Spatial Database Systems

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31 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Spatial Database Systems

Tyler Reainthong

CSE 7330

Fall 2009

Topics


Definitions


Storage and Indexing


Spatial Relationships


Spatial Queries


Standards


Systems


Applications and the Future


What is a Spatial Database?


Database that models space, objects in
space, or a combination of both



Provide capabilities to store and
manipulate spatial data as well as find
various interactions between them


What is a Spatial Database? (cont)


Uses spatial data types (SDTs) and spatial
indexes



Uses spatial queries which are able to work
with the spatial data types



Usually provides these capabilities as an
extension to a standard RDBMS



What is Spatial Data?


Each vendor’s implementation will consist
of different spatial data types



Each type can be abstracted to basic
geometric primitives which consist of:


Points


Lines


Polygons/Regions



What is Spatial Data? (cont)


Point


Can define locations of interest


Used when you do not care about the extent
of the object


Can be used to define “space”


Land


Map boundaries


Grids




What is Spatial Data? (cont)


Line


Can be straight, arcing or a combination of
both


Can be used to define movement and
connections between spatial objects



What is Spatial Data? (cont)


Polygon/Region


Basic shapes (box, square, triangle, etc.)


May have holes



Spatial Data Types (SDTs)


Spatial Data Types often referred to as “geometries” can
either be defined as one or more spatial data primitive
types


Example Oracle Spatial SDO_GTYPE:




Source:
http://www.oreillynet.com/network/2003/11/10/oracle_spatial.html


Spatial Storage


Creating a normal table with an additional
spatial column in Oracle Spatial



Source:
http://www.oreillynet.com/network/2003/11/10/oracle_spatial.html


Spatial Indexing


R
-
Trees


Similar to B
-
trees but allow indexing for
multidimensional data


Creates minimum bounding boxes that
essentially partition the spatial data into
hierarchical rectangular shaped boxes


These boxes provide rough approximations of
the geometries which optimizes query
performance

Spatial Indexing (cont)


Example R
-
Tree

Source:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/idshelp/v10/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.rtree.doc/rtree29.htm

Spatial Indexing (cont)


Quad
-
Trees


Recursively divide space into four quadrants


Source:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/idshelp/v10/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.rtree.doc/rtree29.htm

Spatial Relationships


Spatial relationships can be categorized into three
different types


Topological relationships


Contains, Inside, Covers, Adjacent, Touch, Disjoint


Directional relationships


Above, Below, West of, East of


Metric relationships


Distances between two geometries


Each vendor may or may not implement certain
relationships as a function



Spatial Relationships (cont)


Oracle Spatial supports the following relationships


Source:

http://docs.autodesk.com/TOPOBSCLNT/2010/ENU/Autodesk
%20Topobase%202010%20User%20Documentation/images/IS
D/Everest
-
ALL/English/pic_admin_oracle_spatial.png


Spatial Queries


SQL can work with spatial data types



Spatial operators and functions can also be
used with SQL

Spatial Queries (cont)


Spatial Query Examples in
PostGIS

Source
:
http://postgis.refractions.net/docs/ch04.html#id2538511


Spatial Queries (cont)


Spatial Query Examples in
PostGIS

Source
:
http://postgis.refractions.net/docs/ch04.html#id2538511


Standards and Specifications


Standards and specifications governed by the
Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)


http://www.opengeospatial.org


Defines standard Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) object types, functions associated
with them, and metadata tables


Simple Feature Access Architecture


http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/sfa


Some Spatial DBMS Systems


Oracle Spatial


PostgreSQL

with
PostGIS

extension


MySQL


Microsoft SQL Server 2008


IBM DB2 with Spatial Extender

Applications and the Future


GIS/Mapping


CAD and GIS integration


Location based services


Spatial data is becoming ubiquitous


Environmental


Health sectors


Agricultural


Geological


Hazard management


Military and intelligence



Bibliography



http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=615206&type=pdf&coll=Portal&dl=GUIDE&CFID=604957
78&CFTOKEN=48744014


http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/idshelp/v10/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.rtree.doc/rtree2
9.htm


http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/network/2003/11/10/oracle_spatial.html


http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B10501_01/appdev.920/a96630/sdo_objrelschema.htm


http://postgis.refractions.net/docs/ch04.html


http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/oracle9i/pdf/OracleSpatial.pdf


http://docs.autodesk.com/TOPOBSCLNT/2010/ENU/Autodesk%20Topobase%202010%20User%20D
ocumentation/index.html?url=WS73099cc142f48755b0eae110a8ea4f1d98a3.htm,topicNumber=d0
e17737


http://edndoc.esri.com/arcsde/9.1/general_topics/understand_spatial_relations.htm


http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/spatial/htdocs/spatial_stds_support.html


http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/spatial/pdf/lvvw_narrowingthegap.pdf


http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/spatial/index.html


http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/index.htm