)

1.546
±

0.165

(
±
11%)

0.365
±

0.045

(
±
13%)

Secreted protein
concentration

[

/ml

]

170.5
±

0.7

(
1%)

2357
±

46.2

(
±
2.5%)

ND

Rate of phenol
biodegradation

[
ppm
/hr
]

3.113
±

0.02

(
±
1%)

4.437
±

0.253

(
±
5%)

0.476
±

0.043

(
±
10%)

Table 1. Effect of Magnetic North and South Pole Field on Phenol


Biodegradation in Batch Recirculation Bioreactor

1) Value given represent
mean
±
standard

deviation of the mean.

2) The intervals of confidence are indicated in brackets.

3) The interval of confidence on the calculated values may be estimated at
±
13%


by maximizing the experiment errors.

4) ND, Not detectable, Control means without any magnetic field.

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Results and Discussions(2)

-

Figure 2 shows the effect of magnetic fields on the rate of


dissolved oxygen consumption. It can be seen that the rate


increases markedly after 4 days under the influence of south pole


as compared to the control and the north pole.


-

One of the measures of biodegradation is increase in activity


(measured as rate of dissolved oxygen consumption) of the


microbes in presence of a substrate such as phenol.


-

An increase in dissolved oxygen consumption indicates that it is


being utilized by the microorganisms to break down phenol into


its metabolic products which ultimately are CO
2

and water.


-

The phenol consumption rate was faster by nearly 30% in the


experiment with south pole as compared to the control.

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Fig
.
2

The

effect

of

magnetic

south

and

north

pole

field

on

the

rate

of

O
2

consumption



in

batch

recirculation

bioreactor

with

immobilized

activated

sludge
.




Control

means

without

magnet
.




Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

-

Figure 3 indicates that the phenol concentration


decreased rapidly under the influence of south


pole in comparison to the north pole and the control.


-

The observed trend compares closely with that for the


rate of dissolved oxygen consumption and increase in


extracellular protein concentration
.

Results and Discussions(3)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Fig.3 The effect of magnetic south and north pole field on the rate of


biodegradation when phenol was used as sole carbon source.


Control means without magnet
.

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon


-

Significant production of extracellular protein


verified that biological activity was enhanced


when a magnetic south pole was applied to the


system as compared to the control as shown in Fig. 4.


-

Microorganisms release enzymes
extracellularly



which in turn attack the substrate. A higher amount of


proteins in the reaction medium is a positive measure


of biodegradation.

Results and Discussions(4)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Fig.4 The effect of magnetic south pole field on the protein concentration


Protein was not detected in reactor with north pole.


Control means without magnet.

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

-

The poles were reversed several times.


Initially no magnetic field was applied then the south


pole was applied three times, and north pole twice


alternately over the duration of the experiment.


-

The north pole was consistently inhibitory and


the south pole activating as seen from the dissolved


oxygen consumption rates in Fig. 5.


Results and Discussions(5)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Fig
.
5

The

effect

of

alternating

magnetic

field

on

the

rate

of

O
2

consumption
.



AB

control,

BC

with

south

pole,

CD

with

north

pole,



DE

with

south

pole,

EF

with

north

pole,

FG

with

south

pole
.


Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

1)
When the magnetic north pole was applied to the system,


the decrease in concentration of the phenol was extremely slow,

2) There was a substantial decrease in oxygen consumption rate.


This was due to an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms


exposed to the magnetic north.

3) When magnetic south pole was applied to the system,


the phenol concentration decreased rapidly


and the rate of dissolved oxygen consumption along with


excessive extracellular protein build
-
up were high.

4) This is due to an enhancing effect of the magnetic south pole.


Oxygen consumption and phenol disappearance are also


positive signs.


Conclusions(1)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon


On this basis, we conclude



-

Bio
-
oxidation of phenol was enhanced


by magnetic field south pole



-

Bio
-
oxidation of phenol inhibited


by magnetic north pole irradiation

Conclusions(2)

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Thank you very much

for listening

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon

Jongtai

Jung (Professor/Ph. D)

Dept. of Environmental Engineering Division of Urban and Environmental Engineering University of
Incheon