The System Unit

surprisesameΗμιαγωγοί

1 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

176 εμφανίσεις

Professor Michael J. Losacco

CIS 1150


Introduction to Computer Information Systems

The System Unit

Chapter 5

Chapter

5

2
/20

Overview

Discuss the Types of System Units

Describe System Boards

Discuss Processors

Discuss Memory

Discuss Expansion Slots and Cards

Bus Lines, Bus Widths, Expansion Buses

Describe Ports

Discuss Power Supplies

Discuss Numbers and Characters

2

Chapter

5

3
/20

System Unit Types

Desktops

Tower Unit

All
-
in
-
one

Notebooks

Laptops

Netbooks

Tablets

Handhelds

3

Chapter

5

4
/20

System Board

AKA Motherboard

All Components Connect to It

All External Devices Connect to It

Acts as Data Path and Traffic Monitor

Provides Sockets

Connection Point For Chips


4

Chapter

5

5
/20

System Board Components

Chips

AKA Semiconductor
,
Integrated Circuit

Tiny Circuit Boards on Silicon Squares

Mounted on Carrier Packages

Slots

Connection
Points
for
Circuit Boards

Provide Expansion Capability

Bus Lines

Communication
Pathways for Components

5

Chapter

5

6
/20

Microprocessor

AKA Central Processing Unit or Processor

Brain of the Computer System

Components

Control Unit

Directs Movement of Electronic Signals

Between Memory, ALU, Input and Output Devices

Arithmetic
-
logic Unit (ALU)

Arithmetic and Logical Operations

6

Chapter

5

7
/20

Microprocessor Chips

Chip Capacities Expressed in Word Size

Word

Number of Bits Processed at a Time

64
-
bit Word Standard

Clock Speed

Processing Speed

Times Per Second CPU Processes Data

7

Chapter

5

8
/20

Microprocessor Chips

System Clock

Processor Speed Measured by Ticks/Second

MHz


One Million Ticks/Second

Type 100 Words/Minute = 8 Characters/Second

8088 Processor @ 4.77 MHz

Character


50,000 Other Tasks


Character

GHz


One Billion Ticks per Second

Chapter

5

9
/20

Microprocessor Chips

Multi
-
Core Chip

Multiple Separate and Independent CPUs

Parallel Processing

Divide
Tasks
that
can be
Distributed Across Each Core

Supported by Windows 8 and Mac OS X

Coprocessors

Used to
Improve Specific Operations

e.g., Graphics
Processing Unit (GPU
)


9

Chapter

5

10
/20

Memory

Holding Area

For Data, Instructions, and Information

RAM (Random
-
access Memory)

Volatile

Holds Program Instructions and Data

That CPU
is
Presently Processing

Chapter

5

11
/20

Memory

Sizes

Chapter

5

12
/20

Memory

Cache Memory

Temporary High
-
speed Holding Area

Between Memory and CPU

Stores Most Frequently Used Data

ROM (
Read
-
only
Memory)

Non
-
volatile, Cannot be Updated

Flash Memory

Non
-
volatile,
Can
be Updated

Chapter

5

13
/20

Expansion
Slots and Cards

Allow for System Expansion

Graphics Cards

Sound Cards

Network Interface Cards (NIC)

Wireless Network Cards

Plug and Play

ExpressCard

Chapter

5

14
/20

Bus Lines

Pathway for Bits

Travel to/from CPU and Components

Bus Width

Number
o
f Bits that Can Travel at Once

Categories

System Bus

Expansion Bus

Chapter

5

15
/20

Ports

Sockets for External Devices

Connects to System Board or Cards

Standard Ports

VGA, USB,
Firewire
, Ethernet

Cables

Chapter

5

16
/20

Power Supply

Convert AC to DC

Power System Unit Components

AC Adapters

Notebooks and Handhelds

Can Recharge Batteries


Chapter

5

17
/20

Electronic Data and Instructions

Analog Signals

Represent Different Tones, Pitches, Volume

Digital Electronic Signals

Represent Two Discrete States

On / Off


Recognized By Computers

Binary is the Equivalent Numbering System

Chapter

5

18
/20

Numeric Representation

Binary System

Bit (Binary Digit)

2 Possible
Digits

On = 1; Positive Charge

Off = 0; No Charge

Byte

Eight Bits Grouped
Together

Represent Letters, Numbers, Punctuation

Hexadecimal System

16 Possible Digits

3

5

D

Chapter

5

19
/20

Character Encoding

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

Microcomputers

EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

Mainframe

Unicode

Uses 16 bits

Chapter

5

20
/20

Careers in IT

Computer Technicians

Repair and Install Components and Systems

Work On PCs, Mainframes, Networks, Printers

Associate Degree or Computer Repair Cert

Annual Salary of $31,000
-

$46,000