Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Cell Tower Locations for Optimization of the Vaccine Cold Chain in Developing Countries

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Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of
Cell Tower Locations for
Optimization of the Vaccine Cold
Chain in Developing Countries
Alice B. Conant
Health and Societies, University of Pennsylvania
ENERGIZE THE CHAIN
Collaborators


PATH (CCEM)


World Heath Organization


Bharti Airtel


GSMA


Wharton Social Impact Program
Outline


What is the Cold Chain?


Where is there room for improvement?


What is Energize the Chain doing?


How can GIS help?
Cold Chain
Manufacturing
Facility
National Airport
Primary Vaccine
Store
Intermediate
Vaccine Store
Intermediate
Vaccine Store
Health Center
Health Post
Immunization
The Problem
The Problem

Cold Box Volume and
Improper Use
Coverage and Frequency
Source: Gavi (2011)
Source: medicalcares.com
The Problem
A 2007 study
Evaluation of the Cold-Chain for Oral
Polio Vaccine in a Rural District of India
found:



For every 1km increase in distance between primary
health centers and sub-health centers, cold chain
compliance decreased by 0.16 units


Only 50% of sub-centers 71-90 km away from primary
health centers were compliant


90% of local health centers suffered frequent power
failures


Only 45% of local health centers had back-up generators
Samant et al.
Public Health Reports
. January–February 2007. Volume 122, 112-121
The Solution: Energize the Chain


Approximately 75% of
the world is covered by
a mobile cellular signal



that percentage is
expected to reach
nearly 100% by 2015


Mobile customers in
developing countries
account for two-thirds
of the universal mobile
phones in use

Typical cold chain
refrigeration units
consume between
0.5-1.9 kW
Product Information Sheets, World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF Catalog, 2000
Pilot Projects: Mapping Analysis
1.

A lack of reliable centrally provisioned power

2.

High prevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases

3.

Cell tower sites in close proximity to villages covered
by a primary health center

4.

Supportive local government/health organizations

5.

Collaborative local telecom partner

Mapping Analysis
All data is confidential, therefore presentation
images include masked, randomized, or
generalized data representations

Cell Tower Coverage vs. Electrical Grid


Power Plant and
transmission line
spatial data
accessed through
ArcGIS online,
published by
dmuthami
Population Density vs
.
Cell Phone Coverage
Source: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN),
Columbia University; and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT),
Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3.

Cold Chain Facilities Electrical Grid Power Access Per Day
!
<all other values>
!
none
!
<8 hrs/24 hrs
!
8-16 hrs/24 hrs
!
>16 hrs/24 hrs
b
Cell Phone Towers
Sample Data Set: Urban vs. Rural
Legend
b
Cell Phone Towers
!
(
None
!
(
National Vaccine Store
!
(
Regional Vaccine Store
!
(
District Vaccine Store
!
(
Hospital
!
(
Health Center
!
(
Dispensary
!
(
Nursing Home
!
(
Medical Clinic
Current Cold Chain
Regional Vaccine Store
District
Vaccine
Store
District
Vaccine
Store
District
Vaccine
Store
Legend
b
Cell Phone Towers
!
(
None
!
(
National Vaccine Store
!
(
Regional Vaccine Store
!
(
District Vaccine Store
!
(
Hospital
!
(
Health Center
!
(
Dispensary
!
(
Nursing Home
!
(
Medical Clinic
Current Cold Chain


Population: 260,051


Storage, No static or outreach
delivery


No grid tied electricity


No kerosene available


Reliable bottled gas available


Population: 137,991


Storage, No static or outreach
delivery


>16hrs/24hrs of grid electricity
available


No kerosene or bottled gas available


Population: 152,145


Storage, No static or outreach
delivery


8-16hrs/24hrs of grid electricity
available


Kerosene available


Reliable bottled gas available
Reliable Distribution with Cell Tower
Refrigeration
Cold Chain Facilities Electrical Grid Power Access Per Day
!
<all other values>
!
none
!
<8 hrs/24 hrs
!
8-16 hrs/24 hrs
!
>16 hrs/24 hrs
b
Cell Phone Towers


GIS Analysis Breakthroughs:


True Distributions


Selection Process of Rural Districts
–

Grid tie
–

Vaccine Storage/Delivery Capacity
–

Distribution Level


GSM Penetration Mobile


Kenya: 54.36%


India: 45.35%


Zimbabwe: 16.76%

Conclusion
Future Work


Map vaccine preventable disease prevalence


Mapping of vaccine distribution paths with transportation
mode details


Gather data on cell tower type and magnitude of excess energy
generated


Monitor mobile expansion


Impact location decisions


Economic, social and health impact analysis of pilot studies


Track live data inventory and update
Acknowledgements


Energize the Chain Team


Wharton Social Impact


Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation


Sophie Newland, PATH


Adonis Kontos and Amalia Panagiotopoulou
Questions?

Alice Conant
alice.conant@energizethechain.org

www.energizethechain.org