THEME 2: FOOD, AGRICULTURE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY - Europa

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C
OOPERATION


THEME 2

F
OOD
,

A
GRICULTURE AND
F
ISHERIES
,

AND
B
IOTECHNOLOGY




E
XTENDED

R
EFLECTION
P
APER






D
RAFT OF
J
UNE
2010





I
NFORMAL WORKING DOCU
MENT


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T
ABLE OF CONTENTS


THEME 2

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

1

I.
I
ntroduction

................................
................................
................................
.........................

3

Activity 2.1: Sustainable production and management of biological resources from land,
forest and aquatic environment

................................
................................
..............................

6


Area 2.1.1 Enabling research

................................
................................
............................

6

Area 2.1.2 Increased sustainability of all production systems (agriculture, forestry,
fisherie
s and aquaculture); plant health and crop protection

................................
..........

15

Area 2.1.3 Optimised animal health, production and welfare across agriculture, fisheries
and aquaculture

................................
................................
................................
................

64

Area 2.1.4 Socio
-
economic research and support to policies

................................
..........

81

Activity 2.2 Fork to farm: Food (including seafood), health and well being

.....................

102

Area 2.2.1

Consumers

................................
................................
..............................

102

Area 2.2.2

Nutrition

................................
................................
................................
.

105

Area 2.2.3

Food processing

................................
................................
.....................

113

Area 2.2.4

Food quality and safety

................................
................................
..........

121

Area 2.2.5

Environmental impacts and total food chain

................................
.........

127

Area 2.2.6

European Research Area

................................
................................
.......

132

Activity 2.3

Life Sciences, biotechnology and biochemistry for sustainable non
-
food
products and processes

................................
................................
................................
......

135

Area 2.3.1 Novel sources of biomass and bioproducts

................................
..................

136

Area 2.3.2 Marine and fresh water biotechnology (Blue biotechnology)

......................

142

Area 2.3.3 Industrial biotechnology: novel high added
-
value bio
-
products and bio
-
processes

................................
................................
................................
........................

147

Area 2.3.4 Biorefinery

................................
................................
................................
....

153

Area 2.3.5 Environmental biotechnology

................................
................................
.......

160

Area 2.3.6 Emerging trends in biotechnology

................................
................................

166


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I. introducti
on


The reflection paper of the FP7 Theme 2 "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and
Biotechnology" serves as
the
basis for the overall strategy and priorit
y

setting
s

for the period
2007
-
2013 and
in addition
it is
used as the main reference text in the
prepar
ation of the annual
Work Programmes.

The reflection paper is structured around the four activities of Theme 2: “Sustainable
Production and Management of Biological Resources from Land, Forest and Aquatic
Environments”; “Fork to Farm: Food (including seafo
od), health and well being”, “Life
Sciences, biotechnology and biochemistry for sustainable non
-
food products and processes”,
and Activity 4 which covers horizontal activities. Each activity is broken down into
areas
,
which in turn are composed of several
main lines.

M
ain lines
are used
to group related topics
together which

in turn are
drafted in a way that fit with the aims and objectives of the
activities, the theme and FP7 as a whole, contribute to European added value, and address
problems or opportun
ities that are of broader importance throughout Europe and globally


including relevance to European policy and scientific concerns.

Th
is

paper was
originally drafted
in 2007
as an internal document to facilitate discussion
s

with the Advisory Group and t
he Programme Committee. Since then, it
has become
a
dynamic
document
updated yearly with the results of the latest calls and the topics of the most
recent Work Programme. The main lines are also regularly reviewed in order to take into
account
changing
EU
policies and
emerging
opportunities and challenges for the development
of the
Knowledge Based Bio Economy
.


1.1. Policy context

Theme 2 "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology" brings together all the
relevant actors (appropriate research disc
iplines and private industrial sectors, farmers, forest
owners, consumers, etc.) to develop new, sustainable, safer, affordable, eco
-
efficient

and
competitive products. This objective underpins the
Europe 2020
strategy. It is specifically
designed to incre
ase the competitiveness of Europe's agriculture, fisheries, food, feed,
forestry, and biotechnology companies, in particular SMEs, while improving social welfare
and well
-
being, reducing environmental footprints, and in supporting EU policies. Within
Europ
e today biological resources are the basis of a
large
industry with an estimated annual
turn
-
over of more than €1500 million, and which employs around 22 million people.
Strengthening its competitiveness is crucial to Europe's economy.

The research funded
by Theme

2 "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology" lays
the foundations
of the
European Knowledge Based Bio
-
Economy (KBBE
) and a
ddresses
European and global
needs such

as:



coping with climate change (i.e. spread of ‘new’ plant and animal dise
ases; new
varieties/crops; soil degradation);



assuring security of supply of energy and raw materials (i.e. current reliance on limited
fossil resources, competition for land use);


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addressing increasing environmental considerations (i.e.
optimising
agricul
tural land
use; habitat protection; maintenance of biodiversity, environmentally compatible
industrial processes: water and energy efficiency, pollu
tion reduction and use of
waste
);



addressing
consumer demands (i.e. food safety, eco
-
efficiency commodity pr
oducts
and quality issues);



feeding the increasing world population. Coping with high food and commodity prices
and with difficulties in maintaining food security.

To maximise European Added Value, this Theme supports research that

goes beyond national
or
bi
-
national interest such as the optimal management of open sea fisheries, animal and plant
diseases, and diet
-
related disease prevention; where a critical mass only can be achieved
through multilateral collaboration such as in rare plant and animal diseas
es
,

or in
consumer
sciences

where the European variety and diversity can be instrumental in the
understanding of
food habits and attitudes.


1.2 Approach


5 criteria

When drafting and updating the main lines of the reflection paper (and at a later stage,
drafting the topics of
the annual

work programmes), the following 5 criteria are considered:

1. Strategic areas of importance for EU

growth and competitiveness
(i.e.

areas in which
the EU is strong but needs
improved
leadership; areas of strategic importan
ce
for
the EU

but
in which the EU is la
gg
ing behind compared to
its
main

competitors;
increasing
SME
s
participation
; Enabling technologies)
;

2. Areas supporting other EU policies/strategies/initiatives
(in particular,

Renewed
Sustainable Development Strate
gy; The Maritime policy; Strategic Energy Technology Plan;
Green paper on adaptation to climate change; White Paper on "A strategy for Europe on
nutrition, overweight and obesity related health issues"; Aquaculture Strategy; Organic
Farming Action Plan; Fo
restry Action Plan; Community Animal Health Policy and Animal
Welfare Plan; Water Initiative; European Consensus for Development; EU
-
Africa Strategic
Partnership,
Climate Action, ETAP, IPPC Directive, Water framework Directive, EU
Biodiversity Strategy,

Le
ad Market in Bio
-
based products, REACH
chemicals legislation,
Industrial Emissions Directive,
Commission Communication aiming to support the reduction
of health inequalities in the EU; G8 "L'Aquila" Joint statement on global food security);

3. Actions wher
e timing is critical
such as
areas in which recent efforts have been made that
would certainly profit from a follow
-
up or reinforcement; urgent issues (e.g. new food crisis,
animal diseases); emerging issues (e.g. socio
-
economic concerns); retake up of rel
evant topics
from previous calls (e.g. good proposals but insufficient

budget
)
;

4. Areas supporting global and/or regional challenges and the global responsibility of
EU
(
such as
a
reas requiring broad international efforts;
a
reas identified for co
-
ordinati
on with
other programmes/calls from third countries with bilateral agreements/arrangements with the
EC;
a
reas identified for joint/co
-
funding with BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China
and South Africa);
a
reas supporting the MDG
;


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5. Areas which sup
port the coordination of the development of ERA and KBBE incl.
socio
-
economic aspects
such as

networking of CSO and NGOs; s
upport to lead market
initiatives;
s
upport to the coordination of ETP; ERA
-
NETs;
e
ducation and training needs;
f
orecasting;
d
issemina
tion and communication with end
-
users
.


1.3
Main lines

Each main line of the reflection paper contains a short description and justification, and
a
listing of the related
projects
already
funded in FP6 and in FP7 so far. The reflection paper
gives a compre
hensive overview of what
the mainline wishes to achieve and what has been
achieved to date for each research area,
thus
ensur
ing

an
integrated and balanced approach in
preparing the new topics in
subsequent
annual Work Programmes.

The reflection paper shou
ld not be considered 'quantitatively':

while it is expected that each
main line will receive at least one topic until 2013, some main lines will have more topics
than others, especially when they have a broader scope.


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Activity 2.1: Sustainable production
and management of
biological resources from land, forest and aquatic environment


Area 2.1.1 Enabling research

Enabling research on the key long term drivers of sustainable production and management of
biological resources (micro
-
organisms, plants and anim
als) including the exploitation of
biodiversity and of novel bioactive molecules within these biological systems. Research will
include 'omics' technologies, such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and converging
technologies, and their integration wit
hin systems biology approaches, as well as the
development of basic tools and technologies, including bioinformatics and relevant
databases, and methodologies for identifying varieties within species groups.


Main line 1.1:

'Omics technologies', systems
bi
ology and other basic plant sciences


Description
:
The development of high
-
grade "omics" technologies has enabled plant
scientists to gain new insights into the genetic basis of fundamental biological processes of
plants and plant pathogens. The developmen
t of additional tools is crucial to gain a deeper
understanding of the functioning and regulation of genes and their products in developmental,
environmental and evolutionary contexts. Also, findings from model systems need to be
transferred into plants o
f agronomic importance, with the aim of optimising the genetic
makeup of crops, e.g. improving nutrient/water use efficiency, resistance to biotic/abiotic
stresses, improving the quality of end products.

Bioinformatics is essential to exploit the huge amo
unt of quantitative data generated by high
-
throughput studies. The storage, organisation and interpretation of this information in standard
and easily accessible forms as well as its configuration into interactive models represent a
particular challenge.


Further advances in mathematical, computational and modelling tools are required to gain a
systems understanding of plants by means of studying interacting proteins, metabolites, and
cellular

processes dynamically and by integrating information at variou
s levels from the
molecule to whole organisms and populations. The development of predictive models is
expected to elucidate the complex steps from the genotype to the phenotype and facilitate the
prediction of crop performance in relation to management p
ractices and various ecological
settings.

Knowledge from other basic sciences such as physiology, phenology and taxonomy is
required as a basis for the rational future application of

omics technologies in areas of
strategic importance for plant improvem
ent and health.



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Justification
:

Technologies such as high
-
throughput geno
-

and phenotyping, computational,
modelling and transformation techniques, play a crucial role in plant research. A
comprehensive toolbox is required to study complex plant systems
in a variety of
developmental stages and environments, and to provide the basis for effective (pre
-
)breeding
strategies.

Expected impact
:

The continuing development of enabling technologies will increase our
understanding of plant systems and will facilit
ate the transfer of knowledge from basic plant
research to crop improvement programmes. This ability will allow plant breeders and
producers to meet new and rapidly changing requirements in agricultural production.

Sources:
TP Plants for the Future, Progra
mme Committee

Criteria fulfilled
1
: 1, 3, 4


FP6

GRAIN
-
LEGUMES 506223 (IP): new strategies to improve grain
legumes for food and feed;

META
-
PHOR 036220

(STREP): metabolomic technology
applications for plants, health and outreach;

BIOEXPLOIT 513959

(IP): e
xploitation of natural plant biodiversity
for the pesticide
-
free production of food

ETNA 031740 (SSA): European training and networking activity in
plant genomics and bioinformatics

ERA
-
NETs

ERA
-
PG 510189 (CA): ERA
-
NET on plant genomics

ERA
-
SAGE 016226 (
CA): ERA
-
NET on societal aspects of genomics

ERASYSBIO 023212 (CA): Towards a European Research Area for
Systems Biology

COST

Agricultural bio
-
markers for array technology (853)

Exploiting genomics to understand plant
-
nematode interactions (872)

EUPP: Pla
nt proteomics in Europe (FA0603)

TritiGen: Triticeae genomics for he advancement of essential
European crops (FA0604)

Apoptosis and programmed cell death: molecular mechanisms and
applications in biotechnology and agriculture (844)

Gametic cells and molec
ular breeding for crop improvement (851)




1

Please refer to page 2 for the list of c
riteria


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Call 1 (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
1
-
01: development of new tools and processes to
support R&D in crop plants: molecular breeding (SCP)


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Main line 1.2:

'Omics technologies', systems biology and other basic sciences in f
arm animals


Description:

High
-
grade "omics" technologies in farm animals and their pathogens are in full
development, enabling animal scientists to understand the genetic base of farm animal biology
and production.
The generation of additional animal geno
me sequences may need to be
supported, where appropriate. There is a need to develop more sequence data, 'single
nucleotide polymorphism' (SNP) panels and phenotype databases. The long term annotation
and curation of the genomics data to make sure that it
remains up to date, reliable and
available needs to be addressed.

The a
dvances need the right tools for properly exploiting
farm animal genomics. These may include functional and comparative genomics and/or
in
silico

analysis to dissect the genetic basis o
f one or more specified traits and include 'omics' in
related micro
-
organisms.
The global body of bioinformatics data is increasingly a critical
input for the bio
-
economy, even more so in the current period of high
-
throughput data
collection and the need f
or complex analysis in '
-
omics' technologies.

A systems biology approach, integrating the use of high
-
throughput, computational and
modelling tools and studying the interaction of proteins, metabolites, and cellular

processes, is
required to contribute to
our understanding of how multiple genes function in concert to affect
and effect key processes in animal ‘biology’ (incl. physiology, susceptibility to disease,
response to vaccination, behaviour, etc). The diversity of animal breeds, and data from
traditi
onal breeding practices, means that a systems biology approach is already advanced in
animal production vis
-
à
-
vis human medicine, and this tool could be exploited for human
benefit. Research should further elucidate the complex steps translating animal gen
otype to
phenotype and facilitate the prediction of performance in relation to the animal's environment.

Research in other basic sciences such as physiology, growth, immunology, cell biology and
related technologies is also important to contribute to the d
evelopment of the necessary wealth
of knowledge to provide the basis for future application in areas of strategic importance for
farm animal breeding, production and animal health.


Justification:

The human genome field has led the way both in terms of com
pleteness of data
and in developing tools and applications. Animal genomics broadly follows a route similar to
the one in humans, but there is a major difference in that animals are selected to express or
repress specific traits and in fact have been delib
erately selected over several thousand years.
This means that they also form a unique resource for comparative genomics with other
species, including humans, and diveristy of breeds within a single species also means that
animal genomics can produce inform
ation on systems biology in advance of human research.
There is a need to develop and reinforce the power, consistency and compatibility of the
bioinformatics tools, i.e. databases, mainly software, but also hardware as appropriate (cf
'infrastructures'),
and to ensure their sustainability. Research needs to encompass an
interlinked collection of robust and reliable databases, capable of accommodating the massive
accumulation and diversification of '
-
omics' data.
In addition to the 'omics' technologies,
und
erstanding of biological pathways is part of the Action Plan

of the EU strategy for life

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172

sciences and biotechnology. These aspects of sciences are sometimes neglected, partly
because they are less attractive nowadays compared to exciting new developments a
nd
applications such as 'omics' technologies. From a European perspective it is essential to
stimulate and better coordinate the fragmented efforts in basic livestock sciences in order to
ensure a long
-
lasting excellent knowledge base.

Expected impact:

The

advances in 'omics' and bioinformatics and increased
knowledge of
the function of regulatory networks in the context of natural variation and evolution will
improve our understanding of animal physiology and pathogenesis.
A core objective is to
form the b
asis to support industrial innovation (e.g. animal health, welfare and nutrition;
adaptation to environment; food security and safety) and assist in balanced improvement of
the diverse range of sustainable animal production in Europe.
Studying native and a
cquired
immunological phenomena will help understand the host
-
microbe interactions to support
development of improved or new diagnostic tools, vaccines, treatments or feeding strategies.
It may also pave the way for the selection of animals less susceptibl
e to diseases/pathologies,
improve animal robustness and thus reduce the use of medicines and other chemicals.

Sources:
TP FABRE; TP GAH; EAAP; EU
-
US Task Force

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

See also area 2.1.2.

Main line

2.11: In depth understanding o
f essential biological functions
of farmed aquatic animals and integration to the production cycle


FP6

SABRE 016250 (IP): cutting edge genomics for sustainable
animal breeding

EADGENE 506416 (NoE): European animal diseases
genomics network of excellence f
or animal health and food
safety

ERA
-
NETs

ERA
-
SAGE 016226 (CA): ERA
-
NET on societal aspects of
genomics

ERASYSBIO 023212 (CA): Towards a European Research
Area for Systems Biology

COST

Agricultural bio
-
markers for array technology (853)

European network
for pig genomics (861)

The importance of prenatal events for postnatal muscle growth
in relation to the quality of muscle based foods (925)

Call 1 (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
1
-
02: Mining genomics information of farm
animals to generate new information on the ge
netic basis of
phenotypes important to sustainable animal production (SCP)


MacroSys: Macrophage Systems Biology Applied To Disease
Control


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172

Call 2A (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
1
-
04: Development of technologies and tools for
the exploitation of livestock genome
(LCP)


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-
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-
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晲潭湥⁳灥cie
猠瑯⁡湯s桥爠rCpA
-
C䄩†

Ca汬″
㈰〹⤺M
呯灩q猠灲潰潳s搠景d
晵湤楮f

䭂hb
-
㈰〹
-
1
-
1
-
〲㨠䵩湩湧 ge湯浩c猠楮景sma瑩潮o⁳浡汬
牵浩湡湴猠n漠oene牡瑥⁵t摥牳瑡湤楮g映瑨 gene瑩c⁢ 獩s映
灨p湯nype猠業灯牴p湴⁴漠獵獴a楮慢汥⁰牯 畣瑩潮⁡n搠桥a汴栠
⡓Em⤠


㍓o㨠pu
獴慩湡扬e⁓潬畴楯湳⁦潲⁓浡汬⁒u浩湡湴n

Ca汬‴
㈰㄰⤺1
呯灩qs

䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸴
-
〱㨠M瑲tn杴桥湩湧⁴桥

業灬敭p湴慴楯渠潦⁤畲a扬攠楮瑥杲a瑩潮⁩渠omS

乥瑷潲t猠潦⁅xce汬e湣e
-

p瑲t湧瑨敮楮g⁴桥⁩浰 e浥湴m瑩潮o
摵牡扬攠楮瑥gra瑩潮o⁅䅄䝅久

Ca汬‵
㈰ㄱ⤺1
楮摩cat
楶攠瑯灩捳

䭂h䔮㈰ㄱ⸱⸱
-
〳㨠䕦晩f楥湣y映牵浩湡湴⁤n来獴s癥⁳y獴敭猠
a湤⁲n摵d瑩潮o⁴ e⁥c潬潧楣a氠景潴灲楮琠l桲潵h栠a⁣潭扩湡瑩潮o
潦⁳y獴敭猠扩潬ogyⰠD潭oc猧 a湤畴物n楯i



Main line 1.3:

Conservation and sustainable use

of biodiversity


Description
:

Analysis and exploitation of biodiversity is a distinctive part of the sustainable
use of biological resources, which can be supported and improved by new tools, in particular
‘omics’ technologies. The purpose is to identify, protect and use biodiversity,

either for the
conservation of relevant genetic and biological resources particularly in plants and animals
(including fish and aquaculture), for improved
use for agricultural purposes (e.g.
improvement of specific traits for sustainable production of pla
nts and livestock; soil
microbiology), or for innovation in varieties

and
products, e.g.
bioactive molecules (see main
line below)
.

The wild relatives of cultivated plants and farm animals provide a reservoir of untapped,
potentially important genes for cr
op improvement and animal breeding programmes. To
effectively use the wealth of genetic resources it is important that biodiversity is further
studied and understood, conserved, characterised and evaluated. Mechanisms and strategies
for the conservation, c
haracterisation and evaluation of landraces of potential significance

Page
12

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172

need to be further developed.
Based on a wide range of molecular and genetic advanced
technologies, databases and gene banks currently available, further research needs to be
conducted w
ith the aim of increasing our understanding
of the evolutionary processes that
shape the diversity of crops/animals and their wild progenitors.

New phenotypic and
genotypic inventories of wild species and local/neglected varieties will allow the
identifica
tion (and extraction) of new alleles of key genes for important traits suitable for
developing improved and new crop cultivars and breeds.

A better knowledge of the biodiversity of pests and pathogens is also needed to develop crop
protection strategies.

There is a particular need to promote under
-
utilised plant genetic resources (including forest
tree species) and domestication of wild species.

In the frame of International Cooperation the exploitation of underutilised genetic resources
shall take into ac
count its potential contribution to poverty alleviation and sustaining rural
livelihoods in the poorest countries.

Justification:

In livestock, new high
-
throughput and low cost genomic tools open up new
prospects genomic tools have the potential to suppl
ement or replace current quantitative tools
for the management (and indeed definition) of optimal biodiversity in livestock breeding
programmes, or identify new genetic determinants of useful traits in species/breeds/varieties
not subject to intensive sele
ctive pressure, thus contributing to sustainable agriculture. It can
inform and develop strategies to provide for cost
-
effective in vivo or in vitro conservation of
endangered alleles. Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources in developing
cou
ntries is highlighted in Action 26 of the Action Plan of the EU strategy for life sciences
and biotechnology and the ou
tcome of the

International Technical Conference on Animal
Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (Interlaken, Switzerland, 3
-
7 Septem
ber 2007).

Breeding for food production oriented traits has significantly narrowed genetic diversity of
cultivated plants. New uses of plants for bio
-
energy and biorefineries, but also for improving
pathogen resistance and stress tolerance will benefit fro
m the introduction of new genetic
diversity into our crops. Also, in view of rapidly changing environmental and demographic
conditions there is an urgent need to develop more robust crop varieties than those currently
utilised.

Expected impact:
Increased k
nowledge of the mechanisms underpinning evolutionary
process along with improved access to biodiversity resources will contribute to increased
diversification of crops and livestock, more resilient and diverse agricultural production
systems and, ultimatel
y, to more sustainable farming systems. Enhancing biodiversity will
contribute to ensuring that agricultural systems are multifunctional, thus performing a range
of ecological services.

Sources:

TP FABRE;
TP Plant Genomics; FAO (conservation of genetic res
ources)

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 3, 4

See also area 2.1.2. m
ain line
2.
8: Knowledge
-
base for an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries
Management (EAFM) and main line 2.13: Ecosystem approach to aquaculture



Page
13

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172

FP6

DIVERSEEDS 031317 (SSA): networking on conservation a
nd use of
plant genetic resources in Europe and Asia

ALTER
-
NET (NoE
-
P6)
A Long
-
term Biodiversity, Ecosystem and
Awareness Research Network

ERA
-
NETs

BiodivERsA 517836 (CA): ERA
-
Net in Biodiversity Research

COST

Cryopreservation of crop species in Europe (
871)

Call 1 (2007):

None

Call 2A (2007):

None

Call 2B (2008):

KBBE
-
2008
-
1
-
4
-
08: characterisation and valorisation of Andean soil
microbial diversity to support sustainable crop production and agro
-
ecosystems (SCP
-
SICA Latin America region)


噁i佒䅍l

噡汯物l楮i⁁湤 a渠浩c牯扩慬⁤楶敲獩sy⁴桲潵g栠獵h瑡楮t扬攠
楮ie湳楦楣n瑩潮o⁰潴慴
-
扡獥搠晡牭楮r⁳y獴敭s

呯灩q猠灵扬楳桥搠楮i
ea牬楥爠ca汬猬⁢畴潴
汩步ly⁴漠扥⁦畮ued

乯湥

Ca汬″
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灲潰p獥搠景d 晵湤楮f

䭂hb
-
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-
1
-
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〳M

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瑨潤t⁴漠浡楮瑡楮⁦a牭r
a湩na氠扩潤楶敲獩sy
千m
-
pfC䄩


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䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸱⸱
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ces

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-
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牥獯畲se猠s猠s⁢a獩s⁦潲⁩浰牯癥搠d牯瀠r牥e摩dg

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-
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ng⁦潲e獴⁴牥e gene瑩c
牥獯畲ses



Main line 1.4:

Novel t
echnologies for agricultural practices


New and advanced technologies in agriculture are needed with a view to support the
development and make possible the farm of the future. The focus should be
on the
development of user
-
friendly high
-
performance tools and automation systems to help the
farmers in optimising their management and the use of inputs. IT
-
supported tools for real
-
time

Page
14

of
172

monitoring of crops and livestock, including nutritional needs and
health, as well as prototype
models, tools and kits to support farmers in rapid decision
-
making, should be developed.
Last
generation information and communication technologies, spraying and spreading of fertilizers
or pesticides assisted by Global Positio
ning Systems (GPS), Geographical Information
Systems (GIS), real time monitoring, satellites, images, non
-
invasive sensors, (semi
-
)
automatic data recording and processing at the farm level, etc., as well as other technologies:
compact field kits, robotics
, etc. should provide the basis for the development of the above
-
mentioned
technological tools and automation systems.
Application of
high
-
performance
technologies in farming may significantly improve farm management from several
perspectives and contribut
e to enhance the sustainability of European agriculture. The
proposed research can contribute to further develop the concepts linked to the farm of the
future and produce more advanced knowledge and innovations, thus enhancing capacity
building in sustaina
ble farming. Other disciplines can benefit from innovative technologies,
such as the surveillance

of particular situations such as diseases or their vectors, to detect and
monitor emerging risks, or the verification of product authenticity or absence/prese
nce of
components in products.

Diversification in EU agriculture must continue to be developed to give farmers alternatives
to traditional farming practices where these prove unsustainable, and to address different
geographical and social structures across

Europe. Research in this context includes how to
grow, manage and produce novel crops and animals (food and non
-
food varieties) of both a
conventional and GM nature, in a feasible safe, socially acceptable and cost
-
effective manner
at the farm level.

Just
ification:
Innovation and technological development are part of the Lisbon Agenda and
can contribute to support sustainable agriculture and adaptation/mitigation

of environmental
changes

as well as to support other disciplines such as animal and plant heal
th, animal
welfare,etc
.
A lot has been done in FP6 on traceability along the food chain.

Expected impact:

new technologies

provide farmers and related industry with alternatives to
traditional practices and the possibility to improve sustainability and/or

optimise production
efficiency.
Increased competitiveness of agriculture and related industries, while contributing
to sustainable agriculture, through a more rationale and efficient use of inputs and resources,
by improving production processes, animal h
ealth and welfare, farmers' quality of life and
health, while reducing the environmental impact.


Sources:
SCAR, DGs (AGRI, SANCO); TP plants for the Future; FABRE TP

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 4

See also area 2.1.2.
main line

2.11: In depth understanding
of essential biological functions
of farmed aquatic animals and integration to the production cycle


FP6

BIODET 043136 (SSA): networking in the application of biosensors
to pesticide detection in fruits and vegetables

Traceability
:


Page
15

of
172

BIOTRACER 036272 (IP):
improved bio
-
traceability of unintended
micro
-
organisms and their substances in food and feed chains;

TRACEBACK 036300 (IP): integrated system for a reliable
traceability of food supply chains;

OTAG 043134 (SSA): operational management and geodecisional
p
rototype to track and trace agricultural production ;

CHILL
-
ON 016333 (IP): developing and integrating novel
technologies to improve safety, transparency and quality insurance of
the chilled/frozen food supply chain

ERA
-
NETs

ERA
-
IB 035581 (CA) : Towards
an ERA in Industrial Biotechnology

COST

None

Call 1 (2007):

None

Call 2A (2007): for
funding

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
1
-
05: using new technologies to identify (re
-
)
emerging pathogens from wildlife reservoirs (LCP)


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乯癥氠呥c桮潬hg楥猠c潲op畲癥楬污湣e⁏

䕭erg楮g⁁湤⁒
-
䕭brg楮g
fn晥c瑩潮猠佦⁗楬摬d晥

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-
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-
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-
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汩癥獴潣欠sa牭楮g⁩渠䕵 潰oa渠n湩na氠灲潤lc瑩潮⁳y獴敭猠⡃sA
-
p䄩


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䅣ce灴a扬攠偲bc楳i潮oi楶e獴潣欠sa牭楮r 景f⁓䵅猠楮⁅畲潰s⁡湤n
睯w汤
-
睩摥

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ea牬楥爠ca汬猬⁢畴潴
汩步ly⁴漠扥⁦畮ued

䭂hb
-
㈰〷
-
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-
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-
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a灰汩ca瑩潮o geogra灨楣a氠l湦潲浡瑩潮⁦潲 癥⁡n業a汳

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灲潤pc瑳
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Ca汬″
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灲潰p獥搠景d 晵湤楮f

乯湥

Ca汬‴
㈰㄰⤺⁔潰楣s

CLOSED

Call 5 (2011):

CLOSED



Area 2.1.2 Increased sustainability of all production systems (agriculture, forestry,
fisheries and aquaculture); plant hea
lth and crop protection

Increased sustainability and competitiveness, while safeguarding consumer health,
decreasing environmental impacts and taking account of climate change, in agriculture,
horticulture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture through the d
evelopment of new technologies,

Page
16

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172

equipment, monitoring systems, novel plants and production systems, crop management
through selected plant breeding, plant health and optimised production systems, the
improvement of the scientific and technical basis of fis
heries management, and a better
understanding of the interaction between different systems (agriculture and forestry; fisheries
and aquaculture) across a whole ecosystem approach. Research into maintenance of
autochthonous ecosystems, development of biocon
trol agents, and microbiological dimension
of biodiversity and metagenomics will be undertaken.

For land based biological resources, special emphasis will be placed on low input (e.g.
pesticides and fertilisers), and organic production systems, improved m
anagement of
resources and novel food and feeds, and novel plants (crops and trees) with respect to their
composition, resistance to stress, ecological effect, nutrient and water use efficiency, and
architecture. This will be supported through research int
o biosafety, co
-
existence and
traceability of novel plants systems and products, and monitoring and assessment of impact of
genetically modified crops on the environment and human health as well as the possibility of
their broader benefit for society. Plan
t health and crop protection will be improved through
better understanding of ecology, biology of pests, diseases, weeds and other threats of
phytosanitary relevance and support to controlling disease outbreaks and enhancing
sustainable pest and weed manag
ement tools and techniques. Improved methods will be
developed for monitoring, preservation and enhancement of soil fertility.

For biological resources from aquatic environments, emphasis will be placed on essential
biological functions, safe and environme
ntally friendly production systems and feeds of
cultured species and on fisheries biology, dynamics of mixed fisheries, interactions between
fisheries activities and the marine ecosystem and on fleet
-
based, regional and multi
-
annual
management systems.


Li
vestock Production


Main line

2.1:

Strategies for
adaptation to and mitigation of,
climate change


Description:
Agriculture contributes to about 10% of the EU
greenhouse gas

emissions
(GHG). Equally, forests contribute significantly to global carbon emissi
ons when cleared,
overused or degraded. But agricultural and forestlands also play a key role in providing
solutions to reduce the effects of climate change by sequestering carbon and reducing net
GHG emissions.

Research addressing the complex relation
ships between agricultural activities, forestry and
climate change can contribute to assessing and adopting the best production and management
practices to sequester carbon and reduce overall GHG emissions while maximizing the full
range of economic and n
on
-
market benefits of agricultural and forest land use.

Research shall also help to assess the medium and long
-
term impact of climate variability and
climate change on crops, pastures, forests and animal production. Simulation models for

Page
17

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172

example can help u
nderstand the possible effects of global change on agriculture and forests,
as well as on soil functions and water cycle, thus facilitating the projection of experimental
data upwards to the regional, country, or continental scales.

Research dealing with
mitigation and adaptation strategies in agriculture and forestry requires
a broad and interdisciplinary approach, including for example:


-

Management and recycling of agricultural/organic waste and by
-
products

-

Carbon sequestration in agricultural so
ils and forests, e.g. through land
-
use measures

-

Farm and crop management, tillage, diversification, fertilization approaches and techniques

-

Livestock husbandry, including feeding and metabolism components of nitrogen excretion
and methane emissions

-

T
echnical, management and policy aspects of biomass production

-

Effects of climate change on carbon mitigation capacity of the forest sector

Projects under this main line are particularly suited for international and development
cooperation, with particul
ar attention to smallholder farming in developing countries.

Justification:
An increasing number of international commitments and scientific conferences
address the issue of the contribution of agriculture, livestock and forestry to climate change
and reco
gnise the important role of these sectors in providing mitigation solutions. Increased
research efforts are required to provide a sound basis for measures to adapt current production
systems to expected changes as well as for fully exploiting the mitigatio
n potential of the
agriculture and forest sectors.

Expected impact:
Projects in this field shall support the adaptation of agriculture, livestock
and forestry to climate change effects and develop adequate mitigation strategies. Results will
contribute to

reducing the negative impact of agricultural activities on climate change and the
pressure on natural resources. Results shall also help increasing the role of forestry in climate
change mitigation and fresh water accumulation and conservation, as well as

to the
better
control of land degradation and desertification.


Overall, projects shall contribute to meeting international and European commitments, most
importantly the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto
Protocol and the
European Climate Change Programme
.

Sources:
EU policy initiative;

IPCC; SCAR; International Conferences

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


FP6

PICCMAT 1942 (SSP)
Policy Incentives

for Climate Change
Mitigation Agricultural Techniques

BAT
-
SUPPORT 044292 (SSP
-
SSA)

Best available techniques for
European Intensive livestock farming


p異灯u琠景爠瑨r

Page
18

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172

implementation of the IPPC Directive

ADAGIO 044210 (SSP
-
SSA) Adaptation of Agriculture

in European
regions at environmental risk under climate change

INSEA 503614 (SSP
-
P6) Integrated Sink Enhancement Assessment

NITROEUROPE (IP
-
P6)
The nitrogen cycle and its influence on the
European greenhouse gas balance

ERA
-
NETs

None

COST

Action 639: Gr
eenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate
and land use (BurnOut)

Action 734: Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on European
Agriculture: CLIVAGRI

Call 1 (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
2
-
08: reduction of N excretion in ruminants (LCP)

o䕄久堺†f湮n
癡瑩癥⁡湤⁰nac瑩ca氠lanage浥湴⁡灰牯pche猠瑯s
牥摵de楴牯来渠nxc牥瑩潮⁢y⁲畭楮慮瑳

Ca汬′䄠 ㈰〷O㨠

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㈰ 㠩㨠

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-
㈰〸
-
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-
O
-
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c汩浡瑩挠m桡nge猠a湤⁴桥nc潮獥煵q湣e猠景s⁳ a扩b楴y a湤⁰牯r
畣瑩癩vy映
景fe獴⁥s潳y獴e浳
mCm⤠


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C桡湧eⰠ䄠剩獫⁁湡ly獩s

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ea牬楥爠ca汬猬⁢畴潴
汩步ly⁴漠扥⁦畮ued

乯湥

Ca汬″
㈰〹⤺⁔潰楣猠
灲潰p獥搠景d 晵湤楮f

乯湥

Ca汬‴
㈰㄰⤺⁔潰楣s

䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸱⸲
-
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f湴ngra瑩湧 瑩条瑩潮⁡湤⁡da灴慴楯渠潰p楯湳⁦潲
獵獴a楮慢汥 癥獴潣欠灲o摵d瑩潮⁵湤o爠r汩浡瑥⁣ha湧n
䍐
-

-
pfC䄩

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潰瑩潮猠景o⁳畳 a楮慢汥 ii癥獴潣欠灲潤畣瑩潮⁵湤or⁣汩浡瑥⁃䡁乇b


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⤺F
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䭂h䔮㈰ㄱ⸱⸲
-
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䕵b潰o⁦潲 e湨nnc楮i 景潤⁡湤⁦ne搠d牯摵r瑩潮⁡湤⁣潮瑲楢畴楮i⁴漠
c汩浡瑥⁣桡nge 瑩ga瑩on






Page
19

of
172

Main line 2.2:

Interdisciplinary research on farming systems, agro
-

and
forest
-
ecosystems (and other
research integrating biological, agricultural, socio
-
economic and policy research)


Description:
Farming systems research relates to the whole farm (or to agricultural regions or
sectors) rather than individual elements and is
driven as much by the overall welfare of
farming households as by goals of yield and profitability in the broader context of
sustainability.
Research themes

on farming systems can range from
integrated nutrient or
water management across soil/crop interfac
es, mixed plant/animal farming to socio
-
economic
studies, management of rotations or landscape sciences
. It also addresses interactions
between farms or agricultural areas.

As regards livestock production systems, the increasing demand for food from animal

origin,
consumer's expectations for safer, high quality food products, and the new societal concerns
like animal welfare, environmental friendly practices, and landscape maintenance, show the
increasing need for evolving towards a global approach of farmi
ng systems. Interdisciplinary
research is needed to help developing strategies through a systems approach calling for new
technologies, new husbandry practices and fully integrated systems including decision support
actions in order to generate profitable
production, energy efficiency, appropriate nutrient
recycling, while preserving natural resource quality and providing benefits for the
environment. Systems like organic and low input farming and/or integration of plant and
livestock systems should be favo
ured.


Agroecology research applies
ecological

concepts and principles to the design, development,
and management of sustainable agricultural and food systems. All forms of sustainable
farmin
g systems suitable for Europe in its diverse pedo
-
climatic and agro
-
economic situations
will receive special attention, e.g.: low
-
input, organic farming and other sustainable forms of
production including agro
-
forestry, grassland
-
based systems and other s
ystems producing
high
-
value products and services on local or niche markets, as well as highly productive and
competitive systems when suitable and sustainable. It has already generated improved
Conservation Agriculture techniques in some developed (e.g. U
SA) and developing and
emerging countries (e.g. Brazil). Situations of agro
-
ecosystems in less developed countries
relying on underutilised crops and low inputs systems will be particularly considered.

Justification/expected impact:

Agriculture remains cen
tral to the economy of rural areas and
therefore plays a major role in all aspects of rural development. In particular organic/low
-
input farming is an important element in the strategy of environmental integration and
sustainable development and should be
fully integrated in rural development policies. It is
expected that implementation of the agroecology concept will provide significant
opportunities for smallholders and labour intensive multifunctional farming in developing
countries.

Sources:
SCAR; DGs (
AGRI)

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 4, 5



Page
20

of
172

FP6

QLIF 506358 (IP): improving quality and safety and reduction of cost in
the European organic and low input supply chains

AQUAGRIS 036298 (CA): environmental management reform for
sustainable farming, fisheries and

aquaculture

AE
-
FOOTPRINT 006491 (SSP) Agri
-
environmental Footprint:
Development of a common generic methodology for evaluating the
effectiveness of European Agri
-
environmental Schemes

ITAES 502070 (SSP
-
STREP) Integrated tools to design and implement
agri
-
environmental schemes

ERA
-
NETs

CORE
-
Organic 011716 (CA)

Co
-
ordination of European Transnational
Research in Organic Food and Farming

ERA
-
ARD 517837 (CA) The Agricultural Research for Development
Dimension of the European Research Area

COST

Quality legum
e
-
based forage systems for contrasting environments (852)

Phytotechnologies to promote sustainable land use management and
improve food chain safety (859)

Call 1 (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
4
-
03: the farm of tomorrow (SCP)


c畴畲uca牭㨠
f湴n杲g瑩潮o ca牭⁍rnag
e浥湴mf湦n牭r瑩潮⁓ys瑥浳⁴漠獵灰潲琠oeal
-
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䭂hb
-
㈰〷
-
1
-
O
-


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䵥摩de牲anea渠⡃nA
-
CA㬠䕒䅎䕔b


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䵥摩de牲anean

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Ca汬′ 
㈰ 㠩㨠

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千m⤠


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o啒r䝒f

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Page
21

of
172

Call 3 (2009): Topics
proposed for funding

KBBE
-
2009
-
1
-
2
-
01:
Legumes: k
ey multifunctional legume crops for an
energy
-
efficient and environmentally friendly future European agriculture
(SCP)


ieg畭敳
-
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-
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䕵b潰o

䭂hb
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c潭灥瑩o
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獥牶楣e猠⡓sm⤠


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獴牡瑥g楥猠i潲畬o楦畮i瑩潮o氠lra獳sa湤⁢nse搠牵d楮慮琠灲潤畣瑩潮o
sy獴敭s

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-
p䄻慮摡瑯ty
fCmC⤠


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Ca汬‴
㈰㄰⤺⁔潰楣s

䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸱⸲
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CLOSED


Crop production


Main line 2.3:

Management and use of natural reso
urces (e.g. water and soil and functional
biodiversity) in agriculture and forestry


Description:
Soil, water and functional biodiversity in agro
-
ecosystems are fundamental
factors in agricultural production and forestry. However, these important resources

tend to be
exposed to overexploitation and their availability is decreasing amongst others as a
consequence of intensive management practices and increasing effects of climate change.

Soil performs many functions and services: storage, filtration and tra
nsformation of many
substances of vital importance for terrestrial flora and fauna, such as water, carbon and
nitrogen. Soil remains the primary substrate for growing crops and forests, but also for other
farm activities such as farm animal production. Soi
l biodiversity in particular is essential to
support plant growth and health.

Research under this main line shall allow for a wide range of activities aiming at preserving
and/or improving soil fertility and functions, addressing issues such as on
-
farm re
cycling of
nutrients and organic wastes, site
-
specific soil management practices to optimise soil

Page
22

of
172

biological, chemical and physical properties and processes, as well as effects of different
cropping and forest systems on soil biology, soil conservation, so
il fertility, etc.

Agriculture is currently the main water
-
consuming sector world wide and, if the current trend
in irrigated areas is confirmed, it is expected to remain the principal water
-
consuming sector
in the future. Considering the above, research i
s needed to reduce the overall water
consumption in agriculture and increase the efficiency of water use, e.g. through more
efficient on
-
farm water management and improved irrigation methods, including research to
reduce inherent risks related to the use o
f recycled waste water for irrigation. Research is also
needed for assessing and increasing the role and capacity of forest areas in fresh water
reserves conservation.

In summary, research under this main line seeks to develop knowledge, technologies and
practices to improve the management of natural resources in agriculture and forestry in view
of ensuring productivity while maintaining and restoring the long term ecological and
biological integrity of natural resources. Most issues will require an inter
disciplinary approach
cutting across rural, social, and environmental aspects of natural resource management.

Justification:
Life on earth depends mainly on the good health of a superficial layer of soil,
and food security would be in jeopardy if the curre
nt trend in top soil erosion and fertility loss
is not addressed with adequate research efforts. Erosion, loss of organic matter, compaction,
salinisation, landslides, contamination and sealing are increasingly threatening agricultural
soils and a global s
ustainable approach is needed to reverse this negative trend. A constant
and increasing effort at EU level to support research addressing agricultural soil protection
and conservation is needed. This includes research in support to the recently launched EU

Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

Fresh water shortage will be one of the main problems to be faced worldwide in the next
decades and one of the principal sources of social and political instability and conflicts in
some regions. Since agriculture is

one of the more water depending and demanding sectors,
research is needed to improve the efficiency of water use in agricultural production systems
with the aim of decreasing water consumption and the pressure on fresh water reserves. These
measures need
to go hand in hand with efforts to maintain the water storage and conservation
capacity of forests.

Expected impact:

Results of research activities shall contribute to improving the
management of natural resources management in agricultural and forest land
s, thus reducing
pressure on soil fertility, fresh water reserves and functional biodiversity. Overall, they shall
contribute to increasing the resilience of farming and forest systems to rapidly changing
environmental conditions.

Sources:
EU policy initia
tive; IPCC; SCAR; International conferences; EU Thematic strategy
on soil protection; DG ENV; UNEP Blue Plan; TP Plants; EU Water Framework Directive;
Water Supply & Sanitation EU Technology Platform (WSSTP); PC (Pool of Mediterranean
Countries)

Criteria f
ulfilled
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


FP6

IRRIQUAL 023120 (STREP): sustainable orchard irrigation for

Page
23

of
172

improving fruit quality and safety;

MICROMAIZE 036314 (STREP): management of plant
-
beneficial
microbes to balance fertiliser inputs in maize monoculture

SAFIR 023168

(STREP): safe and high quality food production using
poor quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

RAMSOIL (SSP) Risk Assessment Methologies for SOIL Threats

AE
-
FOOTPRINT 006491 (SSP) Agri
-
environmental Footprint:
Development of a co
mmon generic methodology for evaluating the
effectiveness of European Agri
-
environmental Schemes

Farm Seed Opportunities 44345 (SSP STREP) Opportunities for farm
seed conservation, breeding and production

ERA
-
NETs

SNOWMAN 3219 (CA): sustainable management

of soil and
groundwater under the pressure of soil pollution and soil
contamination

IWRM.NET 026025 (CA) : Towards a European
-
wide exchange
Network for Integrating research efforts on Integrated Water
Resources Management

COST

Fundamental, agronomical an
d environmental aspects of sulphur
nutrition and assimilation in plants (829)

Quantifying the agricultural contribution to eutrophication (832)

Managing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving soil quality and
health in agriculture (838)

Denitrification

in agriculture, air and water pollution (856)

Mitigation options for nutrient reduction in surface water and
groundwaters (869)

From production to application of arbuscular myccorhizal fungi in
agricultural systems: a multidisciplinary approach (870)

Ca
ll 1 (2007):

None

Call 2A (2007):

None

Call 2B (2008):

KBBE
-
2008
-
1
-
2
-
08: novel approaches for reusing nitrogen losses
(CSA
-
SA)
-

N
-
TOOLBOX: Toolbox of cost
-
effective strategies for on
-
farm reductions in N losses to water

Topics published in
earlier c
alls, but not
likely to be funded

None


Page
24

of
172

Call 3 (2009): Topics
proposed for funding

KBBE
-
2009
-
1
-
2
-
03:

Irrigation water saving solutions for
Mediterranean agriculture (SCP
-
SICA)


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Cal
氠㐠⠲〱〩㨠呯灩cs

䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸱⸲
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-

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-
c桡爠
灲潤pc瑳



Main line 2.4:

Sustainable and competitive pl
ant production including low
-
input and organic farming

Description:
Under this main line activities/topics shall encompass research on management,
cultivation and breeding practices leading to increased
performance (yield, quality, stability)
of specific m
ajor, minor and underutilized crops (including trees, shrubs, berries, (grain)
legumes, forage crops). With the aim to diversify production, increase quality of crops and
reduce environmental impact of agricultural activities, special emphasis shall be pla
ced on
low
-
input, organic farming and other sustainable forms of production including agro
-
forestry,
grassland
-
based systems and other systems producing high
-
value products and services on
local or niche markets. Research under this main line shall take in
to account crop
management practices to preserve and enhance soil fertility, such as innovative crop rotation,
cover crop, intercropping and agro
-
forestry, in combination with innovative practices to
decrease the use of chemical inputs (mainly fertiliser
s and pesticides), such as bio
-
control
agents and natural enemies, bio
-
enhancers and symbionts, etc.

The development of agro
-
technical and management approaches to sustain, diversify and
increase productivity needs to be underpinned by new insights into th
e biology of key drivers
for plant yield productivity and quality, combining physiological and molecular approaches.
Important aspects are for example the study of factors that determine plant architecture and
development (e.g. flowering time, seed/fruit d
evelopment and storage, germination, crop
senescence) or the mechanisms leading to and maintaining heterosis. Crop models are
powerful tools, e.g. to identify suitable plant traits for yield and quality under different
conditions and can provide useful gu
idance to breeding. Situations of agro
-
ecosystems in
developing countries relying on underutilised crops and low inputs systems will be
considered.

Justification:
Ag
ricultural production is undergoing major changes, having to cope
increasingly with the eff
ects of climate change and environmental degradation while at the
same time having to meet the demands of an increasing world population, changing
consumption patterns and new markets for biofuels and biomaterials. The long
-
term viability
of agriculture as

a source for food, feed and other uses will largely depend on the ability to
reconcile agricultural production and environmental integrity. Research on sustainable

Page
25

of
172

production systems is crucial to increase/develop the knowledge base to implement required
innovations in agriculture.

Expected impact:
Enhanced cultivation and breeding techniques, supported by related
research on plants, microorganisms and soil (see also main line 2.3

on management and use of
natural resources (e.g. water and soil and function
al biodiversity) in agriculture and forestry
)
can contribute to securing
food production in the context of a sustainable
EU agriculture,
further reducing the environmental impact and supporting diversity of agricultural activities.

Sources:
Work Programme
, TP Plants for the Future, Programme Committee, Advisory
group

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

FP6

EAN
-
SEABUCK 016106 (SSA): establishment of European
-
Asian
network for the development of strategies to enhance the sustainable use
of sea buckthorn;

ISAFR
UIT 016279 (IP): increasing fruit consumption through a
transdisciplinary approach leading to high quality produce from
environmentally safe, sustainable methods

GRAINLEGUMES 506223 (IP): new strategies to improve grain legumes
for food and feed;

IRRIQUA
L 023120 (STREP): sustainable orchard irrigation for
improving fruit quality and safety

MICROMAIZE 036314 (STREP): management of plant
-
beneficial
microbes to balance fertiliser inputs in maize monoculture

RHIBAC 036297 (STREP): Rhizobacteria for reduced f
ertiliser inputs in
wheat

PROTECTOR 514082 (STREP): recycling and upgrading of bone meal
for environmentally friendly crop protection and nutrition

HEALTHGRAIN 514008 (IP): exploiting bioactivity of European cereal
grains fro improved nutrition and healt
h benefits

EU
-
SOL 016214 (IP): high quality solanaceous crops for consumers,
processors and producers by exploration of natural biodiversity

QLIF 506358 (IP): improving quality and safety and reduction of cost in
the European organic and low input supply

chains

ENVIRFOOD 007003 (SSA): environment
-
friendly food production
system: requirements for plant breeding and seed production

FARMSEEDOPPORTUNITIES 044345

(SSP
-
STREP) Opportunities for
farm seed conservation, breeding and production



Page
26

of
172

MICRO
-
N
-
FIX
Micro
bial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen for staple food
crops

EURO MED CITRUS NET 043146 (SSA): safe and high quality supply
chains and networks for the citrus industry between Mediterranean partner
countries and Europe (INCO)

ERA
-
NETs

CORE
-
Organic 011716 (
CA)

Co
-
ordination of European Transnational
Research in Organic Food and Farming

COST

Towards an organisation of the integrated research in berries: model for a
strawberry of quality, in respect with the environment rules and
consumers requirements (836)

Quality enhancement of plant production through tissue culture (843)

Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement (851)

Viticulture: biotic and abiotic stress


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O
-
〴㨠f浰牯癩湧⁰ 牦潲oa湣e a湤n煵q汩ty映 牯灳⁩渠瑨攠
c潮瑥o琠潦tga湩c⁡湤nw
-
楮灵i⁳y獴敭猠sy⁢ ee摩湧⁡湤慮age浥湴m
EiCm⤠


pl䱉B䅍㨠A瑲t瑥t楥猠景f⁏ 条湩挠n湤n䱯i
-
楮灵i f湴eg牡瑥搠
B牥e摩dg⁁湤⁍ nageme湴


Page
27

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172

Call 4 (2010):

Topics

KBBE.2010.1.2
-
04: Improving European berries production, quality,
neutraceutical and nutritional value (Strawberries, Currents, Blackberries,
Blueberries and Raspberries) (CP
-
FP)
-

EUBerry: The sustainable
improvement of European Berry production,
quality and nutritional value
in a changing environment: Strawberries, Currants, Blackberries,
Blueberries and Raspberries

KBBE.2010.1.4
-
05:

EU
-
China Partnership initiative in plant breeding
(CSA
-
Mandatory China)


佐lfCefk䄠㨠A牥e摩dg⁴漠佰瑩浩獥⁃桩湥獥
䅧A楣畬瑵牥

Ca汬‵
㈰ㄱ⤺1
楮摩ca瑩癥⁴潰 cs

䭂h䔮㈰ㄱ⸱⸲
-
〳㨠䑥ve汯灭e湴映n潶o爠r牯瀠a湤畬c栠hy獴敭猠景s
獵獴a楮慢汥⁣牯瀠r牯摵c瑩潮

䭂h䔮㈰ㄱ⸱⸲
-
〴㨠呲an獬慴楮s湯睬 dge渠晬f睥物rg⁴ 浥⁴漠業灲潶p
扲be摩dg⁥晦楣楥ncy


Main line 2.5:

Increased
plant resource efficiency; adaptation of plants, crops and forest trees to biotic
and abiotic stress

Description:

a) Resource capture

A range of resources, including light, water and mineral nutrients, are critical in order for
plants to grow and reproduce
, the availability of these resources changing both temporally and
spatially at a range of scales.

Research activities under this main line should aim at understanding how plants compete for
and capture resources and how the efficiency of resource capture
is altered in response to
production systems (e.g. monoculture versus mixed arable communities).

More specifically, a wide range of research activities capitalising on agronomic, molecular
and physiological expertise shall contribute to understanding the

mechanisms underlying
availability and uptake of macro and micronutrients as well as the complex interactions
between soil, water and root growth for efficient resource capture. Further insights are also
required as regards the understanding of the photo
synthetic efficiency and assimilate
allocation of plants.

b) Stress

Biotic and abiotic stresses


plant pests and pathogens, temperature, water, nutrients and other
physical stresses manifesting through the soil
-

are becoming even more pronounced under
c
hanging climatic conditions, such as higher variability of rainfall in space and time.

Research activities shall help to identify cropping systems, agronomic and forestry practices
with improved capacity to alleviate the effects of biotic and/or abiotic st
resses on plants, e.g.
by conserving moisture or suppressing weeds more effectively.


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28

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172

Furthermore, research shall provide the means to gain a more detailed molecular, (eco
-
)
physiological and whole plant understanding of the effects and responses to (multi
ple)
abiotic/biotic stresses, for example to understand the physiology of and genetic controls on
plant responses to nutrient and water deficiency.

In addition, research activities shall explore the genetic diversity of plants for tolerance and
resistanc
e to individual and combined biotic and abiotic stresses and to support breeding
efforts for stress
-
proof varieties, e.g. through the development of molecular markers linked to
biotic/abiotic stress resistant loci.

Justification:
Yield stability and prod
uctivity of European crops will highly depend on the
ability of farmers and forest owners/managers to apply management practices and to
introduce varieties that are better adapted to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, making
efficient use of available r
esources.

Impact:
Increased knowledge of the mechanisms underlying resource capture and stress
response will help to develop more adapted crops, allowing for sustainable agricultural
practices with reduced use of inputs (fertilisers, water, pesticides) an
d to stabilise yield
despite increasing variable environmental and biotic conditions.

Sources:

ETP Plants for the Future, SCAR, Programme Committee

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


FP6

MICROMAIZE 036314 (STREP): Management of plant
-
beneficial
microbes
to balance fertiliser inputs in maize monoculture

Threats

RHIBAC 036297 (STREP): Rhizobacteria for reduced fertiliser inputs
in wheat

ERA
-
NETs

None

COST

Viticulture: biotic and abiotic stress


grapevine defence mechanism
and grape development (858)

Si
gnalling control of stress tolerance and production of stress
protective compounds in plants (FA0605)

Call 1 (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
2
-
1: Annual food crops with improved tolerance to
multiple abiotic stresses (SCP)
-

SWUP
-
MED: Sustainable water use
securing
food production in dry areas of the Mediterranean region

Call 2A (2007):

KBBE
-
2007
-
1
-
2
-
15: Reducing the utilisation of mineral fertilisers by
improving the efficiency of nutrient use in European crops (LCP)
-

NUE
-
CROPS: Improving Nutrient Efficiency In
Major European
Food, Feed And Biofuel Crops To Reduce The Negative
Environmental Impact Of Crop Production


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29

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172

Call 2B (2008):

None

Topics published in
earlier calls, but not
likely to be funded

None

Call 3 (2009): Topics
proposed for funding

KBBE
-
2009
-
1
-
2
-
05: Water stress tolerance and water use efficiency in
food crops (LCP)


䑒amp:

摲d畧桴
-
瑯te牡湴ny楥i摩湧⁰污湴

Ca汬‴
㈰㄰⤺⁔潰楣s

䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸱⸴
-
〶M


-
o畳獩a⁐a牴湥牳桩瀠楮r瑩a瑩癥⁩渠䵩c牯扥猠
-

m污湴猠l楯摩癥牳楴re猠⡃sA
-
䵡湤n瑯ty⁒畳獩a⤠
-

Bof伺

Ba湫楮g
o桩h潳灨o牥⁍楣 o
-
佲条湩獭献⁅畲潰oa渠
-

o畳獩a渠楮n瑩a瑩癥⁴漠獥琠異
a 瑷潲t映牨楺潳灨o牥 浩c牯扩潬潧楣i氠牥獯畲ce猠se湴牥s

Ca汬‵
㈰ㄱ⤺1
楮摩ca瑩癥⁴潰 cs

䭂h䔮㈰ㄱ⸱⸲
-
〵㨠M潯琠獩g湡汬楮iⰠ杲潷瑨⁡湤⁤e癥汯灭e湴⁵湤敲
a扩潴楣⁳瑲i獳⁣潮摩s
楯湳


Main line 2.6:

Plant health & Plant protection


Description:
The aim of the Community plant health regime is to prevent the introduction
into the community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products or their spread within the
Community. These
organisms are not necessarily dangerous to the consumer but can cause
substantial economic losses in crops, forests and other sectors
.
Due to climate changes and
globalization, new threats are continuously emerging and the number and complexity of plant
pe
st problems increases every year, requiring enhanced research efforts.

Pesticides have the potential to control harmful organisms such as plant pests and pathogens.
At the same time, they can cause unwanted adverse effects on non
-
target organisms, human
he
alth and the environment. The possible risks associated with their use are accepted to a
certain extent by society given the related economic benefits such as reliable supplies of
affordable and healthy plant foods, feeds and products of high quality.

Unfo
rtunately and despite all the efforts already deployed, unwanted amounts of certain
pesticides can still be found in soils and water and residues exceeding regulatory limits still
occur in agricultural produce. It is, therefore, necessary to minimise expos
ure where possible
thanks to research activities and other means.

Research actions under the
plant health and plant protection main line can address different
techniques and practices covering a large range of science fields:

-

Management of quarantine pl
ant pests and pathogens

-

Plant health and protection for specific crops

-

Globalization and climate changes: new challenges, threats and opportunities for plant pest
management


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30

of
172

-

Sustainable use of plant protection products

-

Invasive species

-

Integrate
d pest management

-

Biological control of pests and pathogens

-

Beneficial organisms

-

Innovative strategies

-

Identification and classification of plant pathogens

-

Plant pathogen biology, genetics, population dynamics, spread, and relationship with hosts

and vectors

-

Epidemiology

-

Weed control and suppression strategies

-

etc.


Justification:
"
The work of National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) relies on
scientific expertise, but the services providing this expertise increasingly lack staff, fun
ds and
training. On the one hand, the whole scientific basis of the phytosanitary field is quickly
eroding. Taxonomy, classical plant pathology and other scientific fields which are vital for
sustaining sound public policy are threatened with extinction, b
ecause they are no longer in
the forefront of science priorities. On the other hand, the need for phytosanitary expertise,
training and research is substantially and continuously increasing […]. New developments
and new technology have to be mastered, goin
g far beyond existing expertise. Unless urgent
action is taken, indispensable expertise and scientific disciplines will irreversibly disappear,
and NPPOs will be unable to do their duty
2
."

It is also necessary to minimise exposure to pesticides and their r
esidues for the benefit of the
environment, health and to control resistance mechanisms of pests and pathogens. In this
context the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides has been developed
and its regulatory framework is on its way for
adoption (e.g. the Framework Directive on the
Sustainable Use of Pesticides).

Sustainable ways of producing safe and quality agricultural and forest products can also be
encouraged by research on durable pest control strategies. Research on alternative and

innovative pest control methods and plant tolerance and resistance needs to be maintained and
developed.





2

EPPO Declaration "Plant Health Endangered"

(Council Colloquium on scientific services in support of NPPOs
in the EPPO region Madeira, PT, 2004
-
09
-
23/24)


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31

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172

Expected impact:
Better control of plant pests and diseases; prevention of the introduction
and spread of harmful organisms into the Community.

Minim
ise exposure to pesticides and their residues and sustainable plant health and pest
control strategies.

Sources:
DG SANCO; EPPO D
eclaration "Plant Health Endangered"
; COPHS (Council
Working Party of Chief Plant Health Officers); ERA
-
NET EUPHRESCO; ENDURE
NoE;
PC (different countries)

Criteria fulfilled
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5



FP6

CLEANFRUIT 506495 (STREP): improving the quality of European citrus
and fruit by developing medfly SIT technology so it can be widely applied
in Europe;

2E
-
BCAs IN CROPS 001687 (STREP):

enhancement and exploitation of
soil biocontrol agents for bio
-
constraint management in crops;

BIOEXPLOIT 513959

(IP): exploitation of natural plant biodiversity for the
pesticide
-
free production of food

ENDURE 031499 (NoE): European network for the dura
ble exploitation of
crop protection strategies;

PROTECTOR 514082 (STREP): recycling and upgrading of bone meal for
environmentally friendly crop protection and nutrition

RESISTVIR 006961 (CA): coordination of research on genetic resistance to
control plan
t pathogenic viruses and their vectors in European crops

BIODET 043136 (SSA): networking in the application of biosensors to
pesticide detection in fruits and vegetables

HAIR 501997 (SSP
-
SSA) Harmonised environmental indicators for
pesticide risk

ALTERBROM
IDE 022660 (SSP
-
CA) Dissemination Of Sustainable
Alternatives To Methyl Bromide

AE
-
FOOTPRINT 006491 (SSP) Agri
-
environmental Footprint:
Development of a common generic methodology for evaluating the
effectiveness of European Agri
-
environmental Schemes

REBE
CA 022709 (SSP
-
CA) regulation of biological control agents

PORTCHECK 502348 (SSP) Development of generic ‘on site’ molecular
摩慧湯獴楣猠io爠r唠煵r牡湴n湥⁰ 獴s⁡湤⁰n瑨tgen猠

m䕐bfo䄠健灩湯潳慩A⁶楲畳㨠数楤 浩潬潧yⰠIco湯浩c⁩ 灡c琠慮搠灥獴s

Page
32

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172

risk analys
is

DIABR
-
ACT 022623 (SSP
-
SSA) Harmonise the strategies for fighting
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

REPCO 501452

(STREP) Replacement of Copper Fungicides in Organic
Production of Grapevine and Apple in Europe


ORWINE 022769 (SSP
-
STREP)
Organic viticulture
and wine
-
making:
development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic
wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework

RAPRA 502672 (SSP) Risk analysis for
Phytophthora ramorum
, a recently
recognised pathogen thr
eat to Europe and the cause of Sudden Oak Death in
the USA

ERA
-
NETs

EUPHRESCO
036212

(
CA)
: Coordination of European Phytosanitary
(Quarantine Plant Health) Research

COST

Arthropod symbiosis: from fundamental studies to pest and disease
management (FA0701
)

Biological control of pest insects and mites with special reference to
entomophtorales (842)

Parasitic plant management in sustainable agriculture (849)

Bio
-
control symbioses (symbiotic complexes for biological control of pests)
(850)

Bacterial toxins fo
r insect control (862)

Combining traditional and advanced strategies for plant protection in pome
fruit growing (864)

Exploiting genomics to understand plant
-
nematode interactions (872)

Bacterial diseases of stone fruits and nuts (873)

Call 1 (2007):

KBB
E
-
2007
-
1
-
2
-
03: Development of more efficient risk analysis techniques
for pests and pathogens of phytosanitary concern (SCP)


mo䅔fn啅㨠
䕮桡湣e浥湴猠潦⁐敳琠mi獫⁁湡ly獩s⁔ c桮楱略h

䭂hb
-
㈰〷
-
1
-
Q
-
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-
ex灡湳楯n
⡓E
m⤠


p桡牃漺⁓桡牫r⁃潮瑡楮浥湴

䭂hb
-
㈰〷
-
1
-
Q
-
ㄸ㨠䕸瑥t湡氠捯獴猠潦⁰e獴sc楤敳
pCm⤠


呅q䵐䕓吺q
qheoretical aevelopments and bmpirical Measurement of the b硴ernal Costs
of mesticides

Ca汬′䄠 ㈰〷O㨠

乯湥


Page
33

of
172

Call 2B (2008):

KBBE
-
2008
-
1
-
4
-
01: Development o
f new diagnostic methods in support of
Plant Health policy (SCP)


兂li㨠䑥癥汯灭e湴n潦⁡ 眠摩w杮潳g楣⁴潯氠
畳楮u⁄ 䄠Aa牣潤楮g⁴漠楤敮瑩iyⁱ畡牡湴n湥 条n楳i猠楮⁳異灯u琠潦⁰污湴t
桥a汴h

呯灩q猠
灵扬p獨s搠楮d
ea牬楥爠ca汬猬⁢畴
湯琠n楫敬y⁴漠扥
晵湤fd




Ca汬″
㈰〹⤺M
呯灩q猠
灲潰p獥搠景d
晵湤楮f

䭂hb
-
㈰〹
-
1
-
O
-
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景fe獴s⁴漠捬業a瑥⁣hange a湤⁴桥⁣潮獥煵e湣e猠景f⁩湤畳瑲楡氠慮搠獯l楥瑡氠
湥e摳
千m
-
pfC䄩


fpbc佒l f湣rea獩sg⁓畳瑡楮u扩b楴y映 畲潰ea渠c
潲os瑳t
䵯摥汬楮i⁦潲⁓ec畲楴y⁁ga楮獴 f湶a獩癥⁐敳瑳⁡湤⁐a瑨潧e湳⁵湤e爠䍬r浡瑥
C桡湧e

䭂hb
-
㈰〹
-
1
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-
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䑥ve汯灭e湴映摥瑥t瑩潮o瑨潤t⁦潲ⁱ畡牡湴n湥⁰ an琠
灥獴s⁡湤⁰n瑨tge湳⁦n爠r獥⁢y⁐污湴⁈ea汴栠f湳灥c瑩潮⁓e牶楣e猠⡓sm⤠


兄e瑥t琺⁄e癥汯灩ngⁱ畡
牡湴n湥⁰ 獴⁤整sc瑩潮整桯摳⁦潲⁵獥⁢y 瑩潮o氠
灬慮琠灲潴散瑩潮oga湩na瑩潮猠⡎mm伩⁡湤⁩湳灥c瑩潮⁳o牶楣es

Ca汬‴
㈰㄰⤺1
呯灩qs

䭂h䔮㈰㄰⸱⸲
-
〵M

Integrated pest management in farming systems of
major importance for Europe

(CP
-
IP) )


m啒䔺⁐e獴sci
摥⁕獥