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Table 1.

Methodological Quality Checklist


1

Was the data collection longitudinal?

2

Was the sample representative of the adolescent age range?

3

Was there an adequate sample size to achieve appropriate level of statistical power?

4

Was there an objecti
ve assessment of a specific sensorimotor function?

5

Were the subjects blinded to the study variables?

6

Were the assessors blinded to the study variables?

7

Any other significant limitations to the study design?



Table 2
.
Articles for Research Questi
on 1


Mechanism

Study Design
and Duration

Sample Description

Variables

Relevant Findings

Limitations

Author (year)

Ref.

Visual

Cross
-
sectional,
Single
Measure

119 subjects (55 males and
64 females); comparisons of
ages 4
-
7 to ages 8
-
13


Age group and sens
ory and
motor measures from the
Dean
-
Woodcock
Neuropsychological
Assessment System

No statistical difference between younger
children (ages 4
-
7) and older children (ages
8
-
13) in the sample for visual confrontation
scores
.

Large grouping of ages, non
-
longi
tudinal,
only up to age 13 with no adult comparison
group, poor reporting of inter
-
subject
variability, collected data on both males and
females but grouped them into large age
categories, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable


Arceneaux e
t
al. (1997)

13


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
Measure

16 adolescent subjects mean
age 16.2 and 16 adults (all
females)


Age group and visual
motion
processing abilities
and strateg
ies

Well
-
developed abilities to perceive static
objects by adolescence (ages 15
-
17) but
still developing ability to perceive dynamic
visual cues compared to adults (ages 20
-
30)
.

Only included ages 15
-
17 to represent
adolescent group, small sample size, non
-
longitudinal, poor reporting of inter
-
subject
variability, collected data on bo
th males and
females but made no comparisons, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable


Bucher et al.
(2006)

27


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

10 subjects (5 females, 5
males) in each age group of
3
-
4, 5
-
6, 7
-
8, 9
-
10, 11
-
13, 14
-
15, 20
-
59

A
ge group, postural stability
score (max center of gravity
displacements relative to
theoretical limits of
stability), 6 different
sensory conditions

Adolescents ages 11
-
13 displayed lower
abilities compared to the adult group
relative to visual contributio
ns for postural
control, but adolescent group ages 14
-
15
showed a
bilities similar to adult group.

Age group comparisons for adolescents only
go up to age 15, non
-
longitudinal, cross
-
sectional groups with relatively small sample
sizes for each age group, in
ter
-
subject
variability within age groups was not well
-
assessed or discussed, utilized a composite
equilibrium score for postural control that
was a function of maximal center of gravity
displacement and theorized limits of
stability, not reported if asses
sors were
blinded to age variable


Hirabayashi
et al. (1995)

28


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

27 children and 10 adults in
age groups of 4, 8, 12 and
adults mean age 21

Age group, gain, phase,
stimulus frequency sway
amplitude, transient gain to
each o
f the osci
l
lation
conditions in the moving
room

Children as young as the 4 year old group
were capable of showing an adaptive
response to changes in visual status but
response to visual status change is not well
calibrated compared to adults with even the
oldest group of children (age 12) showing
slower adaptation time and different
magnitude of responses than the adult
group. It also appears that children are
more influenc
ed by visual stimuli in general.


Age group comparisons for adolescents only
go up to

age 12, non
-
longitudinal, cross
-
sectional groups with relatively small sample
sizes for each age group, inter
-
subject
variability within age groups was not well
-
assessed or discussed, potential for sex
differences not assessed, not reported if
assessors w
ere blinded to age variable

Rinaldi et al.
(2009)

29


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

20 children ages 14
-
15 (10
females, 10 males) compared
to data on young adults


Age group, attenuation
factor, anchoring index,
sequential mean orientation

Adolescents (
ages 14
-
15) demonstrated
increased reliance on visual cues and
decreased ability to use proprioceptive cues
during
sensory challenge balance tasks
.

"Adolescent" group only represents ages
14
-
15, small sample size, non
-
longitudinal,
poor discussion of inter
-
subject variability,
not reported if assessors were blinded to
age variable


Viel et al.
(2009)

12

Somato
-
sensory

Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

10 subjects (5 females, 5
males) in each age group of
3
-
4, 5
-
6, 7
-
8, 9
-
10, 11
-
13, 14
-
15, 20
-
59

Age group, po
stural stability
score (max center of gravity
displacements relative to
theoretical limits of
stability), 6 different
sensory conditions

Somatosensory contributions to postural
control may stabilize to
adult levels by
around ages 3
-
4
.

Age group comparisons

for adolescents only
go up to age 15, non
-
longitudinal, cross
-
sectional groups with relatively small sample
sizes for each age group, inter
-
subject
variability within age groups was not well
-
assessed or discussed, utilized a composite
equilibrium score fo
r postural control that
was a function of maximal center of gravity
displacement and theorized limits of
stability, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable


Hirabayashi
et al. (1995)

28


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

20 children ages 11
-
1
3 (10
females, 10 males) and 10
adults ages 18
-
50 (five males,
five females)


Age group, reaction time,
passive motion sens
itivit
y,
error in movement
detection

The adolescent group (ages 11
-
13) were
similar to adult levels for passive motion
sensitivity in

terms of accuracy but
exhibited movement detection times that
were slower than t
he adult group
.

Group used to represent "adolescents" only
included 11
-
13 year olds, small sample for
each group in the sample, no comparison of
males to females, inter
-
subjec
t variability
within each groups not adequately
addressed, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable


Pickett et al.
(2009)

30


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

148 children in age groups of
7, 9, 11

Age group, eyes
open/closed conditions,
mea
n velocity, sway area,
mean amplitude, mean
frequency, mean power
frequency, centroidal
frequency


More mature selection and use of
proprioceptive inputs for postural control is
evident with each successive age group
(age 7, age 9 and age 11). A comparison

to
young adult abilities from another study
suggests that even by age 11, development
of selection and use of proprioceptive
inputs may still be developing
.


Use of a cross
-
sectional approach that
grouped small samples of children in to age
7, age 9 and a
ge 11, no comparison of
males to females, not reported if assessors
were blinded to age variable

Schmid et al.
(2005)

3
1


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

144 children ages 5
-
12 with
10 males and 10 females in
each age groups with means
of 5.8, 6.7, 7.8, 8
.7, 9.9, 10.9,
Age group, gender, mean
absolute error scores for
right foot
-
right hand
matching, right foot
-
left
Proprioceptive sensitivity as measured by
limb matching t
asks appears to show a
non
-
linear developmental trend for both
boys and girls with an apparent phase of
Used a cross
-
sectional approach only
including ages 5
-
12, small samples sizes fo
r
each age and gender group, no reporting of
inter
-
subject variability, not reported if
Sigmundsson
et al. (2000)

3
2

and 11.8


hand matching, left foot
-
right hand matching, left
foot
-
left hand matching


decreased sensitivity around age 8 for
girls
and around age 9 for boys
.

assessors were blinded to age variable



Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

20 children ages 14
-
15 (10
females, 10 males) compared
to data on

young adults


Age group, attenuation
factor, anchoring index,
sequential mean orientation

The adolescent group's use of
proprioceptive cues for postural stability
was significantly less efficient compared to
adult scores from a different study leading
the

authors to postulate that adolescents
may undergo a period of transient neglect
of proprioceptive cues during puberty.


Only utilized a sample of 14
-
15 year olds
and compared to young adult data collected
in a different study, not longitudinal, and
includ
ed very little discussion about inter
-
subject variability, not reported if assessors
were blinded to age variable

Viel et al.
(2009)

1
2

Vestibular

Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

10 subjects (5 females, 5
males) in each age group of
3
-
4, 5
-
6, 7
-
8, 9
-
10, 1
1
-
13, 14
-
15, 20
-
59

Age group, postural stability
score (max center of gravity
displacements relative to
theoretical limits of
stability), 6 different
sensory conditions

The vestibular contributions to postural
stability may be the slowest sensory
mechanism

for postural control to mature
with even the 14
-
15 unable to perform
similar to adults during vestibular
challenges. Also significant differences
were found between girls and boys ages 7
-
8 for vestibular functioning with no
significant differences found b
etween visual
and somatosensory conditions between
boys and

girls in any of the age groups
.


Age group comparisons for adolescents only
go up to age 15, were cross
-
sectional
groups with relatively small sample sizes for
each age group, inter
-
subject variab
ility
within age groups was not well
-
assessed or
discussed, utilized a composite equilibrium
score for postural control that was a function
of maximal center of gravity displacement
and theorized limits of stability, not reported
if assessors were blinded
to age variable


Hirabayashi
et al. (1995)

28


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

180 children (90 females, 90
males) in age groups of 9
-
10,
12
-
13, 15
-
16

Age group, gender, Center
of pressure in
anteroposterior and
mediolateral directions,
summary sway param
eters
of total path length, sway
velocity, frequency power
spectrum



Boys ages 9
-
10 exhibited lower levels of
postural control during vestibular
challenges than girls, but these differences
appear to level out by around ages 15
-
16
.

Cross
-
sectional sample
consisted of
adolescent children divided into three
groups ages 9
-
10, 12
-
13 and 15
-
16, no
adult comparison group, little discussion
regarding inter
-
subject within groups, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable


Nolan et al.
(2005)

33

Mult
i
-
sensory
Re
-
weighting

Correlational,
Single
measure

41 subjects (20 females and
21 males); regression
analysis of age range of 4
-
10

Age, body sway amplitude
under altered sensory
conditions

Children were able to re
-
weight multi
-
sensory inputs from age 4.

However,
mature adult
-
like sensory reweighting that
entails using information from all sensory
modalities simultaneously and adapting to
signals in conflict with one another,
develops gradu
ally over time during
childhood


Relatively small sample (n=41) re
presenting
a large age range of 4
-
10 years old, sample
was not longitudinal and only went up to age
10 with no adult comparisons, inter
-
subject
variability not well analyzed, no male to
female comparisons, not reported if
assessors were blinded to age vari
able


Bair et al.
(2007)

3
4


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

56 child subjects ages 7
-
11
compared to 12 adult subjects

Age, sway latencies,
postural orientation and
postural stability under
varied optic flow conditions

Postural stability improved and orie
ntation
shifted toward adult
-
like patterns with a
critical period around the ages of 8 and 10
with children being able

to downweight the
optical flow

Cross
-
sectional sample with children
grouped into ages 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and an
adult comparison group, no r
eports
regarding inter
-
subject within groups, no
male to female comparisons, not reported if
assessors were blinded to age variable


Baumberger
et al. (2004)

35


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

180 children (90 females, 90
males) in age groups of 9
-
10,
1
2
-
13, 15
-
16

Age group, gender, Center
of pressure in
anteroposterior and
mediolateral directions,
summary sway parameters
of total path length, sway
velocity, frequency power
spectrum



The results of this study indicate that girls
achieve more mature bala
nce strategies at
an earlier age than boys. Results also
indicate that while postural control may be
partly affected by changes in stature as
children grow, the development of the
visual, vestibular and somatosensory
systems may account for age
-
related
cha
nges in postural control to a greater
extent.


Cross
-
sectional comparison of age groups
of 9
-
10, 12
-
13, 15
-
16, non
-
longitudinal, no
adult comparisons, only looked at eyes open
and eyes closed conditions, minimal
consideration of inter
-
subject variability,
not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable

Nolan et al.
(2005)

33


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

27 children and 10 adults in
age groups of 4, 8, 12 and
adults mean age 21

Age group, gain, phase,
stimulus frequency sway
amplitude, transient

gain to
each of the osci
l
lation
conditions in the moving
room

Children as young as the 4 year old group
were capable of showing an adaptive
response to changes in visual status but
response to visual status change is not well
calibrated compared to adults

with even the
oldest group of children (age 12) showing
slower adaptation time and different
magnitude of responses than the adult
group. It also appears that children are
more influenc
ed by visual stimuli in general


Age group comparisons for adolescents

only
go up to age 12, were cross
-
sectional
groups with relatively small sample sizes for
each age group, inter
-
subject variability
within age groups was not well
-
assessed or
discussed, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Rinaldi et al.
(2009)

29


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

148 children in age groups of
7, 9, 11

Age group, eyes
open/closed conditions,
mean velocity, sway area,
mean amplitude, mean
frequency, mean power
frequency, centroidal
frequency


Development of postural strateg
ies under
altered sensory conditions are not likely
complete even by age 11 with development
occurring in a non
-
linear fashion. The
results of the eyes closed condition indicate
that more mature children exhibit more
mature selection and re
-
weighting of
pr
opriocep
tive inputs to postural control


Use of a cross
-
sectional approach that
grouped small samples of children in to age
7, age 9 and age 11, not longitudinal,
minimal analysis of inter
-
subject variability,
no comparison of males to females, not
reporte
d if assessors were blinded to age
variable

Schmid et al.
(2005)

31


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

19 children ages 7
-
12 (10
females, 9 males) and 20
adults ages 21
-
30 (11
females, 9 males)

Age group, magnitude of
postural response to optic
flow change
s using center
of pressure in anterior
-
posterior displacement and
head and pelvis sway under
varied fixed versus sway
reference support
conditions

Children and adults have similar abilities to
use dynamic visual cues for postural
control. However, when vis
ual cues conflict
with somatosensory cues, children
demonstrate decreased ability to control
posture compared to adults. In addition, the
results indicate that in both children and
adults, some individuals simply have a
greater reliance on visual cues whil
e others
weight visual input on a much lower level
making them less susceptible to degr
aded
or conflicting visual cues


Cross
-
sectional comparison of a child group
ages 7
-
12 to adult group, sample size for
each group small (n=19
-
20) and
representative of l
arge age range, non
-
longitudinal, minimal comparisons of inter
-
subject variability, collected data on both
males and females but made no
comparisons, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Sparto et al.
(2006)

3
6

Signal
Conduction and
Proc
essing

Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

81 subjects grouped into ages
6
-
7, 8
-
9, 10
-
11, 12
-
13, 14
-
15,
and 16
-
18 as well as grouped
into pre
-
pubertal (ages 6
-
11)
and late/post
-
pubertal groups
(ages 12
-
18)

Age, images of motor
preparation and stimulus
antici
pation


Either because immaturity of the motor
cortex, motor system circuitry or because of
less attentional capacity, children in the
prepubertal group seem to be in a less
mature phase of motor preparation than the
older children. Older children (ages 12
-
18)
Cross
-
sectional comparisons for groups of
6
-
7, 8=9, 10=11, 12
-
13, 14
-
15, 16
-
18, with
relatively small sample sizes for each of the
age groups (sample size rag
es between 6
-
21 for each group), minimal reporting and
discussion of inter
-
subject variability, data
Bender et al.
(2005)

37



demonstrate qualitatively different motor
preparation cortical strategies than younger
group

collected on both males and females but
minimal analyses and discussion regarding
any differences, not reported if assessors
were blinded to age variable


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

16 adolescent subjects mean
age 16.2 and 16 adults (all
females)


Age group and visual
motion
processing abilities
and strateg
ies

Between childhood and adulthood, visual
processing strategies are qu
alitatively
different between adolescent group and
adult group

Only included ages 15
-
17 to represent
adolescent group, small sample size, non
-
longitudinal, poor reporting of inter
-
subject
variability, collected data on both males and
females but made no co
mparisons, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable


Bucher et al.
(2006)

27


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

Cross
-
sectional design with
10 children (5 females, 5
males) ages 6
-
9 compared to
10 adults (5 females, 5 males)
ages 22
-
26

Age gro
up, transcranial
magnetic stimulation and
motor performance tests
were used to study the
correlation between
corticospinal maturation
and actual motor
performance

Development of nerve fiber conduction
speed is near completion by the age of 6,
but children
do not perform as well on
motor tasks as adults. Results indicate that
functional improvement in motor tasks with
age are not due to maturation of
corticospinal tract but may relate to other
factors such as neuron excitabili
ty and
inhibitory control.


Smal
l cross
-
sectional sample (n=10 in each
group) with children ages 6
-
9 in one group
and adults 22
-
26 in second group, sample
was not longitudinal, no reports regarding
inter
-
subject variability, no male to female
comparisons, not reported if assessors were
b
linded to age variable

Heinen et al.
(1998)

19


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

19 subjects ages 8
-
20

Age, fMRI image
comparisons, errors of
omission, errors of
commission, react
ion time
for go/no
-
go task cond
itions


Older adolescents showed ability to in
hibit
responses more quickly and cortical
activation patterns differ between

older and
younger adolescents
with increased
localization to regions of the brain thought
to play more critical roles in motor planning
and inhibition
.

Cross
-
sectional comparison
of 19 subjects
ages 8
-
20, non
-
longitudinal, no adult
comparison group, small sample for a such
a large age range, no comparison males to
females, no reporting of inter
-
subject
variability for same
-
age subjects, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age

variable


Tamm et al.
(2002)

3
8


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

20 subjects grouped into age
groups of 7
-
11 year old
children and adult group (age
range not specified)


Age group, fMRI
comparisons, learning
conditions of block/random,
reaction time

Stud
y results indicate a development shift
in recruitment of motor subsystems during
visuomotor processing from a subcortical
dominance during childhood to cortical
dominance during adulthood
.

Cross
-
section
al

comparison of 20 children
ages 7
-
11 and 20 adults,
non
-
longitudinal,
small sample representing limited age range
for adolescents, minimal reporting and
analyses of inter
-
subject variability, no male
to female comparisons, not reported if
assessors were blinded to age variable


Thomas et al.
(2004)

39

Neur
omuscular
and Postural
Control

Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

18 subjects
ages
6
-
9 (9
males, 9 females
)

compared
to 18 young adults ages 18
-
23 (9 males and 9 females)

Age group and frequency
spectral characteristics of
standing balance for altered
sensory

conditions

Children appear to show less postural
stability in anterior
-
p
osterior directions than
adults

which may be a sign of
underdeveloped ankle strategy
.

Cross
-
sectional comparison of 17 adults
(ages 18
-
23) and 17 children ages (ages 6
-
9), small sampl
e for larger age ranges,
"adults" may actually still be classified as
adolescents, minimal comparisons of inter
-
subject variability, collected data on both
males and females but made no
comparisons, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable


Cherng et al.
(2003)

40


Mixed cross
-
sectional
repeated
-
measures
design, each
subject tested
twice one year
apart

709 females (ages 11
-
16) and
250 males (ages 12
-
17)
grouped into pubertal and
postpubertal groups


Pubertal group and
maximum knee abductio
n
angle and knee abduction
mome
nt

Neuromuscular control of knee motion after
landing from a jump in females is
significantly worse than males during rapid
adolescent growth. In addition, there was a
regression in knee control in the year
following a rapid gr
owth spurt compared to
the year in which the growth spurt occurred
for females.


No pre
-
growth spurt comparisons, no adult
comparisons

Ford et al.
(2010)

41


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

100 female subjects ages 10
-
17 and 81 male subjects age
11
-
17 gro
uped into pre
-
pubertal, pubertal and post
-
pubertal stages


Pubertal group, medial
knee motion, isokinetic
knee flexion and extens
ion
strength, tibial and thigh
lengths

Neuromuscular control of knee motion after
landing from a jump appears to regress in
fem
ales from prepubertal to early pubertal
stages and decrease even further from
early pubertal to late pubertal stages. In
contrast, males appear to improve in
neuromuscular control of knee motion after
landing from a jump across the maturation
stages
.


Not
repeated measures/longitudinal, no
comparisons by chronological age, no adult
comparisons, sample came from a
population of athletes

Hewett et al.
(2004)

42


Longitudinal,
repeated
measures

for
4
-
5 years

17 children (9 males, 8
females) beginning at age 5
-
6
and re
-
tested at 3
-
4 month
intervals until age of 8 for
some children and some
subjects up until age 9


Age, postural control in
terms of center of pressure
velocity and anteroposterior
excursion

Results

indicate that individuals display
patterns of dev
elopment characterized by
stages of ba
llistic control and transition
to
"overcontrol" with a pronounced decrease
in velocity and variability and eventually a
phase of experimentation of increased
decreases of freedom and variability. High
inter
-
subject var
iability for chronological
ages when the transitions occur indicated
that classifying children by sensorimotor
developmental stages may be more useful
than classifying by chronological age
.

Longitudinal but only for ages 5
-
8 (and a
couple of subjects up to

age 9), small
sample size (n=17), used only center of
pressure velocity and variability of center of
pressure during quiet standing as
operational definition of "postural control",
no comparisons between sexes, not
reported if assessors were blinded to ag
e

Kirshenbaum
et al. (2001)

43


Mixed cross
-
sectional
repeated
-
measures
design, each
subject tested
twice one year
apart

33 children ages 12
-
15 tested
classified as pubertal and
then classif
i
ed as
postpubertal 1 year later


Pubertal status, gender,
verti
cal jump height,
maximum ground
-
reaction
force, ground
-
reaction force
loading rate

Repeated measures cohort design
--
From
pubertal stage to post
-
pubertal stage, boys
significantly reduced their landing ground
-
reaction forces, whereas girls did not. In
addit
ion, boys demonstrated increased
vertical jump height and maintained their
takeoff force for takeoff whereas girls
showed no increase in vertical jump height
and decreased takeo
ff force
.


No pre
-
pubertal comparisons, no
comparisons by chronological age, no

adult
comparisons, sample came from a
population of athletes

Quatman et
al. (2006)

44


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

148 children in age groups of
7, 9, 11

Age group, eyes
open/closed conditions,
mean velocity, sway area,
mean amplitude, mean
frequency
, mean power
frequency, centroidal
frequency


Younger children (up to about age 9)
demonstrate postural control with eyes
closed that relies on large, ballistic
oscillations to make adjustments
.

Use of a cross
-
sectional approach that
grouped small samples
of children in to age
7, age 9 and age 11, not longitudinal, no
comparison of males to females, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable

Schmid et al.
(2005)

31


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

5 children age 6, 9 children
age 10 and 5 adult
s mean
age 23.6

Age group, center of
pressure measures (initial,
excursion and amplitude)
and varied reach positions

For reaching tasks of minimal difficulty,
children in 10 year old age group exhibited
adult
-
like movement patterns but in tasks of
increas
ed difficulty, they children
demonstrated patterns more like the
younger children than like the adults.

Cross sectional comparison of age group of
about 6 years, about 10 years and about 20
-
27 years old, small sample size for each age
group, minimal discus
sion of inter
-
subject
variability within age groups, no male to
female comparisons, not reported if
assessors were blinded to age variable

Streepey et
al. (2002)

1
6

Inter
-
segmental
Inter
-
limb
Coordination

Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

12 subjects (6 fem
ales and 6
males) in each age group of
6, 8, 10 and 18
-
22


Age group and power
spectral density of force
signal output during various
isometric contractions of %
of MVC with and without
feedback


The ability to adapt force production for a
given task with
visual feedback improves
with age through adolescence. Younger
children also tend to adapt with more abrupt
changes in force whereas older children
adapt in smoother
trajectory
.

Cross
-
sectional comparisons for groups age
6, 8, 10 and 18
-
22, oldest group do
es not
quite reach outside "adolescent" range,
relatively small sample size for each group,
no male to female comparisons, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable


Deutsch et al.
(2001)

45


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measures

17 participants i
n each of age
group of 7 years, 10 years
and 18
-
22 years

Age group and recurrence
quantification analysis, to
assess percent
determinism and entropy of
center of pressure patterns
under various reaching
tasks


Older subjects demonstrated center of
pressure

changes that were more
deterministic (less random, more
structured) than the younger subjects
.

Cross sectional comparison of 7 year olds,
10 year olds, 18
-
22 year olds, no
comparisons of within group variations
between groups, no male to female
comparison
s, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Haddad et al.
(2008)

46


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measures

50 subjects (25 females, 25
males) age groups of 3
-
4, 6
-
7,
11
-
14

Age group, st
ride time
dynamics (variability
, fourier
spectral analysis an
d
detrended fluctuation
analysis), Stride
-
to
-
stride
variability measures

The 11
-
14 year old children demonstrated
more structure and regularity in gait
dynamics (stride number, stride time
variability, spectral analysis) than the 6
-
7
year old and 3
-
4 year
old groups.
Comparisons to adult data from other
studies indicate children may still be
improving beyond age 14
.


Cross
-
sectional comparison of 3
-
4, 6
-
7, 11
-
14 year old groups, relatively small sample
sizes for age ranges, comparison to adults
based on dat
a from other studies, non
-
longitudinal, no male to female
comparisons, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Hausdorff et
al. (1999)

47


Longitudinal,
repeated
measures for
4
-
5 years

17 children (9 males, 8
females) beginning at age 5
-
6
a
nd re
-
tested at 3
-
4 month
intervals until age of 8 for
some children and some
subjects up until age 9


Age, postural control in
terms of center of pressure
velocity and anteroposterior
excursion

Postural control in children ages 5
-
8, and
some to age 9 indi
cate that individuals
display patterns of development
characterized by stages of ballistic control
that transitions to a period of "overcontrol"
with a pronounced decrease in velocity and
variability and eventually a phase of
experimentation of increased d
ecreases of
freedom and variability. High inter
-
subject
variability for chronological ages when the
transitions occur indicated that classifying
children by sensorimotor developmental
stages may be more useful than c
lassifying
by chronological age
.


Longit
udinal but only for ages 5
-
8 (and a
couple of subjects up to age 9), small
sample size (n=17), used only center of
pressure velocity and variability of center of
pressure during quiet standing as
operational definition of "postural control",
no comparisons

between sexes, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age

Kirshenbaum
et al. (2001)

43


Mixed cross
-
sectional and
longitudinal
design, Single
measure and
repeat
measure 3
years apart

662 children (336 females,
326 males) ages 5
-
18, 202 of
which were
tested at both age
15 and 18

Age, repetitive finger
motions, sequential finger
movements, repetitive hand
movements, alternating
hand pro/supination,
performance on pegboard
test, repetitive foot
movements, alternating foot
movements, side
-
jumping,
forward

jumping, static
balance (measured posture
breaks while on a single
leg)


Timed performances tend to improve
throughout entire prepubertal period but
progress varies depending on the
complexity of the task with less complex
tasks seeming to plateau as earl
y as 12
-
15
while alternating and sequential movements
continued to improve (and may continue to
improve) up to the age of 18 and beyond.
Results indicate that there are long
-
lasting
developmental changes with large inter
-
individual differences.

Partial lon
gitudinal data but only for one
year, the rest of the sample consisted of
cross
-
sectional comparisons of ages 5, 7,
12, 15, and 18, no adult comparison group,
not reported if assessors were blinded to
age variable

Largo et al.
(2001)

48


Mixed cross
-
secti
onal and
longitudinal
design, Single
measure and
repeat
measure 3
years apart

662 children (336 females,
326 males) ages 5
-
18, 202 of
which were tested at both age
15 and 18

Age, duration and degree of
associated movements with
each of the following tasks:

repetitive finger
movements, sequential
finger movements,

repetitive hand movements,
alter
nating hand
pro/supination,
diadochokinesis, pegboard,
repetitive foot movements,
alternative foot movements,
side jumping, forward
jumping, walking on toes,
walking

on heels, walkin
g
on outer soles

of feet,
walking on inner soles of
feet


Duration and degree of associated
movements improve with age following a
non
-
linear course that is a function of the
complexity of the task. Also, significant
interindividual variat
ion was observed for all
motor tasks at most ages. Females
displayed less frequent and less
pronounced associated movements
compared to males as well as showed
improvements at an earlier age than males.

Partial longitudinal data but only for one
year, the
rest of the sample consisted of
cross
-
sectional comparisons of ages 5, 7,
12, 15, and 18, no adult comparison group,
not reported if assessors were blinded to
age variable

Largo et al.
(2001)

49


Correlational,
Single
measure

57 children (32 females, 25
m
ales) ages 7
-
18

Age, tot
al path, center of
pressure sag
it
t
al, lateral,
velocity

Non
-
voluntary sway patterns do not change
as a result of increases in age, body height
or body mass. However, voluntary sway
control (e.g., postural task with visual
feedback
)

improves with age

Large age range 7
-
18 with relatively small
sample size (n=57), non
-
longitudinal,
correlational analysis that did not report
inter
-
subject variability for subjects near
same age, collected data on males and
females and compared but compar
isons
between males and females were based on
the entire age range (ages 7
-
18), not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable


Lebiedowska
et al. (2000)

50


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

45 children (22 females, 23
males) ages 5
-
11 and 49
young

adults (24 females, 25
males) mean age 20 years
old


Age group and gender,
errors on in
-
phase finger
tapping and anti
-
phase
finger tapping tasks

Children were able to perform essentially
adult
-
like control of in
-
phase activation. In
contrast, children, pa
rticularly boys are
challenged by anti
-
phase movements.
Between the ages of about 10 years and
young adulthood, there is an improvement
Cross
-
sectional comparisons of children age
ran
ge 5
-
11 and older group classified as
"adults" mean age of 20, non
-
longitudinal,
"adult" group is still within adolescent age
range, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Milling
-
Smith
et al. (2002)

51

in accuracy with which antiphase
movements can be performed effectively.


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

774

children ages 7
-
8 (344
females, 430 males), 504
children ages 9
-
10 (242
females, 262 males), 477
children ages 14
-
15 (255
females, 222 males)


Age group, gender, finger
tapping, continuous
performance, visual digit
span, symbol
-
digit
substitution, pattern

comparison, hand
-
eye
coordination, switching
attention

Motor performances of boys overall were
better than girls as they demonstrated
faster finger tapping, better hand
-
eye
coordination, shorter reaction times on
continuous performance and switching
atten
tion tests. Girls demonstrated faster
symbol
-
digit coding abilities and greater
accuracy on continuous performance and
switching attention tasks.


Cross
-
sectional comparisons of children
ages 7
-
8, 9
-
10, 14
-
15, non
-
longitudinal, no
adult comparisons, minima
l assessment of
inter
-
subject variability within age groups,
not reported if assessors were blinded to
age variable

Otto et al.
(1996)

52


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

30 children ages 4
-
15 in age
groups of 4
-
6 (five females,
five males), 7
-
9 (6 female
s, 6
males), 10
-
15 (3 females, 5
males)

Age group, kinematics of
hand, gaze tracking,
manipulation of postural
support

Children 4
-
6 had difficulty isolating eye
movement from head or hand movement,
children ages 7
-
9 show improved ability to
isolate the eye
, and by 10
-
15 years children
become proficient in isolating hand
movements from eye movements.
Increased postural support decreased
processing time for planning the movement
especially for the younger children but led
to differential slowing of coordinati
on of
movements for children ages 7
-
9 (apparent
regression) which may reflect the children
in this stage being in a transitional state
from ballistic cont
rol to more independent
control
.


Not longitudinal, used a cross
-
sectional
approach with groups of age
s 4
-
6, 7
-
9 and
10
-
15, non
-
longitudinal small samples sizes
for each age and gender group, no adult
comparisons no reporting of intersubject
variability, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Saavedra et
al. (2000)

53


Cross
-
sectional,
Sin
gle
measure

44 children ages 9 months
-
10
years grouped into 9
-
16
months, 17
-
30 months, 3
years, 4
-
6 years, 7
-
10 years

Age group, muscle onset
latencies, muscle burst
duration, integrated
normalized EMG for burst
duration normalized to
baseline, postural mu
scle
onset organization,
developmental skill level
classifications


Children in younger groups had smaller
-
magnitude and less
-
synergic muscle
activity, lower peak torques, longer times to
restabilize the center of pressure and
greater paths than the older/
higher
developmental groupings. Grouping by
developmental level may be a better
predictor of balance a
bilities than
chronological age
.

Cross
-
sectional comparisons of 9
-
16
months, 17
-
30 months, 3 years, 4
-
6 years,
7
-
10 years, no middle adolescence or adult
comparisons, non
-
longitudinal, no male to
female comparisons, not reported if
assessors were blinded to age variable

Sundermier et
al. (2001)

54


Cross
-
sectional,
Single
measure

6 children mean age 10.3 and
6 adults mean age 26.3

Age group, center of mass

trajectory changes for head,
neck, trunk and pelvis,
timing of center of mass
changes

Children partitioned obstacle avoidance into
two tasks, initially steering with movement
of head and trunk and then adjusting gait
trajectory while adults coordinated bo
th into
a single change in trajectory with a slowing
of gait in anticipa
tion of obstacles in their
path
.

Cross
-
sectional comparison of group of
children ages 8
-
12 to group of adults mean
age of 26, small sample size for each group
(n=5
-
6), non
-
longitudinal
, no male to female
comparisons, not reported if assessors were
blinded to age variable

Vallis et al.
(2005)

5
5


Table 3
.
Articles for Research Question 2


Mechanism

Study Design
and Duration

Sample
Description

Variables

Relevant Findings

Limitations

Auth
or (year)

Ref.

Somatosensory

Cross
-
sectional,
Single measure

144 children ages
5
-
12 with 10
males and 10
females in each
age groups with
means of 5.8, 6.7,
7.8, 8.7, 9.9, 10.9,
and 11.8


Age group, gender, mean absolute
error scores for right foot
-
right h
and
matching, right foot
-
left hand
matching, left foot
-
right hand
matching, left foot
-
left hand
matching

Proprioceptive sensitivity as measured by
limb matching tasks appears to show a non
-
linear developmental trend for both boys and
girls with an apparent

phase of decreased
sensitivity around age 8 for girls and around
age 9 for boys.

Not longitudinal, used a cross
-
sectional
approach only including ages 5
-
12, small
samples sizes for each age and gender
group, no adult comparisons no reporting
of intersubj
ect variability, not reported if
assessors were blinded to age variable

Sigmundsson
et al. (2000)

3
2

Neuromuscular
and Postural
Control

Mixed cross
-
sectional
repeated
-
measures
design, each
subject tested
twice one year
apart

with
709 females
(ages 11
-
16)
and
250 males (ages
12
-
17) grouped
into pubertal and
postpubertal
groups


Pubertal group and maximum knee
abductio
n angle and knee abduction
mome
nt

Repeated measures cohort design, with
measurements completed one year apart
--
Neuromuscular control of knee m
otion after
landing from a jump in females is significantly
worse than neuromuscular control exhibited
by males during rapid adolescent growth. In
addition, there was a regression in knee
control in the year following a rapid growth
spurt compared to the y
ear in which the
growth spurt occurred for females.


No pre
-
growth spurt comparisons, no
comparisons by chronological age, no
adult comparisons, sample came from a
population of athletes

Ford et al.
(2010)

41


Cross
-
sectional,
Single measure

100 female
su
bjects ages 10
-
17 and 81 male
subjects age 11
-
17 grouped into
pre
-
pubertal,
pubertal and post
-
pubertal stages


Pubertal group, medial knee motion,
isokinetic knee flexion and
extens
ion strength, tibial and thigh
lengths

Neuromuscular control of knee motion

after
landing from a jump appears to regress in
females from prepubertal to early pubertal
stages and decrease even further from early
pubertal to late pubertal stages. In contrast,
males appear to improve in neuromuscular
control of knee motion after lan
ding from a
jump across the maturation stages.

Not repeated measures/longitudinal, no
comparisons by chronological age, no
adult comparisons, sample came from a
population of athletes

Hewett et al.
(2004)

42


Longitudinal,
repeated
measures for 4
-
5 years

17 children (9
males, 8 females)
beginning at age
5
-
6 and re
-
tested
at 3
-
4 month
intervals until age
of 8 for some
children and some
subjects up until
age 9


Age, postural control in terms of
center of pressure velocity and
anteroposterior excursion

Result
s of the longitudinal analysis of postural
control in children ages 5
-
8, and some to age
9 indicate that individuals display patterns of
development characterized by stages of
ballistic control that transitions to a period of
"overcontrol" with a pronounce
d decrease in
velocity and variability and eventually a phase
of experimentation of increased decreases of
freedom and variability. High inter
-
subject
variability for chronological ages when the
transitions occur indicated that classifying
children by sens
orimotor developmental
stages may be more useful than classifying by
chronological age.

Longitudinal but only for ages 5
-
8 (and a
couple of subjects up to age 9), small
sample size (n=17), used only center of
pressure velocity and variability of center
of
pressure during quiet standing as
operational definition of "postural control",
no comparisons between sexes, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable

Kirshenbaum
et al. (2001)

43


Mixed cross
-
sectional
repeated
-
measures
design, each
subjec
t tested
twice one year
apart

33 children ages
12
-
15 tested
classified as
pubertal and then
classif
i
ed as
postpubertal 1
year later


Pubertal status, gender, vertical
jump height, maximum ground
-
reaction force, ground
-
reaction force
loading rate

Repeated m
easures cohort design
--
From
pubertal stage to post
-
pubertal stage, boys
significantly reduced their landing ground
-
reaction forces, whereas girls did not. In
addition, boys demonstrated increased
vertical jump height and maintained their
takeoff force for
takeoff whereas girls showed
no increase in vertical jump height and
decreased takeoff force.


No pre
-
pubertal comparisons, no
comparisons by chronological age, no
adult comparisons, sample came from a
population of athletes

Quatman et al.
(2006)

44

Inter
-
segmental
Inter
-
limb
Coordination

Cross
-
sectional,
Single measure

30 children ages
4
-
15 in age groups
of 4
-
6 (five
females, five
males), 7
-
9 (6
females, 6 males),
10
-
15 (3 females,
5 males)

Age group, kinematics of hand,
gaze tracking, manipulation of
pos
tural support

Children ages 4
-
6 had difficulty isolating eye
movement from head or hand movement,
children 7
-
9 showed improvement in ability to
isolate the systems and children ages 10
-
15
were even more proficient at isolating the
systems. Addition of post
ural support
appeared to improve ability to quickly perform
the tasks for children ages 4
-
6 and 10
-
15, but
caused a differential slowing but increased
accuracy of coordinated movements for the
ages 7
-
9 group.

Not longitudinal, used a cross
-
sectional
approa
ch with groups of ages 4
-
6, 7
-
9 and
10
-
15, small samples sizes for each age
and gender group, no adult comparisons
no reporting of intersubject variability, not
reported if assessors were blinded to age
variable

Saavedra et
al. (2007)

53