Pharmaceutical microbiology and biotechnology - KLES College of ...

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CHAPTER: INTRODUCTION

No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 2

No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 2

Prerequisite:

Students need to have basic knowledge about

microorganisms
.

Objective:

a
.

To study the living organism of microscopic siz
e which


include
bacteria,

fungi,

algae protozoa and the infectious


agents at the borderline of life that are called as
viruses.

b
.

To
understand

the properties of microorganisms

Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projec
tor.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan ,C.K.J.Panikar.


6
th

edition

3.

Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan Noel


R.Krig 5
th

edition


Model

Questions:

10
M
arks
Q
uestions

1
. What is the basis of 5 kingdom classification scheme according to


whittaker? Give reason why it is so widely accepted in the biological


community. What is the importance of Bergey’s manual of

systamatic



bacteriology.


LESSON PLAN

KLESCOPH

SHRI. H.N.SHOLAPUR

SUBJECT:

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT:

PHARMACOGNOSY & PHYTOCHEMISTRY.




2.
Why are the microorganisms useful as subjects for research in the

field of
Biology
. Describe the importance of microorganisms in applied

areas.

05 Marks Q
uestions

1. Discus the difference between prokaryotic
and eukaryotic cell. How


did the term protista.

2.

Explain the contributions of Ehrlich.Fleming and Pasteur to


microbiology.

3. Explain Koch’s postulates Does the pure culture concept exist in the


natural

environment explain.

02
Marks Q
ue
stions

1.

What are the contributions of the following scientist to microbiology a)



Jenner and Metchnikoff b) Lister and Welch


CHAPTER: Classification and study of various organisms


No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 6

No of hour
s required as per Lesson plan: 6

Prerequisite:

Students need to have basic knowledge about methods of classification.

Objective:

a
.

To study classification of microorganisms

b.

To understand the properties of microorganisms (
bacteria


fungi, virus, ri
ckettsia, spirochetes )

Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2.

Text book of microbiology
by R.Ananthnarayan


C.K.J.Panikar.

6
th

edition

3. Text

book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R.Krig 5
th

edition

Model Questions:

10 M
arks
Q
uestions

1.
List and describe brief
ly the major kinds of microbial


characteristics and indicate those that must be determined by


e
xa
mination of individual cells.

2.
Explain the general methods of classifying
bacteria.

05
Marks Q
uestions

1.

Write about

a.

Cultural characteristic of microbs .

b.

Metabolic and antigenic characteristic of microbses

c.

Morphological and chemical char
acteristics of microbes

2.

Differentiate


a
.

Bacteria b.

Virus

c.

Fungi

d.

Protista

e.

Algae

3.

What are the
spirochetes how they differ from rick
e
t
tsia

02
M
arks
Q
uestions


1.

Define

a.

Bacterial strain b.

Pure cultures

C.

Percentage
of S d
.

Mole


pe
rcentage G

+ C e.

Phyilogenetic f
.
Taxa

g.

Spirochaetes

2.

Define

a.

Fungi b.

Berger’s manual

c.

Flagella

d.

Capsule

e.

Pilli


CHAPTER:
Nutritional Requirements


No of hours r
equired as per RGUHS syllabus: 5

No of hours required as per Lesson plan:
5

P
rerequisite:

Students need to have basic knowledge about
Nutritional requirements
.

Objective:

a
.

To study of nutritional requirements, growth and cultivation


of bacteria and virus

b.

To study of different Media required for the growth of


aerobic

and anaerobic bacteria and fungi.

c.

To learn methods available to maintain laboratory


cultures

RESOURCES:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text bo
ok of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.


Model Questions:

10
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Elaborate on nutritional requirement of micr
obes.

2. Explain in detail the physical conditions required for the growth


of microbes.

05
M
arks
Q
uestions


1. Name different types of
Media
. Write the general steps involved


in the preparation of bacteriological media.

2. Explain reproducti
on and growth cycle of bacteria

3. Write a note on cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic
bacteria

02 Marks Q
uestions

1.
Write a short
notes
on

a
. Selective media

b
.

Enriched media

c
. Growth curve

d
. Difference between anaerobic and aerobic
bacteria


CHAPTE
R: Isolation and Identification of bacteria

No of hours required as pe
r RGUHS syllabus: 5

No of hours required as per Lesson plan:
5

Prerequisite:

Students need to have basic knowledge about Isolation and Identification
techniques.

Objective:

a.
To stud
y of different isolation & identification techniques

b.
To study biochemical

reactions of bacteria.

c.
To study counting techniques of bacteria

RESOURCES:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbio
logy by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.

Model Questions:

10
Marks Q
uestions

1.
Explain different methods of isolation of pure culture

2. Write different types of staining techniques in detail

0
5
M
arks

Q
uestions

1.

Write a note on viable count.

2. Differentiate between Gram positive and Gram negative staining

3. Write a note on bioche
mical reaction involved in the


Identification

of
Bacteria

02 M
arks
Q
uestions

Write a note on

1. Negative staining

2. Simple staining

3. Streak plate method

4. Disc diffusion technique


CHAPTER: Sterilization


No of hours required as per RGUHS syll
abus: 11

No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 12

Prerequisite:

Students need to have basic knowledge about Isolation and Identification
techniques.

Objective:

a.

To study different methods of Sterilization for different



pharmaceutical preparatio
ns.

b.

To study of Sterility testing of different pharmaceutical preparations.

c.

To study Validation methods

RESOURCES:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition.

2
. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.


Model Questions:

10
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Classify different sterilization te
chniques. Explain Moist Heat


Sterilization

2. Explain Sterilization by filtration.

5

M
arks

Q
uestions

1. Write a note on validation of sterilization equipments

2. Write the method of sterilization of oily preparations

3. Write the method of sterili
ty testing

0
2
M
arks

Q
uestion

1. List
out the

physical agents required for sterilization

2. Write the mechanism of moist sterilization

3, Write a note on membrane filters

4. List out the chemical agents used for sterilization

5. Mechanism of ethylene oxide

CHAPTER
:
Disinfectants

No of hours re
quired as per RGUHS syllabus: 6

No of hours

required as per Lesson plan: 8

Prerequisite:

Students need to have basic knowledge about
different techniques of
disinfection and they are also required to learn about antis
eptics, fungicidal
and virucidal agents along with the preservation methods of pharmaceuticals

Objective:

a.
To s
tudy disinfectants, antiseptics, fungicidal and virucidal agents

b.
To s
tudy
the
mechanism of action of the above

c
.
To study the
Evaluation
Te
chniques
of bactericidal
s

and bacteristatics

d.
To s
tudy
the

evaluation
techniques
of preservatives in pharmaceutical


preparations

Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hug
o Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.


Model Questions:

10
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Classify d
isinfectants with examples. What are the factors affecting


activation of disinfectants, Explain in detail

2. Write a note on the evaluation of the following


a. Bactericidal


b. Bacteristatic


c. Virucidal


d
.

Preservatives in pharmace
utical preparation

0
5
M
arks

Q
uestions

1. Write a note on Phenol Coefficient

2. Give the factors affecting the choice of antimicrobial
agents.

3.

What are the factors affecting the disinfection
process.

0
2
M
arks

Q
uestions

1.
Write a note
on Keisey
-
sykes te
st.

2.
Define the following

a) B
actericidal
b)

B
actristatic


CHAPTER
: Genetic Engineering

No of hours re
quired as per RGUHS syllabus: 16

No of hours

required as per Lesson plan: 18

Prerequisite:

Students need to
be
familiar with the basic concepts of
genetic
engineering

Objective:

a.
Study of mutation, transformation,
transduction, conjugation

b.
Study of different methods involved in the development of strains,

c.
Study of different vectors

d.
Study of isolation of plasmids,
restriction

endonuclease
s, cloning


strategies, protoplast culture and protoplast fusion

e.
Study of gene expression,

f
.

Application of r
-
DNA in manufacturing insulin,
interferon’s
,


interleukins, vaccines and
hormones


Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pi
eces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition.

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Kri
g 5
th

edition.

4. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Vyas & Dixit


Model Questions:

10 M
arks
Q
uestions

1.

Explain different methods involved in the development of strains.

2. What is r
-
DNA. Write its application in pharmacy.

0
5
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Writ
e a note on

a. Transformation and
Transduction

b
.
Conjugation
c
. protoplast fusion

d. Legislation concerning use of r
-
DNA drugs and IPR

2. Write the method for manufacturing Insulin by r
-
DNA technology

0
2
M
arks
Q
uestions

1.

What

is phenotypic and gen
otypic change

2.
Write

a note on mutation

3. Write an informative note on plasmid

4.

Note on restriction endonuclease


CHAPTER
: Immunology

No of hours re
quired as per RGUHS syllabus: 15

No of hours

required as per Lesso
n plan: 15

Prerequisite:

Students
need to have basic knowledge about
Immunology

Objective:

a
.
To study basic terminologies like antigens, antibodies, antisera

b.
To study antigen antibody reactions, diagnostic tests

c.

Methods involved in the production of different vaccines,

d.

Fermentat
ion technology

f.
To study Immunodeficiency disorders

Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,



C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.

4. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Vyas & Dixit

5.
Indian pharmacopoeia



6.
British pharmacopoeia


Model Questions:

10 M
arks
Q
uestion
s

1. Explain in detail antigen antibody reactions

2. Explain in detail the production of BCG and DPT vaccines

0
5
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Explain in detail ELISA

2. Write the method of production of Streptomycin

3.

Write a note on standardization of vaccin
es and sera

4. Write principles and methods involved in microbial assays

5.

Write a note on immunodeficiency syndrome.

0
2
M
arks
Q
uestions

Define

1.
Immunity

and immunology

2. Antigen and antibody

3. Structure and function of immunoglobulin M

4. Write on

a. Shick
test

b
. Western Blot
test

c
. Southern test



CHAPTER
: Microbiological Assay

No of hours re
quired as per RGUHS syllabus: 4

No of hours

required as per L
esson plan: 4

Prerequisite:

Students nee
d to have basic knowledge of
the principles and the
methods of
different microbiological assays

Objective:

a.

To s
tudy
the

principle and methods involved in different


microbiological assays like Vit.B, Ciprofloxacin etc.

b.

To study the s
tandardization

of vaccines and sera

c.

To study the methods of

sensitivity testing

Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. T
ext book of microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.

4. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Vyas & Dixit

5.
Indian pharmacopoeia



6.
British pharmacopoeia


7.
Tutorial pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn

Model Questions:

10
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Write the principle and method involved in the microbiological assay


of Streptomycin

2. Write in detail the method of standardization of vaccines and sera

0
5
M
arks
Q
uestions

1. Write the method for the assay of Vit B.

2. Write a note

on sensitivity testing

0
2

M
arks
Q
uestions

Define

a. Vaccine and sera

b. necessity of microbiological assay


CHAPTER

: Animal Cell Culture

No of hours re
quired as per RGUHS syllabus: 4

No of hours

required as per Lesson plan: 4

Prerequisite:

Students
nee
d to have basic knowledge of
the different techniques
involved in animal cell culture
.

Objective:

a
.

To study the different techniques involved in animal cell culture.

b.

Media used and characters of cell culture

c.

Study of Hybridoma and monoclonal an
tibodies

Resources:

Teaching Aids

a.

Black Board and chalk pieces.

b.

OHP projector.

References

1. Pharmaceutical microbiology by Hugo Rusell, 6
th

edition .

2. Text book of microbiology by R.Ananthnarayan,


C.K.J.Panikar .6
th

Edition

3. Text book of
microbiology by Michael J Pelczar E.C.S.Chan


Noel R. Krig 5
th

edition.

4. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Vyas & Dixit


Model Questions:

10
M
arks
Q
uestions

1.
Explain the method of manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies. Write


its applications

0
5
M
arks

Q
uestions

1. Write a note on Hybridoma