Amendments to Medical Imaging Course Syllabus - Institute of ...

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MEDICAL IMAGING COUR
SE SYLLABUS


Module 1


Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

29
-
31 October 2012

Sutton Campus of the Royal Marsden Hospital and Ins
t
itute of Cancer


Syllabus
:




Basis of NMR



Relaxation Par
a
meters and Spin Echoes



Ma
gnetic

Field Gra
dients, Slice selection and Frequency Encoding;



2
-
D FT Imaging, k
-
space



Basic Imaging Sequences: Spin
-
echo and gradient echo



Hardware


RF Requirements and RF Coils



MRI in Practice



Image Artefacts



Safety Considerations



Introduction to in vivo MR Spectrosc
opy



Single
-
voxel MRS



Introduction to Spectroscopy Imaging (CSI)



Processing MRS Data



Flow and Angiography



Advanced Pulse Sequences and Techniques



Clinical applications of MRI


Faculty:



Dr S J Doran


University of Surrey

Mr M Graves


Addenbrookes Hospital,

Cambridge

Professor D Lurie


Head of Magnetic Resonance Research Group, University of Aberdeen

Dr G Charles
-
Edwards


Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospitals

Dr P Murphy


R&D, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middx

Dr G S Payne

ICR and RMH, Sutton

Dr W Vennart


Pfizer R
&D, Sandwich, Kent

Dr C Messiou


ICR and RMH, Sutton







Module 2


Ultrasound Imaging

21
-
23 November 2012

Sutton Campus of the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer
Research


Syllabus




Physics principles of ultrasound propogation, contrast ag
ents,
accoustic diffraction fields, echographic imaging and Doppler




Engineering principles of transducers, echographic imaging, Doppler
velocimetry and Doppler imaging




Ultrasound Bioeffects and safety



Quality and safety assurance for diagnostic ultrasou
nd devices




Fields of application and research in medical ultrasound imaging




Practical demonstrations and “hands
-
on” (numbers permitting) learning
session




Visit to Ultrasound research laboratories


Faculty


Dr J Bamber

Senior Lecturer, Institute of Cance
r Research

Dr J Fromageau

Clinical Physicist, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust

Dr I Rivens

Lecturer, Institute of Cancer Research



Module
3



Image Theory, perception and processing

26 February

2
013
(
1 day)

Chelsea
Campus
of the Royal Marsden Hospital
and Ins
t
itute of Cancer
Research


Syllabus:


Image theory, processing and perception


A 1 day course module on the underpinning theory of medical imaging,
including the mathematics of formation, image processing and human visual
perception. Much of the m
aterial in this course is generally applicable to all
types of imaging system. Illustrations and examples from medical imaging
will be used throughout including ultrasound, nuclear medicine, MRI and x
-
ray
CT.



Mathematics of Medical Imaging

Lecturer: D
r Mike Partridge

Image formation


representation of images, convolution and Fourier theory.

Describing imaging systems


linear systems, point spread function and
transfer functions.

Sampling theory


finite apertures and the sinc function. Nyquist rate a
nd
Whittaker
-
Shannon theory. Sampling artefacts, aliasing pre
-

and post
-
sample
blurring.

Noise


fixed pattern noise, Poisson noise, Johnson noise and nonlinearity.

Introduction to image enhancement and filtering


point operators, spatial
operators and tr
ansform operators.



Image Processing Techniques

Lecturer: Dr John Suckling

Introduction and definitions


image sources, formats and colour
representation and notation.

Simple image processing techniques


contrast stretching, thresholding &
pseudocolour,

histogram equalisation and spatial filtering.

Image analysis


fractal dimension, edge detection, object moments, erode
and dilate.

Linear scale space


irreducible and composite invariants

Image classification


supervised and Bayesian classifiers, neura
l networks,
unsupervised classifiers

Image registration


cost functions, optimisation and interpolation.



Perception and Interpretation of Medical Images

Lecturer:
Dr E Harris

The abilities and limitations of the human vision.

Contrast discrimination, s
patial discrimination and image noise.

Image display systems


controls and gamma characteristics.

Experimental methods of assessing man & machine performance


ROC
analysis, contrast detail tests etc.






Draft
Timetable for
Image theory, processing an
d
perception

09:00


09:30

Registration

09:30


10:15

Mathematics of image formation I

Dr Mike Partridge

10:15


11:00

Mathematics of image formation II

Dr Mike Partridge

11:00


11:30

Coffee

11:30


12:15

Image processing techniques I

Dr John Sucklin
g

12:15


13:00

Image processing techniques II

Dr John Suckling

13:00


14:00

Lunch

14:00


14:45

Perception and interpretation of medical images

Dr E Harris

14:45


15:30

Mathematics of image formation III

Dr Mike Partridge

15:30


16:00

Tea

16:00

-

16:45

Worked examples and software demonstration




Module 4


Diagnostic Radiology and CT Ultrasound Imaging

27 February
-
1
st

March 2013


Chelsea Campus of The
Royal Marsden Hospital


Syllabus
(provisional)
:


Day 1:


Diagnostic Radiology (analogue)


1.

Introduction to Diagnostic Radiology I


Lecturer:


Jim Thurston


Trends in X
-
ray imaging in the United Kingdom. Projected and tomographic
images. Components of the diagnostic radiological imaging system.
Formation of the image.


2.

Introduction to Diagnos
tic Radiology II

Lecturer:

Jim Thurston



Some aspects of the interaction of photons with tissue and image receptors at
diagnostic energies. Important physical parameters: dose, contrast,
unsharpness and noise.


3.

Quantitative measures of the performanc
e of image receptors


Lecturer:

Dimitra Darambara


Definition and use of the modulation transfer function, noise power spectra,
detective quantum efficiency and noise equivalent quanta in X
-
ray imaging.


4.

T
ubes and generators


Lecturer: Slavik Tabakov


The X
-
ray spectrum. Construction of the X
-
ray tube. Physical factors which
affect the choice of filament, target and filter. Heel effect. Filament and high
voltage circuits. Three phase and medium frequency generators. Automatic
exposure control
-
princi
ples of operation. Principles and applications of linear
tomography.


5.

Scatter rejection


Lecturer:


David Dance


Scatter rejection: magnitude of scatter, scatter limitation. Grid design and use.
Air gaps.


6.

Films and screens


Lecturer:


David Dance


Film: Construction of the film. Formation of the image. Simple model for
optical density. H and D curves. Sensitivity, resolution and granularity. Film
-
processing. Screen
-
film receptors: Construction and use of the screen. Rare
earth screens. Sensitivit
y, resolution and noise.


7.

Image
intensifier

s
ystems


Lecturer:
Laurence King


Image intensifiers: Construction of the image intensifier. Methods of recording
and displaying the image. Sensitivity, resolution and noise power spectra.
Selection and use

of contrast media.


8.

Analogue system design and optimisation in clinical practice



Lecturer: Elly Castellano


The optimisation process. Summary of image quality parameters. Examples
in chest radiography, mammography, vascular imaging and paediatri
c
imaging


Day 2:


Diagnostic Radiology (digital)


9.

General principles of digital radiology, computed radiography

I


Lecturer: Ed McDonagh


Requirements for digital systems. Stimulated luminescence systems:
Physical principles and construction of the re
ceptor. Image read out and
display. Sensitivity, resolution and noise.


10.

Digital Radio
graphy detectors

I


Lecturer: Dimitra Darambara


Flat panel detectors.
Digital fluoroscopic/fluorographic systems. System
features and performance. Other digital

image receptors and systems.




11.

Digital Radiology II

Lecturer: Dimitra Darambara


Applications of digital systems. Mammography and chest imaging.
Performance of digital systems.


12.

PACS

Lecturer: Ed McDonagh


Advantages and disadvantages of PACS.
PACS architecture. Archives.
Workstations and grayscale standard display function. DICOM standard, HL7
and IHE.


13.

Measurement of image quality in digital systems


Lecturer: Dimitra Darambara


Measurement of the modulation transfer function, noise powe
r spectra, and
detective quantum efficiency in digital X
-
ray imaging.


14.


Quality Control I

Lecturer: Claire Skinner


Quality definitions.

Legislative basis.


Life cycle of X
-
ray equipment.


Quality
control of the imaging chain: tubes and generators.


15.


Quality Control II



Lecturer: Claire Skinner


Quality control of the imaging chain: tubes and generators (continued);
automatic exposure control; conventional tomography; image intensifier TV
systems; mammography equipment; digital radiography equipm
ent.


16.

Digital system design and optimisation in clinical practice



Lecturer: Elly Castellano


The optimisation process for digital systems. Examples in chest radiography,
mammography and vascular imaging.



17.

Demonstration of X
-
ray Imaging Equipmen
t and QC


Lecturer: Claire Skinner


Demonstration of quality control equipment and techniques in the X
-
ray
Department.


18.

Demonstration of CT scanner and tomographic imaging


Lecturer: Elly Castellano


Introduction to a clinical CT scanner and demonstrat
ion of tomographic
imaging techniques in the CT Department.



Day 3:


CT


19.

Principles of computed tomography


Lecturer: Lynn
Martinez


Slices from x
-
ray projections. Geometries for acquisition of projections: 1
st
,
2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th

generation. Electron b
eam CT. Spiral CT and linear interpolation
of projection data. 2D detector arrays,
multiple data acquisition channels
and
linear interpolation techniques for 4
-
slice CT scanners. Cone beam
limitations.


20.

X
-
ray CT
-

reconstructions from projections


Lecturer:

To be confirmed


Reconstruction by 2D Fourier method, convolution and backprojection
reconstruction, design and performance of filters in CBP technique.


21.

The modern diagnostic CT scanner
.


Lecturer: Lynn Martinez


Scanner components: tube an
d generator, filtration, collimation, data
acquisition system, couch and gantry, computers. Reconstruction algorithms.
Imaging sequence. Image display.



22.


Reconstruction techniques for multi
-
slice and cone beam CT
*


Lecturer: Gavin Poludniowski


Int
roduction to 3D back projection. Tuy conditions. Exact reconstructions
approaches. Approximate reconstruction approaches.


23.


CT scanner performance


Lecturer: Elly Castellano


In plane and z
-
axis spatial resolution, contrast resolution, dose and no
ise.
Image artefacts: partial volume, beam hardening, aliasing, motion and
equipment
-
related. Image quality variations in axial mode, single
-
slice and
multi
-
slice spiral mode..


24.

CT quality control

Lecturer: Elly Castellano


2
5.
Advances in CT scannin
g
*


Lecturer: Elly Castellano


Advanced scanning features. Recent clinical developments. PET/CT and
SPECT/CT. Cone beam CT for radiotherapy.


*not part of MSc syllabus




Module 5


Nuclear Medicine

12
-
15 February 2013

Sutton Campus of the Royal Marsde
n Hospital and Institute of Cancer


Syllabus:




Introduction
Radionuclide Production



Radiation Det
ectors



Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine



Application of PET &SPECT in Radiotherapy Planning



Radiopharmaceuticals



The Gamma Camera and other Imaging Equ
ipment



Quality Control and Performance Assessment of

Gamma Camera
Systems




Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques



Photon Emission Computed Tomography
Fundamentals



Quantiative SPECT



Clinical Applications of Nuclear Medicine /PET



Introduction and the MIRD Schem
e



Quantitative Imaging



Applications of internal dosimetry



Treatment planning, radiobiology and future directions



Clinical aspects of TRT



PET Tracer production & development



Molecular Targeting in PET



PET Fundamentals



Clinical aspects of PET/CT



Quantificat
ion in PET



A
dvances in PET Techynology

Radionuclide Therapy



Visit to Nuclear Medicine and PET Department



Faculty:


Dr M Bardies

Radionuclide Dosimetry Group, INSERM, Nantes, France


Dr Elly Castellano

Consultant Physicist, Diagnostic Radiology Physics

Group

The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust

Ms Alison Craig

Radioisotopes,
The
Royal Marsden

NHS Foundation Trust

and Institute of Cancer Research

Dr D
imitra

Darambara

Research Physicist, Institute of Cancer Research


Dr A
ntgoni

Divoli

Senior Physici
st, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust


Dr Yong Du

Consultant Nuclear Medicine & PET/CT
,
The Royal Marsden
NHS Foundation Trust

Dr G Flux

Head of Radioisotope Physics
, The
Royal Marsden

NHS
Foundation Trust

and Institute of Cancer Research


Dr J Gea
r

Radioisotopes, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust



Mr Matt Gray


Radioisotope
s,
The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust


Dr A Hall

Consultant
,

Clinical Scientist (Head of Radiopharmacy), The
Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust

Dr Daniel Levine

Cons
ultant,
Nuclear Medicine & PET/CT
,

The Royal
Marsden NHS Foundation Trust

Dr Iain Murray


PET/CT
,
The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust

Mrs B
renda

Pratt

Radioisotopes, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust


Dr Terry Spinks

Radioisotopes,
The Royal Mar
sden NHS Foundation Trust

Dr J Thurston

Head of Radiation Protection, Physics Department, The
Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust


Dr F Turkheimer

Reader in

Mathematical Neuroscience


and Head of
PET
-
Methodology Group
,

MRC Clinical Sciences Centre,
Hammer
smith


Hospital


Imperial College
.


Dr Imene Zerizar

Consultant Nuclear Medicine Physician
,

The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust