Module 1 The Child: Development, Needs and Rights within an Ecological Framework

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Module 1

The Child
:
Development, Needs and Rights within an Ecological Framework


Module Goal


The goal of this module is to advance the school psychologist’s understanding
and appreciation of the broad range of children’s universal needs and rights
within an ecological and developmental context.


Learning Objectives

To understand and appreciate:

1.

The needs of children across stages of development and in different
ecological contexts;

2.

The relationship between a child’s needs and his/her rights;

3.

The i
mportant roles adults, families, communities, institutions, governments,
and
school

psychologists

play in protecting and supporting the fulfillment of
children’s rights;

4.

The universality of the needs and rights of children and the principle of non
-
discrimi
nation;

5.

The barriers
to and opportunities for

the fulfillment of needs and rights in
various contexts.


Overview

As children grow, they progress through various developmental stages and are
part of several key ecological contexts, including home/family, sc
hool, and
neighborhood as well as the broader contexts of
community, nation
and culture.
In this module, learners will first be introduced to key terms that will be used
throughout
the modules. They will develop an enhanced understanding of (a) the
needs o
f children (broad and universal as well as context
-

and stage
-
specific)
across developmental stages and contexts and (b) the relationships between
those needs and children’s rights.




Activity 1.1

Facilitator will introduce
An Ecological Framework for Chil
d
Rights

as well as key terms which will be central to the curriculum as a
whole.




Activity 1.2

Participants will explore children’s needs, focusing on the
universality of these

needs as well as changes that occur as children
progress through different stages of development.




Activity 1.3

Participants will examine the key ecological contexts in which
children grow and develop, identifying individuals and groups responsible
for ensuring that needs are met, both within a given ecological context and
through partnerships between ecological c
ontexts.



2



Activity 1.4

Participants will explore the relationship between needs and
rights and identify facilitators and barriers to promoting and protecting
children’s rights in various contexts.



Activity 1.1: Introduction of Key Terms


Materials:
Large representation

of
Child Rights and the School
Psychologist: Ecological Model

(Figure 1.1)


GUIDING PRINCIPLES
UNIVERSAL RIGHTS
Protection
Child
Family
Community
School
Peer Group
Child
Child
Child
School
Psychologist


Handouts:
PH 1.1,
Child Rights and the School Psychologist:

Ecological

Model;
Key Terms


Objectives:

1.

To define key terms
to be used throughout the curriculum

and
introduce the Child Rights and the School Psychologist: Ecological
Model
.


Instructions:

In this activity, the Facilitator

introduces key terms and explains the
Ecological Framework for Child Rights, both of which will be used
throughout the curriculum.


Discussion:


The Facilitator should elicit and answer questions from participants.



3




Activity 1.2:
Children’s Needs
A
c牯rs⁄ ve汯灭l湴a氠S瑡tes


Materials:
Chart paper, markers
;
Large
representation of Figure 1.2


3
-
D FRAMEWORK HERE (including development) (Figure 1.2)


Handout:
PH 1.2,

Child Rights Ecology across

Stages of Development


Objective
:

1.

To understand and
appreciate t
he needs of children a
cross stages of
development.


Instructions:

1.

Lead participants to brainstorm a

list of children’s needs
.

2.

Categorize list of needs into four groups:



physical needs



psychological needs (intellectual, emotional &

volitional n
eeds)



spiritual and moral needs



social
, cultural, and economic needs


Discussion:

1.

How do you define childhood?
Does this definition apply to all children?

2.

Which

of the

needs
you identified in Activity 1.2
apply to all aspects of a
child’s development
? How do needs change as children grow and
develop?

3.

Could we categorize needs in any other way (besides 4 categories used
above)?

4.

Children’s capacities change as they develop. What factors, internal
and/or external, influence their growth and development?


Instructions:

At this time, present
and explain
the figure,
Child Rights Ecology across

Stages
of Development

(
Figure 1.2;
handout and large representation).

Allow
participants time to examine the

figure and ask clarifying questions.


Discussion:

The
remainder of the discussion for Activity 1.2 focus on how needs apply
to children at different stages of development. Encourage participants to
discuss the issue broadly, exploring lower and upper age limits of
childhood, possible gender differences, cultu
ral specificity, etc. It is critical
that participants feel that they can freely explore and discuss their
perspectives.

1.

Do you agree/disagree with the stages of development as outlined in this

4

handout? Do you believe that others in your community (members of your
culture) would agree/disagree? If there are points of disagreement, identify
what they might be.

2.

What are the values/benefits and potential applications of
this framework



in general
and for a school psychologist?





Activity 1.3:
Children’s Needs Across Ecological Contexts


Materials:

Chart paper, markers, poster
-
sized representation of
Figure 1.1


Handouts:

PH 1.
1

Child Rights and the School Psychologist: Ecological Model


Objectives:

1.

To

examine the key ecological contexts in w
hich children grow and
develop.

2.

To understand and appreciate t
he needs of children in different ecological
contexts
.

3.

To identify

individuals and groups responsible for ensuring that
children’s
needs are met, both within a given ecological context and
through partnerships between ecological contexts.

4.

To understand and appreciate t
he universality of the needs and rights of
children and the principle of non
-
discrimination;

5.

To understand and apprec
iate t
he important roles adults, families,
communities, institutions, governments, and
school psychologists

play in
protecting and supporting the fulfillment of children’s rights
.


Instructions:

1.

Review the Ecological Framework for Child Rights.

2.

Divide participants into small groups, assigning each group to focus on
one (family, school, peer group, community).

3.

For each microsystem, participants should list

a.

associated:
needs of general and particular relevance for the
system (i.e., clothing & shel
ter for family)

b.

stakeholders responsible to ensure needs are met (i.e., parents)

c.

alternative ways stakeholders can promote/support need fulfillment


Discussion:

1.

Do these needs extend to all children in all societies, irrespective of the
country’s wealth
or stage of development?

2.

In which cases do people in different
m
icrosystems have to work together to
meet needs?
How do we ensure that the stakeholders collaborate effectively
?

Facilitator Tip:
Assist participants in developing several substantive
examples

that exemplify types of work they regularly engage in as part of

5

their professional responsibilities. Encourage participants to consider the idea
of “sch
ool psychologist as mesosystem”
.








Activity 1.4:
The

R
elationship
between

N
eeds and
R
ights


Materials:
Chart paper

(pre
-
labeled with poster walk questions)
, markers


Participant Handouts:
N/A


Objectives:

1.

To understand and appreciate t
he relationship between a child’s needs
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Instructions:

A

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-
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one ano瑨e爮



t
rite one question on the top of each piece of chart paper (“poster”)
and po獴⁰楥捥sf⁣ha牴⁰ape爠rn⁴he⁷a汬⁡牯rnd 瑨e⁰e物me瑥爠of
瑨e⁲ om
(one question per poster
; questions listed below
).

2.

Divide participants into small groups and assign each group
a poster
to start on.
(Groups should include 2
-
5 people; with a large number
of participants, it would be beneficial to create more than one poster
per question and keep groups small.)

3.

Allow groups of participants 5
-
10 minutes to discuss the question
and w
rite an answer or notes on the poster, making sure to leave
enough room for other groups to write their comments.

4.

When time is up, groups rotate so that each group is working on a
new poster. Continue the activity
until each group has answered all
question
s
.

5.

After groups are finished responding to all questions, assign each
small group to present one poster to the larger group.

The larger
group should discuss
points of agreement and disagreement,
identif
y

essential element
s, and

attempt to come to consensus on
the relationship between needs and rights.



Poster Walk


Questions:

1.

Which of the
se
needs
(
from list
recorded in Activity 1.2)
are
also
rights?


6

2.

Is there a difference between a need and a right? If so, how would
you define t
hat difference? (If something is a need, is it necessarily
a right, also?)

3.

What is the relationship between needs and rights?

4.

What

factors facilitate the promotion and protection of child needs
and rights
in each microsystem and i
n the mesosystem?

5.

What
factors serve as barriers to promoting and/or protecting child

needs and
rights in each microsystem? In the mesosystem?










Conclusion

All children have
the same
basic universal needs
that must be fulfilled in order for
them to
experience well
-
being and
achieve
their full potential for healthy
development
. H
ealthy development
is promoted by
optimal psychological well
-
being and
both informal and formal
education.


Children go through
acknowledged
stages of development, from infancy through
the end of adolescence
.

Their well
-
being and healthy futures require that needs
are

fulfilled at every developmental stage, although
demand qualities and
expressions of
specific needs change over time as children develop the capacity
to manage and fulfill their own needs.


In a
ddition, children are part of different systems, including family, school, peers,
and community; in each system, needs
fulfillment should be supported. Multiple
different individuals, groups, and institutions are responsible for fulfilling those
needs. In
addition, different systems must often collaborate to meet needs. The
school psychologist is uniquely qualified and situated to facilitate successful
collaboration between the various systems to which children belong
,
including
the child as a system in and

of him/herself.


When adults make a commitment to fulfilling children’s needs, this commitment
establishes rights for children to have these needs met. Child rights cannot be
realized unless adults with responsibilities for children take the necessary act
ion
to make them a reality. Child rights have been codified in a universal set of
standards by which all children should be treated in order for them to
experience
well
-
being and
achieve their full potential. The Convention on the Rights of the
Child, whic
h will be discussed in depth in Module 2,
establishes

that child rights
are human rights, and that all children are entitled to have those rights fulfilled.

Post the

Ecological Model

near

Posters 4 & 5
; also,
you may want to supply some concrete examples of
how rights are
protected (i.e., in schools: conducting
criminal background checks of employees, providing
lunch, etc.)


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Appendices
for
Module 1



Handouts

PH 1.1,
Child Rights and the School Psychologist:

Ecological

Model;
Key Terms

(Figure 1.1; included in this appendix)

PH 1.
2
,
Child Rights Ecology across

Stages of Development

(Figure 1.2
; in
development
)


PowerPoint
Presentation

Not included, to be created by facilitator if needed


Readings/Resources

TBD





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Handout

1.1:

Child Rights and the School Psychologist
, Ecological Model

GUIDING PRINCIPLES
UNIVERSAL RIGHTS
Protection
Child
Family
Community
School
Peer Group
Child
Child
Child
School
Psychologist

This figure is an integration and adaption of figures from the following sources:

CRED
-
PRO

Child rights curriculum for health professionals
. International
Institute for
Child Rights and Development, Victoria, British Columbia, 2008. Adapted with
permission.

Nastasi, B.K., Moore, R. B., & Varjas, K. M.
School
-
based mental health services:
Creating comprehensive and culturally specific programs
. American
Psych
ological Association, Washington, DC, 2004. Adapted with permission.

This model depicts Child Rights and the role of the School Psychologist within an
ecological framework, which includes the key ecological systems (ecosystems) in which
children develop
and function

the family, school, peer group, community, and broader
society and its cultural, civil/political and economic influences. The School Psychologist
is depicted at the center of the ecological system to represent the role as
‘mesosystem’

the conn
ector or facilitator who helps to ensure that Child Rights are
protected and promoted across the key ecosystems. Surrounding the child’s world are
the Guiding Principles and Universal Rights reflected in the UN Convention on the
Rights of the Child. In Mod
ule 1, we examine and discuss children’s rights and needs in
the context of the ecological framework. In Module 2, we explore the guiding principles
and universal rights relevant to the UN Convention. In Modules 3
-
6, we explore the role
of the school psych
ologist in protecting and promoting child rights.




9

HANDOUT 1.1, continued

Key terms and concepts

Child/children

encompasses age range of birth to 18 years of age.

Child Needs
: The prerequisites for optimal growth, development, health,
psychological wel
l
-
being and learning, for fulfilling one’s potential. Child needs
can be categorized in four broad domains: physical, social and cultural,
psychological, and spiritual.

Child Rights
:
Entitlement of all children to have their needs met, which becomes
the responsibility of adults and society.
These rights have been codified into the
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (discussed in detail in Module 2).

Developmental perspective
:
Child rights are considered with respect to the
developmental level and needs of the child from birth to age 18.

W
ell
-
being

refers to
physical,
emotional,
cognitive,
social,
spiritual, moral,

and
behavioral health.
The term is
consistent with the WHO’s de
finition of
health

as

a state of complete physical, mental and social well
-
being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity
”.



Learning

refers to acquisition of thinking, reasoning, language, and numerical
skills, typically associated with
academic achievement resulting from
schooling/education
, but greatly facilitated by informal education through planned
and incidental experiences within and across the social ecology.

Ecological framework (eco
-
system model)
:

This framework, consistent wi
th the
ecological
-
developmental theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner, provides a foundation
for considering child rights with respect to the key social
-
cultural environments or
ecosystems

that play a role in promoting optimal well
-
being
,

learning
, and
developmen
t
. As depicted, these include
the child as a system himself/
herself
,
home,
school, peer group, and community. Within each system (e.g., school) is a
microsystem

or immediate environment (classroom) with which the child interacts
and thus can have direct

influence on the child. Surrounding the microsystem is
the
exosystem

or broader structural context (e.g., school) that encompasses the
microsystem and has indirect influence on the child. At the next level,
encompassing the exosystem, is the
macrosystem

that includes the cultural
beliefs, norms, laws and policies (e.g., ‘school culture’) that influence the
exosystem and microsystem, and thus indirectly influence the child. The set of
embedded systems applies to all the ecosystems relevant to the child’s l
ife
(family, peer group, community, etc.). Connecting the ecosystems are the
mesosystems

(represented by arrows) that represent the interactions between
ecosystems and have indirect influence on the child, for example, home
-
school
relationships. As depicte
d, these ecosystems are embedded further within the
larger society, culture, economy, and civil/political context (e.g., at a country
level).

School psychologist

is depicted as a critical ‘
mesosystem’

or connector among
the child's ecosystems. The role of
mesosystem refers to the professional’s
responsibility to facilitate interactions among the various ecosystems in order to
facilitate optimal well
-
being
,

learning, and
development
to ensure promotion and
protection of child rights. This responsibility prov
ides the foundation for
professional practice at individual, systemic and advoca
cy.

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