LiteSteel beam Engineering Guide

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LiteSteel Technologies America LLC
P.O. Box 577
Troutville, VA 24175
Tel: (540) 992-1600
Fax: (540) 992-5998
E-mail: sales@LiteSteelbeam.com
Website: www.LiteSteelbeam.com
LiteSteel

beam
Engineering
Guide
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
Table of
Contents
4.0 Comparison Tables page
4.1 LVL Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47-51
4.2 Parallam Comparison Tables . . . . . . . . .52-54
4.3 Glulam Comparison Tables . . . . . . . . . .55, 56
4.4 Treated Glulam Comparison Table . . . . . . .57
4.5 Hot Rolled Steel Beam
Comparison Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
4.5.1 50 ksi W-beam
Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . .58, 59
4.5.2 36 ksi W-beam
Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . .60, 61
4.5.3 36 ksi C Channel
Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . .62, 63
4.6 Marino/Ware Steel Box Header
Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64, 65
5.0 LSB Column Axial Tables
5.0 LSB Column Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
6.0 Holes in LSB beams
6.1 IRC and AISI Hole Guidelines . . . . . . .67, 68
6.2 Hole Retention Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
6.3 Hole Bearing Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
1.0 Introduction page
1.1 The LiteSteel

beam Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.2 LSB
®
Application Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.3 Basic Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-9
1.4 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1.5 Shear, Bending Moment
and Deflection Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . .11,12
1.6 LSB Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-14
2.0 LSB Properties and Capacities
2.1 Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
2.2 Shear & Bending Moment Capacities
–Strong Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
2.3 Shear & Bending Moment Capacities
–Weak Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
2.4 Explanation of Bearing Conditions . . . . . . .18
2.5 Web Crippling Capacities . . . . . . . . . . .19, 20
2.6 Web Stiffener Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
2.7 Lateral Distortional Buckling Strength . . . .22
2.8 Laterally Unbraced Retention Table . . . . . .23
2.9 Typical Screw Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
2.10 Typical Bolt Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.0 Span and Load Tables
3.1 LSB Beam Span Tables . . . . . . . . . . . .26, 27
3.2 LSB Joist Span Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
3.2.1 LSB Joist Span Table–L/180 . . . . .28-31
3.2.2 LSB Joist Span Table–L/240 . . . . .31-34
3.2.3 LSB Joist Span Table–L/360 . . . . .34-37
3.2.4 LSB Joist Span Table–L/480 . . . . .37-40
3.3 ASD Load Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
3.3.1 Simple ASD Load Table . . . . . . . .40, 41
3.3.2 Continuous ASD Load Table . . . . . . .42
3.4 LRFD Load Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
3.4.1 Simple LRFD Load Table . . . . . . . . . .43
3.4.2 Continuous LRFD Load Table . . . . . .44
3.5 LSD Load Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
3.5.1 Simple LSD Load Table . . . . . . . . . . .45
3.5.2 Continuous LSD Load Table . . . . . . . .46
LiteSteel Technologies America LLC
P.O. Box 577
Troutville, VA 24175
540-992-1600 • FAX: 540-992-5998
© LiteSteel Technologies America, LLC, 2011 Printed in USA
LiteSteel beam is a trademark and LSB is a registered trademark
and are used under license by LiteSteel Technologies America, LLC.
LiteSteel Technologies America LLC is a OneSteel Group Company.
VERSA-LAM® and ALL-JOIST® are registered trademarks of
Boise Cascade, LLC
LSBEG 1111
3
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1.0 Introduction
W
elcome to the world of LiteSteel

b
eam. This guide
is intended to provide you with the technical and
performance data you require to take advantage of
the benefits of LSB
®
in your designs and applications.
Should you have additional questions, we encourage
you to contact us.
This section contains some basic background
information on LSB as well as examples of residential
and commercial applications. Also included are basic
definitions of common terms used in this engineering
guide, conversion factors, and the shear, bending, and
deflection formulas. The section concludes with an
example 3-part specification for LSB.
1.1 The LiteSteel

beam Story
LiteSteel

beam (LSB
®
) was developed in response to
the demand for a light structural beam with the strength
of steel but with the workability and ease of installation
associated with wood products. The product was
originally developed in Australia where it has been
used successfully in thousands of residential and light
commercial construction projects. The North American
range of LSB products are produced in the USA from
domestically sourced steel. LSB is a green product with
a minimum of 65% recycled content.
The innovative, patented cold forming process gives
LSB a unique profile with the torsional rigidity you would
normally expect from hot rolled steel. It can be carried
like a wood beam and can be cut, screwed, and drilled
on site using the same standard professional-grade tools
you currently use.
LiteSteel Technologies manufactures the LiteSteel beam
product line in Troutville, Virginia. LiteSteel Technologies
is a OneSteel Group Company. OneSteel is Australia’s
premier manufacturer of steel long products and a
leading metals distribution company. OneSteel is a fully
integrated, global manufacturer and distributor of steel
and finished steel products, self-sufficient in both iron ore
and scrap metal, with revenues in excess of $6 billion
Australian dollars. OneSteel services more than 30,000
customers, offers more than 40,000 products globally and
employs over 10,500 people.
Just how easy and convenient is working with LSB
on a job site?

LSB can be cut using a professional-grade,
hand-held circular saw with a steel cutting blade;
no torch required

LSB can be fastened using self-tapping screws

LSB can be bolted using standard, commercially
available bolts

LSB can be hand-carried and installed by framers,
which saves time and money by eliminating the
use of a crane (on average 40% lighter than
alternative materials)

LSB can be welded
Builders can specify LSB for their beam and header
applications with the LSB Selector Software, available
free to download at www.litesteelbeam.com. With all
the strength of standard beams and the ability to use
conventional tools, LiteSteel beam represents a cost
effective option that’s easier to work with than
conventional structural beams.
4
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1.2 LSB
®
Application Examples
T
ypical residential applications include:basement beams, garage beams, long span headers, remodeling
structural beams, fascia beams, floor beams, deck support beams, and roof ridge and valley beams.
Basement Beams Headers
Structural Beams Remodeling
Deck/Balcony Supports Ridge Beams
Structural Beams Manufactured Units
Typical light commercial applications include:fascia, mezzanine flooring, commercial joists,
architectural detailing, and structural beams.
Mezzanine Flooring Architectural Details
5
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1.3 Basic Definitions and
Background Information
Design Methods
There are two common design methods used in the
United States, Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and Load
and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). In Canada, a
design method called Limit State Design (LSD) is used.
The design methods use various “load combinations”
to determine the maximum applied load. There are a
number of types of loads that are considered. Typical
LSB applications will include dead loads (D), live loads
(L), wind loads (W), seismic loads (E), and/or snow load
(S). These loads are used to calculate the moment,
shear, and deflections in a given beam.
All tables within have been developed using ASD, LRFD,
or LSD and are labeled as such.
ASD
For ASD, the load combinations are used to calculate a
maximum assumed “total load” on the beam. The load
combinations are based on probability that multiple loads
will be applied at any given time and are as follows:
1) D
2) D + L
3) D + S
4) D + 0.75L + 0.75S
5) D ± (W or 0.7E)
6) D + 0.75(W or 0.7E) + 0.75L + 0.75S
7) 0.6D ± (W OR 0.7E)
The maximum bending, shear, and web crippling is
found using these load cases, and then compared to
“Allowable” values for bending, shear, and web crippling.
Allowable values are found by dividing nominal values by
safety factors. Safety factors vary depending on design
consideration. For example, the safety factor for bending
for cold-formed steel, Ω
b
= 1.67.
LRFD
LRFD applies factors to both the nominal values as
w
ell as to the load combinations. The factors applied to
nominal values are called the resistance factors, and
again vary depending on the design consideration. For
bending, the resistance factor for cold-formed steel,
φ
b
,
is equal to 0.95.
The load factors which are applied to the various load
combination, depend on a number of factors including
reliability of load type, probability of loads being applied
at the same time, as well as other factors. The load
combinations are as follows:
1) 1.4D
2) 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S
3) 1.2D + 1.6S + (0.5L or 0.8W)
4) 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5L + 0.5S
5) 1.2D ± 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.2S
6) 0.9D ± (1.6W or 1.0E)
LSD
LSD is very similar to LRFD, but uses different load and
resistance factors for cold-formed steel, i.e.
φ
b
, is equal
to 0.90. The load combinations for LSD are:
1) 1.4D
2) 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S
3) 1.2D + 1.6S + (0.5L or 0.8W)
4) 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5L + 0.5S
5) 1.2D ± 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.2S
6) 0.9D ± (1.6W or 1.0E)
Design Specifications
Since LSB is a unique product, it has been designed
using a combination of specifications. The prevailing
specification used is the American Iron and Steel
Institute Standard “North American Specification for the
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members” 2007
Edition (AISI S100-2007).
Web crippling strengths have been developed using AISI
S100-2007 as well as Yang, D. and Wilkinson, T.,
“LiteSteel Beams (LSB) Under Interior and End Bearing
Forces”, Research Report No. R849, Centre for
Advanced Structural Engineering, The University of
Sydney, Australia, September 2005.
Torsional properties and distortional buckling moments
of LSB have been developed in accordance with Pi, Y-L
and Trahair, N.S. “Lateral Distortional Buckling of Hollow
Flange Beams”, Journal of Structural Engineering,
ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 6, pp 695-702, June 1997.
All capacities meet the requirements of AISI S100-2007.
6
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
Steel
LSB is made from steel with a minimum yield strength
equal to 50 ksi. Through the process of cold work of
forming, the steel in the flanges of LSB is increased to
60 ksi steel.
For applicable steels see AISI S100-2007 Section A2.1.
Code Compliance
To ensure applicability and use in prescriptive design,
LiteSteel beams have been certified by Architectural
Testing Incorporated (ATI) to be compliant with the Inter-
national Residential Code, the International Building
Code, and the Florida Building Code.
ATI has certified all gross and effective section properties
and LRFD Design Strengths for Bending Moment, Shear,
and Web Crippling. They have also certified a number of
load and span tables which are included in the report
which can be found at www.LiteSteelbeam.comor
www.archtest.comunder the Code Compliance
Research Report (CCRR) number 0123.
As part of the certification process, ATI performs
biannual inspections of the facility. During inspections,
incoming coils, finished product, and LiteSteel’s quality
program are reviewed. This ensures that the product is
being made the exact same way every time.
Fire Rated Assemblies
When fire rated floor systems are required, LiteSteel
beams have gained approval by Underwriters’ Labora-
tories (UL) for use in various one and two hour
assemblies.
The assemblies include use with concrete and wood
sheathing on top, and include gypsum on the bottom. It
is assumed that LiteSteel beams are used as floor joists
in the assemblies. LSB are listed as an alternative to
cold-rolled Lipped-C’s.
UL requires four inspections per year in which incoming
coils, finished product, and quality sheets are reviewed
to ensure that there are no changes in the process.
Specific assemblies containing LSB can be viewed
by going to www.UL.comand searching LiteSteel
Technologies under certifications or searching UL File
Number R26454.
Section Properties
When using cold-formed steel products two sets of
section properties must be calculated and used in design.
Those two are “Gross” and “Effective” Section Properties.
G
ross Section Properties
Gross section properties are based on a full, unreduced
s
ection. Typical gross section properties are area,
moment of inertia (also known as the second moment
of area), section modulus, and radius of gyration.
Effective Section Properties
Effective section properties are found in a similar
manner, but are based on a reduced section. Typically,
cold-formed steel products such as steel studs have high
width to thickness (w/t) ratios.
The high w/t ratios cause local buckling to occur before
yielding of the section. Despite buckling, depending on
the type of element, the section may still have post
buckling strength. The types of elements within a section
are either stiffened or unstiffened.
1) Unstiffened Elements are flat elements that are only
stiffened along one edge. An example of an
unstiffened element would be the lip of a Lipped-C.
2) Stiffened Elements are flat elements that are stiffened
along both edges. Stiffened elements can be stiffened
by a web, flange, lip or intermediate stiffener. Because
of the unique shape of LSB, all flat elements can be
assumed to be stiffened.
It is the stiffened elements which contain “post-buckling
strength.” This is because as the sheet buckles, a certain
width close to the stiffened edge does not buckle and
remains effective in resisting further stress. This width is
called the “Effective Width.”
The effective width can be determined using standard
AISI equations which take into account the plate buckling
constant, k, which is based on the fixities of the element’s
edges and whether it is under compression or bending.
Since unstiffened elements are really partially stiffened,
they contribute to the overall strength, but a much
smaller value of k is assumed.
Once portions of the section are removed using the
effective width method, effective section properties can
be calculated. For bending and compression members,
the effective area, effective moment of inertia, and
effective section modulus will be required to calculate
bending strength and axial compressive strength.
Because of LSB’s unique shape, effective section
properties are often very close, if not equal, to the
gross section properties. Members which have equal
gross and effective section properties are called “fully
effective” members.
7
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
Coatings
LiteSteel beams are manufactured from coils which are
hot-dip galvanized with a G60 thickness which means
that it is coated with 0.60 oz/ft
2
both sides of each sheet.
This coating is very good for indoor use. When LiteSteel
b
eams are used in outdoor applications or more
corrosive conditions, extra precautions should be taken.
Painting
Painting LSB provides an aesthetic look to the beam
as well as protecting it from corrosive environments.
Painting LSB is a good way for customers to protect
LiteSteel beams without having to purchase an
aftermarket coating.
When applying a painted finish to LSB:

Degrease the galvanized coat with methylated spirits.
Wipe beam clean after solvent washing.

Prepare the surface with a primer suitable for use on
galvanized steel.

Carefully read the Paint Manufacturer’s “Instructions
of Use”. Check to ensure the paint is suitable for use
on galvanized steel and is suitable for the exposure
category.

Paint the LSB in accordance with the Paint
Manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions.
Painting should be carried out on warm, dry days without
heavy frost or dews.
In hot weather, avoid painting surfaces exposed to direct
sunlight as this may result in patchiness or blistering of
the paint.
Aftermarket Coatings
Other than painting, powder coating, and hot-dip
galvanizing LSB are good ways to protect beams from
the elements. In both cases, independent coaters will
need to be used to coat LSB.
Powder coating is a method where powder is applied to
the surface electrostatically and then heated to form a
hard coating. One benefit to powder coating is that no
harmful solvents are used and therefore it is less harmful
to the environment. Powder coaters can be found at
www.powdercoating.org.
Hot-dip galvanizing LSB will provide a thicker layer of
protective zinc, up to 2.19 oz/ft
2
per side. Hot-dip
galvanizing is performed by dipping LSB in molten zinc
which allows the coating to flow into recesses that are
difficult to coat with other coatings. Typically cold-rolled
products are difficult to hot-dip because they have a
tendency to distort from the heat associated with the
process. Because of its torsional rigidity, LSB is much less
affected by this than other cold-formed steel products.
Galvanizers can be found at www.galvanizeit.org.
Beams
Beams are horizontal structural members loaded either
vertically or laterally. Most beams are subject to vertical
l
oads or gravity loads i.e. floor loading. Lateral loading
which acts in the weak direction of LSB is typically due
to wind or seismic loading.
The bending moment, shear, web crippling, and
d
eflection are the limiting factors of LSB design, and
depend on:
1) Amount and type of load
a
. Point Load–A load that is concentrated over a small
area i.e. a column from the floor above.
b. Uniform Load–A load that is evenly spread over a
length of beam i.e. floor joists evenly spaced can be
treated as a uniform load. Note that all span, load, and
comparison tables are based on uniform loading unless
noted otherwise.
2) Support and bearing conditions
a. Simple Beam–A beam that has supports which
prevent movement in the vertical and horizontal
directions, but allows for the beam to rotate. Simple
beams are also known as pinned–pinned connections.
Examples of pinned connections include wall pockets
and screwed connections.
b. Continuous Beam–A beam consisting of three or
more supports. For example, a floor beam bearing on
two exterior walls with a post in the middle.
c. Fixed–End Beam–A beam that is connected to a
very rigid support and does not allow translation in any
direction or any rotation. An example would include a
fully welded connection to a very stiff support.
d. Cantilever Beam–A beam with one end that is
unsupported. This can be achieved using one end fixed
or at least two pinned connections.
e. LSB can also be used with any combination of
these bearing conditions.
8
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
B
ending Moment
Bending moment which is measured in units of length-
force (i.e. ft-lbs) is a measure of the rotation of a given
cross section due to a load. The bending moment
s
trength of a given cross section is its resistance to
moments produced by various forces.
The bending moment strength is a function of the section
modulus, S
x
or S
y
, and yield strength, F
y
. For LSB it is
a
ssumed that bending about the x-axis is the strong axis,
and bending about the y-axis is the weak axis.
The section modulus is a section property which is
based on dimensions and varies between all of the sizes
of LSB. In cold-formed steel design, the section modulus
and other section properties are reduced based on the
“Effective Width” method. These section properties are
called “effective section properties.” For bending strength
the effective section modulus should be used (S
ex
or S
ey
).
See “Section Properties Section” for further explanation.
Shear
Shear is measured in units of force (i.e. lbs or kips). The
shear stress is a measure of the stresses induced in a
section due to loading in plane. A beam’s shear strength
is its resistance to this stress.
LSB’s shear strength in the strong axis conservatively
only considers the web between the two flanges and not
the entire web, and is a function of the area and yield
strength of that portion of web.
Web Crippling
Web Crippling occurs in beams with thin webs such as
LSB. It is measured in force (i.e. lbs) and is a function of
web yield strength, thickness, depth, and bend radius. It
also considers various bearing conditions as well as
bearing length.
Deflection
Deflection which is measured in units of length (i.e.
inches) is the actual amount the beam will move under
load. Deflection is a function of moment of inertia, I
x
or I
y
,
and the modulus of elasticity, E.
The moment of inertia is a section property that indicates
the stiffness of the cross-section. As material is placed
away from the center of gravity for a cross section, the
moment of inertia will increase. Because of the hollow
flanges of LSB, there is a great deal of material away
from the center of gravity without greatly increasing
the weight.
Modulus of elasticity is a material property that indicates
the material’s stiffness. Materials with a high modulus
of elasticity such as steel are much stiffer than materials
with a low modulus of elasticity such as wood. Cold-
rolled steel and LSB in particular use a modulus of
elasticity equal to 29,500 ksi.
Columns
Columns are vertical structural members loaded in the
axial direction or along the length or height. Typical
loading is from reactions of beams bearing on the
columns and will carry loads from one level to another
t
o the bottom of the structure.
Column strength is dependent on length, support
conditions, dimensional properties, and type of loading.
This strength is limited to an axial buckling strength
which is defined by the column suddenly losing
straightness.
Column Length
The column length is defined by the length between
braced points. A braced point can be the location of
actual bracing or the location of a beam framing into the
column. Bracing will restrict movement in the direction
that it is attached.
Support Conditions
The value “K”, which is a part of buckling
equations, is an indicator for the end conditions
or braced condition in a given dimension.
Fixed-Fixed
K = 0.65
Both ends are fixed and therefore are restrained from
rotating or moving laterally.
Pinned-Fixed
K = 0.80
Top is pinned and can rotate, but not move laterally.
Bottom is fixed and can neither rotate nor translate.
9
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
Cross-Sectional Properties
For columns, a number of cross sectional
properties are often considered.
Since LiteSteel beams have a high moment of inertia to
area ratio, the radius of gyration (r) for LSB is also large
compared to other sections of similar weight. This large
(r) makes LSB an efficient column for its weight.
Other buckling equations also take into consideration “J”
which is the Saint-Venant torsional constant, and “C
w

which is the torsional warping constant.
Hollow tubes are typically very torsionally rigid. Because
the flanges of LSB are essentially hollow tubes, LSB has
similar torsional properties to tubes which again make
LiteSteel beams good for use as columns.
Loading Conditions
There are two types of loading conditions that have an
effect on the strength of column buckling, concentric
loading, and eccentric loading.
Concentric Loading
Concentric loading occurs when the column is loaded
through the center of gravity. If a beam was running over
top of the column, the column would be concentrically
loaded.
Eccentric Loading
When a load does not go through the center of gravity,
it is considered eccentric. The amount of eccentricity
is measured in inches from the center of gravity and
applies a moment at that point. All column loading tables
for LSB are considered to be concentric.
This situation will typically arise when a beam is framing
into one of the flanges of the LSB column. When this is
the case, a qualified design professional must determine
the adequate LSB column to be used.
S
upport Conditions cont.
Pinned-Pinned
K
= 1.0
Both ends are pinned and are able to rotate but are
restrained from moving laterally.
Fixed/Free-Fixed
K = 1.2
Top end cannot rotate, but is free to move laterally.
Bottom is fixed from both rotation and lateral movement.
Fixed/Free-Pinned
K = 2.0
Top end cannot rotate, but is free to move laterally.
Bottom is pinned so it can rotate, but not move laterally.
Free-Fixed
K
= 2.1
Top end is free to rotate and translate. The bottom is
fixed against rotation and translation.
10
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1.4 Conversion Factors
To Convert From English To Metric Multiply By To Convert From Metric To English Multiply By
Inch (in) Millimeter (mm) 25.4 Millimeter (mm) Inch (in) 3.9370 x 10
-2
Foot (ft) Meter (m) 0.3048 Meter (m) Foot (ft) 3.2808
Yard (yd) Meter (m) 0.9144 Meter (m) Yard (yd) 1.0936
Mile (U.S. Statute) Kilometer (km) 1.6093 Kilometer (km) Mile (U.S. Statute) 0.6214
Square Inch (in
2
) Square Millimeter (mm
2
) 6.4516 x 10
2
Square Millimeter (mm
2
) Square Inch (in
2
) 1.5500 x 10
-3
Square Foot (ft
2
) Square Meter (m
2
) 9.2903 x 10
-2
Square Meter (m
2
) Square Foot (ft
2
) 10.7639
Square Yard (yd
2
) Square Meter (m
2
) 0.8361 Square Meter (m
2
) Square yard (yd
2
) 1.196
Square Mile (U.S. Statute) (mi
2
) Square Kilometer (km
2
) 2.59 Square Kilometer (km
2
) Square Mile (U.S. Statute) (mi
2
) 0.3861
Acre Square Meter (m
2
) 4.0469 x 10
3
Square Meter (m
2
) Acre 2.4710 x 10
-4
Acre Hectare 0.4047 Hectare Acre 2.471
Cubic Inch (in
3
) Cubic Millimeter (mm
3
) 1.6387 x 10
4
Cubic Millimeter (mm
3
) Cubic Inch (in
3
) 6.1024 x 10
-
5
Cubic Foot (ft
3
) Cubic Meter (m
3
) 2.8317 x 10
-
2
Cubic Meter (m
3
) Cubic Foot (ft
3
) 35.3147
Cubic Yard (yd
3
) Cubic Meter (m
3
) 0.7646 Cubic Meter (m
3
) Cubic Yard (yd
3
) 1.308
Gallon (U.S. Liquid) gal Liter (L) 3.7854 Liter (L) Gallon (U.S. Liquid) gal 0.2642
Quart (U.S. Liquid) qt Liter (L) 0.9464 Liter (L) Quart (U.S. Liquid) qt 1.0567
Ounce (Avoirdupois) (oz av) Gram (g) 28.35 Gram (g) Ounce (Avoirdupois) (oz av) 3.5274 x 10
-
2
Pound (Avoirdupois) (lb av) Kilogram (kg) 0.4536 Kilogram (kg) Pounds (Avoirdupois) (lb av) 2.2046
Short Ton Kilogram (kg) 9.0719 x 10
2
Kilogram (kg) Short Ton 1.1023 x 10
-3
Ounce-Force Newton (N) 0.278 Newton (N) Ounce-Force 3.597
Pound-Force (lbf) Newton (N) 4.4482 Newton (N) Pound-Force (lbf) 0.2248
Pound-Force-Inch (lbf-in) Newton-Meter (N-m) 0.1130 Newton-Meter (N-m) Pound-Force-Inch (lbf-in) 8.8507
Pound-Force-Inch (lbf-in) Newton-Meter (N-m) 1.3558 Newton-Meter (N-m) Pound-Force-Inch (lbf-in) 0.7376
Pound-Force per Square Inch Kilopascal (kPa) 6.8948 Kilopascal (kPa) Pound-Force per Square Inch 0.145
(lbf/in
2
) (lbf/in
2
)
Foot of Water (39.2°F) Kilopascal (kPa) 2.989 Kilopascal (kPa) Foot of Water (39.2°F) 0.3346
Inch of Mercury (32°F) Kilopascal (kPa) 3.3864 Kilopascal (kPa) Inch of Mercury (32°F) 0.2953
Foot-Pound-Force (ft-lbf) Joule (J) 1.3558 Joule (J) Foot-Pound-Force (ft-lbf) 0.7376
British Thermal Unit (BTU) Joule (J) 1.0551 x 10
3
Joule (J) British Thermal Unit (BTU) 9.4782 x 10
-4
Calorie (cal) Joule (J) 4.1868 Joule (J) Calorie (cal) 0.2388
Kilowatt Hour (kW-h) Joule (J) 3.6000 x 10
6
Joule (J) Kilowatt Hour (kW-h) 2.7778 x 10
-7
Foot-Pound-Force per Second Watt (W) 1.3558 Watt (W) Foot-Pound-Force per Second 0.7376
(ft-lbf/s) (ft-lbf/s)
British Thermal Unit per Hour Watt (W) 0.2931 Watt (W) British Thermal Unit per Hour 3.4121
(BTU/h) (BTU/h)
Horsepower (550 ft lbf/s) Kilowatt (kW) 0.7457 Kilowatt (kW) Horsepower (550 ft lbf/s) (hp) 1.341
Degree Radian (rad) 1.7453 x 10
-2
Radian (rad) Degree 57.2958
Degree Fahrenheit (°F) Degree Celcius (°C) (°F -32)x5/9 Degree Celcius (°C) Degree Fahrenheit (°F) (9/5)x °C+32
Length
Area
Volume
Mass
Force
Pressure, Stress
Energy, Work, Heat
Power
Angle
Temperature
Bending Moment
11
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1.5 Shear, Bending, and
Deflection Formulas
T
he analysis of beams requires calculation and
comparison of bending moment, shear, deflection,
and web crippling. As conditions change, formulas for
calculating required values also changes. Shown are
three different bearing conditions with three different
l
oading conditions.

Bearing Conditions
1) Pinned-Pinned (Simple beam)
2) Fixed-Cantilever (One end with rigid support and
one end unsupported)
3) Fixed-Fixed (Two rigid supports)

Loading Conditions
1
) Uniform Loading
a.Loading in the form of pounds per foot
(Newton’s per meter)
b.Loading in the form of pounds per square foot
times a tributary width in feet (Newton’s per
square meter times tributary width in meters)
2) Point Load at the Center
3) Point Load Away from the Center

When multiple loading conditions exist, the
principal of superposition can be used to calculate
bending moment, shear, deflection, and reactions.
1

Symbols 1) R – Reaction 2) M – Bending Moment 3) V – Shear 4)

– Deflection
12
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1.6 LSB Specifications
(LiteSteel beam

Structural Metal Framing)
PART 1 GENERAL
1.1 SECTION INCLUDES
A. Cold-formed metal load bearing support beams
1.2 RELATED SECTIONS
A. Section 05 40 00 Cold Formed Metal Framing
B. Section 06 11 13 Engineered Wood Products
1.3 REFERENCES
A. AISI North American Specification for the Design
of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, 2007
Edition, American Iron and Steel Ins
B. ASTM A653/A653M HSLA Type B Grade 50 (340)
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
ASTM A653/A653M SS Grade 50 (340)
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
ASTM A653/A653M HSLAS Grade 50 (340)
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
ASTM A653/A653M HSLAS Grade 60 (410)
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
C. ASTM A792 SS Grade 50 (340)
Class1 55%Al-Zn Coated
D. ASTM A875 SS Grade 50
ASTM A875 HSLAS Type B Grade 50
E. ASTM A1003 Structural Grade 50
F. ASTM A1011/A1011M SS Grade 50 (340)
ASTM A1011/A1011M HSLAS Grade 50 (340)
ASTM A1011/A1011M HSLAS-F Grade 50 (340)
ASTM A1011/A1011M SS Grade 60 (410)
ASTM A1011/A1011M HSLAS Grade 60 (410)
1.4 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
A. Structural Performance: Design, engineer,
fabricate, and erect cold-form LiteSteel beam to
withstand specified design loads within limits and
under conditions required.
1. Design Loads including Dead Load and
Live Load: As required by code and as
indicated on the Drawings.
2. Deflection: Total load deflection of L/240; live
load deflection of L/360. Or live load deflection
of L/480 as required on drawings.
M
ultiple loading conditions formulas cont.
13
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
1
.5 SUBMITTALS
A. Submit under provisions of Section 01300.
B. Submit manufacturer’s product literature, data
s
heets, and installation recommendations for
specified products.
C. Structural Calculations: Submit structural calcula-
tions prepared by a professional engineer.
1. Description of design criteria.
2. Engineering analysis depicting stress and
deflection (stiffness) requirements for each
framing application.
3. Selection of framing components and
accessories.
4. Verification of attachments to structure and
adjacent framing components.
D. Shop Drawings:
1. Submit shop drawings showing plans, sections,
elevations, layouts, profiles and product
component locations, including anchorage,
bracing, fasteners, accessories, and finishes
as required.
2. Show connection details with screw types,
locations, and other fastener requirements.
1.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Installer Qualifications: Installer experienced in
performing work of this section who has
specialized in installation of work similar to that
required for this project.
B. Pre-installation Meetings: Conduct pre-
installation meeting to verify project requirements,
substrate conditions, and manufacturer’s
recommendations.
C. Welding Standards: Field welding to comply with
applicable provisions of AWS D1.1 “Structural
Welding Code Steel” and AWS D1.3 “Structural
Welding Code Sheet Steel.”
1. Qualify welding processes and welding
operators in accordance with AWS “Standard
Qualification Procedure.”
1.7 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
A. Deliver materials with manufacturer’s identification
intact.
B. Store materials protected from exposure to rain,
snow or other harmful weather conditions, at
temperature and humidity conditions.
C. Protect LiteSteel beams from corrosion,
deformation, damage, and deterioration when
stored at job site. Keep free from dirt and
foreign matter.
1
.8 PROJECT CONDITIONS
A. Maintain environmental conditions (temperature,
humidity, and ventilation) within limits
recommended by manufacturer for optimum
r
esults. Do not install products under environ-
mental conditions outside manufacturer’s
absolute limits.
B. During construction, adequately distribute all
l
oads applied to joists so as not to exceed the
carrying capacity of any one joist or other
component.
PART 2 PRODUCTS
2.1 MANUFACTURERS
A. Acceptable Manufacturer LiteSteel Technologies
America, LLC; 100 Smorgon Way, Troutville, VA
24175. Tel: (540) 992-1600, Fax: (540) 992-5998.
www.litesteelbeam.com.
E-mail: sales@litesteelbeam.com
B. Substitutions: Not permitted.
C. Requests for substitutions will be considered in
accordance with provisions of Section 01600.
2.2 COMPONENTS
A. LiteSteel beam with nominal 2.5 inch (60 mm)
Flange: Cold-formed Galvanized Steel C-Beam
1. Nominal Size: 8 inches (200 mm) deep
2. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 16 gage, 0.059
inch (1.5 mm).
3. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 14 gage, 0.079
inch (2.0 mm).
4. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 12 gage, 0.098
inch (2.5 mm).
B. LiteSteel Beam with nominal 3.0 inch (75 mm)
Flange: Cold-formed Galvanized Steel C-Beam
1. Nominal Size: 10 inches (250 mm) deep.
2. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 14 gage,
0.079 inch (2.0 mm).
3. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 12 gage,
0.098 inch (2.5 mm).
4. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 11 gage,
0.118 inch (3.0 mm).
C. LiteSteel Beam with nominal 3.5 inch (89 mm)
Flange: Cold-formed Galvanized Steel C-Beam
1. Nominal Size: 12 inches (300 mm) deep.
2. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 12 gage,
0.098 inch (2.5 mm).
3. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 11 gage,
0.118 inch (3.0 mm).
4. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 10 gage,
0.134 inch (3.4 mm)
14
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
D
. LiteSteel Beam with nominal 3.5 inch (89 mm)
Flange: Cold-formed Galvanized Steel C-Beam
1. Nominal Size: 14 inches (350 mm) deep.
2
. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 12 gage,
0.098 inch (2.5 mm).
3. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 11 gage,
0.118 inch (3.0 mm).
4. Nominal Delivered Thickness: 10 gage,
0.134 inch (3.4 mm).
E. Fasteners: Self-drilling, self-tapping screws; Steel,
complying with ASTM C1002; Galvanized
coating, plated or oil-phosphate coated complying
with ASTM B 633 as needed for required
corrosion resistance.
2.3 TOUCH-UP PAINT
Zinc rich, containing 95-percent metallic zinc.
2.4 MATERIALS
A. Cold-Formed Steel Sheet: Complying with
ASTM A653/A 653M SS Grade 50; unless
indicated otherwise.
B. Galvanized Coating: G60 coating weight
minimum, complying with ASTM C 955.
2.5 FABRICATION
A. Cut all framing components squarely for
attachment to fit against abutting members.
Hold members positively in place until
properly fastened.
B. Fasteners: Fasten components using self-tapping
screws, bolts or welding.
C. Welding: Welding is permitted.
1. Specify welding configuration and size on the
Structural Calculation submittal.
2. Qualify welding operators in accordance with
Section 6.0 of AWS D.1.3.
3. Touch up all welds with zinc-rich paint in
compliance with ASTM A 780.
PART 3 EXECUTION
3.1 EXAMINATION
A. Prior to installation, inspect previous work of all
other trades. Verify that all work is complete and
a
ccurate to the point where this installation may
properly proceed in strict accordance with
framing shop drawings.
B. If substrate preparation is the responsibility of
another installer, notify Architect of unsatisfactory
preparation before proceeding.
C. Installation constitutes acceptance of existing
conditions and responsibility for satisfactory
performance.
3.2 INSTALLATION
A. General Installation Requirements:
1. Install cold-formed framing in accordance with
drawings and specifications.
2. Weld in compliance with AWS D.1.3.
3. Install in compliance with applicable codes
and standards.
B. LiteSteel beams:
1. Locate LiteSteel beam directly over bearing
supports or provide a suitable load distribution
member.
2. Provide web stiffeners at reaction points where
indicated in drawings, suggested by manufac-
turer or required by an engineering professional.
3. Provide web stiffeners at concentrated load
points where indicated in drawings, suggested
by manufacturer or required by an engineering
professional.
3.3 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL
A. Inspection: If special inspections are required by
local code authorities.
1. Owner will hire and pay inspection agency.
2. Submit schedule showing when the following
activities will be performed and resubmit
schedule when timing changes.
3. Notify inspection agency not less than 3 days
before the start of any of the following activities.
3.4 Inspections may be required during welding
operations, screw attachment, bolting, anchoring, and
other fastening of components.
3.5 PROTECTION
A. Protect installed products until completion of project.
B. Touch-up, repair or replace damaged products
before Substantial Completion.
15
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2.0 LSB Properties
and Capacities
In this section you will find the gross and effective
section properties for the full range of LiteSteel beam
products. The values in the tables are presented in US
Imperial units. Please consult the conversion factors
p
resented in section 1.4 to convert to other units.
Also included in this section are the shear, bending
moment, and web crippling capacities. Both ASD and
LRFD values are presented. The section also contains
information on web stiffeners and their capacities.
The section concludes with distortional buckling and
un-braced retention tables. We have also included
tables of typical screw and typical bolt properties for
the reader’s convenience.
Shear Center
m
t
b
d
f
R
o
d
R
w
Gross Section
ID Dimensions Properties
Axis x-x Axis y-y
d b d
f
t R
O
R
iw
Area wt/ft I
x
S
x
r
x
I
y
S
yL
S
yR
r
y
in in in in in in in
2
lb in
4
in
3
in in
4
in
3
in
3
in
1400LSB350-134 13.8 3.50 1.18 0.134 0.201 0.118 3.84 13.07 108.8 15.79 5.32 5.74 5.33 2.37 1.22
1400LSB350-118 13.8 3.50 1.18 0.118 0.177 0.118 3.41 11.59 96.8 14.05 5.33 5.17 4.79 2.13 1.23
1400LSB350-098 13.8 3.50 1.18 0.098 0.148 0.118 2.86 9.73 81.5 11.83 5.34 4.41 4.08 1.82 1.24
1200LSB350-134 11.8 3.50 1.18 0.134 0.201 0.118 3.58 12.17 75.2 12.73 4.59 5.45 4.73 2.32 1.24
1200LSB350-118 11.8 3.50 1.18 0.118 0.177 0.118 3.18 10.80 66.9 11.33 4.59 4.91 4.25 2.09 1.24
1200LSB350-98 11.8 3.50 1.18 0.098 0.148 0.118 2.67 9.07 56.4 9.55 4.60 4.19 3.62 1.79 1.25
1000LSB300-118 9.8 2.95 0.98 0.118 0.177 0.118 2.64 8.97 38.5 7.83 3.82 2.84 2.91 1.43 1.04
1000LSB300-98 9.8 2.95 0.98 0.098 0.148 0.118 2.22 7.54 32.5 6.61 3.83 2.43 2.49 1.23 1.05
1000LSB300-79 9.8 2.95 0.98 0.079 0.118 0.118 1.79 6.09 26.3 5.35 3.84 2.00 2.05 1.02 1.06
800LSB250-98 7.9 2.36 0.79 0.098 0.148 0.118 1.75 5.96 16.4 4.16 3.06 1.20 1.54 0.76 0.83
800LSB250-79 7.9 2.36 0.79 0.079 0.118 0.118 1.42 4.82 13.3 3.38 3.06 1.00 1.27 0.63 0.84
800LSB250-59 7.9 2.36 0.79 0.059 0.089 0.118 1.08 3.67 10.2 2.58 3.07 0.78 0.99 0.49 0.85
Effective Section Axial Compression Shear Torsional Yield
ID Properties
Effective Coord.of
Center Properties Stress
Axis x-x Axis y-y Area Centroid Flange Web
I
ex
S
ex
I
eyL
S
eyL
I
eyR
S
eyR
A
e
x
c
m G J
F
J C
w
F
yf
F
yw
in
4
in
3
in
4
in
3
in
4
in
3
in
2
in in k in
2
in
4
in
6
ksi ksi
1400LSB350-134 107.7 15.49 4.63 3.53 5.74 2.37 3.07 1.36 1.35 8673 1.544 168.1
1400LSB350-118 94.5 13.37 4.31 3.19 5.17 2.13 2.66 1.40 1.36 7892 1.403 151.3
1400LSB350-098 76.8 10.56 3.87 2.75 4.41 1.82 2.17 1.44 1.37 6831 1.213 129.2
1200LSB350-134 75.2 12.73 4.27 3.23 5.45 2.32 3.05 1.37 1.38 8673 1.543 116.9
1200LSB350-118 66.9 11.33 3.96 2.92 4.91 2.09 2.65 1.40 1.39 7892 1.402 105.2
1200LSB350-98 54.6 9.00 3.53 2.51 4.19 1.79 2.16 1.44 1.39 6831 1.212 89.9
60.0 50.0
1000LSB300-118 38.5 7.83 2.19 1.99 2.84 1.43 2.28 1.14 1.16 4421 0.787 42.2
1000LSB300-98 32.5 6.61 1.96 1.71 2.43 1.23 1.85 1.18 1.17 3861 0.686 36.2
1000LSB300-79 25.3 4.96 1.71 1.43 2.00 1.02 1.44 1.22 1.18 3231 0.573 29.9
800LSB250-98 16.4 4.16 0.92 1.05 1.20 0.76 1.53 0.91 0.93 1865 0.332 11.4
800LSB250-79 13.3 3.38 0.80 0.88 1.00 0.63 1.19 0.94 0.94 1582 0.281 9.5
800LSB250-59 9.6 2.34 0.67 0.69 0.78 0.49 0.86 0.98 0.94 1257 0.223 7.4
2.1 Section Properties
T
he property table at right presents both the gross section
properties as well as the effective section properties for
the family of 12 LiteSteel beam varieties.
X X
S
Y
Y
16
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2.2 Shear and Bending Moment Capacities–Strong Axis
SINGLE MEMBER
LRFD Design Strength ASD Allowable Strength
I
x
L
SB
Moment
φ
=0.95 Shear
φ
=0.95 Moment

=1.67 Shear

=1.60
kip-ft kips kip-ft kips in
4
1400LSB350-134 73.6 28.7 46.4 18.9 108.8
1400LSB350-118 63.5 19.9 40.0 13.1 96.8
1400LSB350-098 50.1 11.5 31.6 7.6 81.5
1200LSB350-134 60.5 28.7 38.1 18.9 75.2
1200LSB350-118 53.8 22.3 33.9 14.7 66.9
1200LSB350-098 42.7 14.0 26.9 9.2 56.4
1000LSB300-118 37.2 22.3 23.4 14.7 38.5
1000LSB300-098 31.4 15.5 19.8 10.2 32.5
1000LSB300-079 23.6 8.6 14.9 5.7 26.3
800LSB250-098 19.7 15.5 12.4 10.2 16.4
800LSB250-079 16.1 9.9 10.1 6.5 13.3
800LSB250-059 11.1 4.6 7.0 3.0 10.2
DOUBLE MEMBER
LRFD Design Strength ASD Allowable Strength
I
x
LSB
Moment
φ
=0.95 Shear
φ
=0.95 Moment

=1.67 Shear

=1.60
kip-ft kips kip-ft kips in
4
1400LSB350-134 147.2 57.4 92.8 37.8 217.6
1400LSB350-118 127.0 39.8 80.1 26.2 193.6
1400LSB350-098 100.2 23.0 63.2 15.1 163.0
1200LSB350-134 121.0 57.4 76.3 37.8 150.4
1200LSB350-118 107.6 44.6 67.8 29.3 133.8
1200LSB350-098 85.4 28.0 53.8 18.4 112.8
1000LSB300-118 74.4 44.6 46.9 29.3 77.0
1000LSB300-098 62.8 31.0 39.6 20.4 65.0
1000LSB300-079 47.2 17.2 29.8 11.3 52.6
800LSB250-098 39.4 31.0 24.8 20.4 32.8
800LSB250-079 32.2 19.8 20.3 13.0 26.6
800LSB250-059 22.2 9.2 14.0 6.1 20.4
17
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2.3 Shear and Bending Moment Capacities–Weak Axis
L
RFD Design Strength ASD Allowable Strength
I
y
LSB
Left Moment Right Moment Shear Left Moment Right Moment Shear
φ
=0.95
φ
=0.95
φ
=0.95

=1.67

=1.67

=1.60
kip-ft kip-ft kips kip-ft kip-ft kips in
4
1400LSB350-134 9.5 11.2 56.4 6.0 7.1 37.1 5.74
1400LSB350-118 9.0 10.1 50.4 5.7 6.4 33.2 5.17
1400LSB350-098 8.3 8.7 42.7 5.2 5.5 28.1 4.41
1200LSB350-134 8.8 11.0 56.4 5.5 6.9 37.1 5.45
1200LSB350-118 8.3 9.9 50.4 5.2 6.2 33.2 4.91
1200LSB350-098 7.6 8.5 42.7 4.8 5.4 28.1 4.19
1000LSB300-118 5.3 6.8 41.5 3.3 4.3 27.3 2.84
1000LSB300-098 4.9 5.8 35.3 3.1 3.7 23.2 2.43
1000LSB300-079 4.4 4.8 28.8 2.8 3.0 18.9 2.00
800LSB250-098 2.8 3.6 27.4 1.8 2.3 18.0 1.20
800LSB250-079 2.5 3.0 22.5 1.6 1.9 14.8 1.00
800LSB250-059 2.2 2.3 17.3 1.4 1.4 11.4 0.78
LRFD Design Strength ASD Allowable Strength
I
y
LSB
Left Moment Right Moment Shear Left Moment Right Moment Shear
φ
=0.95
φ
=0.95
φ
=0.95

=1.67

=1.67

=1.60
kip-ft kip-ft kips kip-ft kip-ft kips in
4
1400LSB350-134 19.0 22.4 112.8 12.0 14.1 74.2 11.5
1400LSB350-118 18.0 20.2 100.8 11.3 12.7 66.3 10.3
1400LSB350-098 16.6 17.4 85.4 10.5 11.0 56.2 8.8
1200LSB350-134 17.6 22.0 112.8 11.1 13.9 74.2 10.9
1200LSB350-118 16.6 19.8 100.8 10.5 12.5 66.3 9.8
1200LSB350-098 15.2 17.0 85.4 9.6 10.7 56.2 8.4
1000LSB300-118 10.6 13.6 83.0 6.7 8.6 54.6 5.7
1000LSB300-098 9.8 11.6 70.6 6.2 7.3 46.4 4.9
1000LSB300-079 8.8 9.6 57.6 5.5 6.1 37.9 4.0
800LSB250-098 5.6 7.2 54.8 3.5 4.5 36.1 2.4
800LSB250-079 5.0 6.0 45.0 3.2 3.8 29.6 2.0
800LSB250-059 4.4 4.6 34.6 2.8 2.9 22.8 1.6
S
INGLE MEMBER
DOUBLE MEMBER
18
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2.4 Explanation of Bearing Conditions
Bearing Instructions–
With and Without Stiffeners
1. N
end
indicates end bearing length
2. N
int
indicates interior bearing length
3. The Table on pages 19 and 20 show Total Allowable
Load (ASD) and Design Load (LRFD) for given
bearing length, N, when stiffeners are not used.
4. The table on page 21 shows Total Allowable Load
when using one and two stiffeners at an interior or
end condition.
5. For descriptions of “End One Flange”, “End Two
Flange”, “Interior One Flange”, and “Interior Two
Flange” loading, see drawings below.
6. When using stiffeners the minimum bearing is
3 -1/2˝.
7. When only one stiffener is required, wood, LSB, or
steel stud may be used per the LiteSteel beam
Installers Guide.
8. When two stiffeners are required, they must be
made of LSB per LiteSteel beam detail 09-031
Double Stiffener.
EOF - End One Flange Loading
ETF - End Two Flange Loading
IOF - Interior One Flange Loading
ITF - Interior Two Flange Loading
>1.5h
P
R
END
R
INTERIOR
>1.5h
>1.5h
R should be compared to EOF
P should be compared to ETF
R should be compared to IOF
END
INTERIOR
h
P
R
END
R
INTERIOR
>1.5h
>1.5h
R should be compared to EOF
P should be compared to ETF & ITF
R should be compared to IOF
END
INTERIOR
h
P
>1.5h
R
END
R
INTERIOR
>1.5h
>1.5h
R should be compared to EOF
P should be compared to IOF
R should be compared to IOF
END
INTERIOR
h
>1.5h
P
>1.5h
R
END
R
INTERIOR
>1.5h
>1.5h
R should be compared to EOF
P should be compared to IOF
R should be compared to IOF
E
ND
INTERIOR
h
=
1.5h
<
=
1.5h
<
=
1.5h
<
=
1.5h
<
19
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2.5 Web Crippling Capacities
T
he web crippling capacities for the range of LSB
members are shown in the tables below. The table
was calculated using the ASD design method, while
the table on page 20 was calculated using the LRFD
design method.

Value “N” is length of bearing in inches

End One Flange, End Two Flange, Interior One Flange,
and Interior Two Flange as described in section 2.4 above
LSB Web Crippling Table,
ASD Design Method
End One Flange, P
n
/Ω, Ω= 1.85 Interior One Flange, P
n
/Ω, Ω= 1.65
LSB N (in) N (in)
1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8
1400LSB350-134 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.9 7.2 9.6 10.2 10.4 10.8 10.9 11.1 11.4 11.7 11.9 12.2
1400LSB350-118 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.5 8.6 8.7 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6
1400LSB350-098 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.1 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.8
1200LSB350-134 4.9 5.3 5.5 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.3 9.6 10.2 10.5 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.3
1200LSB350-118 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 7.6 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.3 9.5 9.7
1200LSB350-098 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 5.4 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.9
1000LSB300-118 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.4 5.6 5.8 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.9 9.1 9.4 9.6
1000LSB300-098 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.8
1000LSB300-079 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
800LSB250-098 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7
800LSB250-079 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4
800LSB250-059 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7
LSB Web Crippling Table,
ASD Design Method
End Two Flange, P
n
/Ω, Ω= 1.6 Interior Two Flange, P
n
/Ω, Ω= 1.90
LSB N (in) N (in)
1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8
1400LSB350-134 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 13.4 13.7 13.9 14.4 14.6 14.8 15.2 15.6 16.0 16.3
1400LSB350-118 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.4
1400LSB350-098 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2
1200LSB350-134 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 13.4 13.7 13.9 14.4 14.6 14.8 15.2 15.6 16.0 16.4
1200LSB350-118 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.4
1200LSB350-098 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2
1000LSB300-118 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 9.7 9.9 10.1 10.5 10.7 10.9 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1
1000LSB300-098 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0
1000LSB300-079 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6
800LSB250-098 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.8
800LSB250-079 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.5
800LSB250-059 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0
20
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
LSB Web Crippling Table,
LRFD Design Method
End One Flange, φP
n
, φ = 0.80 Interior One Flange, φP
n
, φ = 0.90
LSB N (in) N (in)
1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8
1400LSB350-134 7.2 7.7 8.0 8.5 8.7 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.6 14.2 15.1 15.5 16.0 16.2 16.5 16.9 17.3 17.7 18.1
1400LSB350-118 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.4 11.2 12.0 12.2 12.6 12.8 12.9 13.3 13.6 14.0 14.3
1400LSB350-098 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.1 8.0 8.4 8.5 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.4 9.6 9.9 10.1
1200LSB350-134 7.2 7.8 8.1 8.7 8.9 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 14.2 15.1 15.7 16.2 16.4 16.6 17.1 17.5 17.9 18.3
1200LSB350-118 5.8 6.2 6.5 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.6 8.0 8.3 8.6 11.2 12.0 12.3 12.7 12.9 13.1 13.4 13.8 14.1 14.4
1200LSB350-098 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.2 8.0 8.5 8.6 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.7 10.0 10.2
1000LSB300-118 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.3 8.6 11.3 11.7 12.0 12.4 12.6 12.8 13.2 13.6 13.9 14.2
1000LSB300-098 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.2 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.6 9.8 10.1
1000LSB300-079 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6
800LSB250-098 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.3 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.1 9.4 9.7 9.9
800LSB250-079 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5
800LSB250-059 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0
LSB Web Crippling Table,
LRFD Design Method
End Two Flange, φP
n
, φ = 0.90 Interior Two Flange, φP
n
, φ = 0.80
LSB N (in) N (in)
1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8 1 1.5 2 3 3.5 4 5 6 7 8
1400LSB350-134 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.7 6.8 20.4 20.8 21.1 21.8 22.2 22.5 23.1 23.7 24.3 24.8
1400LSB350-118 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 15.4 15.7 16.0 16.5 16.8 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.4 18.8
1400LSB350-098 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 10.1 10.3 10.4 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.4
1200LSB350-134 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 20.4 20.8 21.2 21.9 22.2 22.5 23.1 23.7 24.3 24.9
1200LSB350-118 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 15.4 15.7 16.0 16.5 16.8 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.4 18.8
1200LSB350-098 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.4
1000LSB300-118 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.5 14.8 15.1 15.4 16.0 16.3 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.4
1000LSB300-098 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 9.7 9.9 10.1 10.5 10.7 10.8 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.1
1000LSB300-079 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.7 6.8 7.0
800LSB250-098 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 9.2 9.4 9.7 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.9 11.2 11.5 11.8
800LSB250-079 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9
800LSB250-059 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1
21
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
2.6 Web Stiffener Capacities
To reduce the size of LiteSteel beams required by the
w
eb crippling capacity, stiffeners should be installed at
bearing points and points of concentrated load. LiteSteel
Technologies has done extensive testing on various
stiffener options. Sections of LSB are the most versatile
web stiffeners. They can be used as single stiffeners
a
nd double stiffeners in both single and back-to-back
beam applications. The use of wood is also possible,
but is only applicable for single beam and single
stiffener applications. Please refer to our construction
details available for download from our website
(http://www.litesteelbeam.com/pages/tools_09.html).
There are details covering using a section of LSB as a
single stiffener, as a double stiffener, and using wood
as stiffeners.
Allowable Stiffener Load (kips)
End Loading Interior Loading,
Beam Size (One and Two Flange) (One and Two Flange)
Single Stiffener Double Stiffener Single Stiffener Double Stiffener
Min. Brg. = 3 1/2˝ Min. Brg. = 3 1/2˝ Min. Brg. = 3 1/2˝ Min. Brg. = 7˝
1400LSB350-134 13.5 16.0 15.2 31.2
1400LSB350-118 8.6 9.8 12.1 20.0
1400LSB350-98 6.0 6.8 8.5 14.6
1200LSB350-134 13.4 14.8 18.4 31.8
1200LSB350-118 10.9 11.6 13.8 23.4
1200LSB350-98 7.5 8.4 11.1 19.0
1000LSB300-118 11.9 14.0 15.0 24.8
1000LSB300-98 7.3 9.9 10.7 17.1
1000LSB300-79 5.1 6.2 7.1 12.1
800LSB250-98 9.3 9.4 11.0 21.2
800LSB250-79 4.9 6.7 7.9 12.8
800LSB250-59 2.9 4.1 4.3 7.1
1400LSB350-134 BB 32.6 35.1 35.7 55.2
1400LSB350-118 BB 26.4 28.0 28.2 53.9
1400LSB350-98 BB 15.8 16.8 22.7 34.0
1200LSB350-134 BB 32.0 32.6 45.9 59.0
1200LSB350-118 BB 24.7 32.7 34.2 53.1
1200LSB350-98 BB 18.7 23.9 26.2 39.8
1000LSB300-118 BB 25.7 25.7 37.3 51.3
1000LSB300-98 BB 16.2 22.1 27.8 40.5
1000LSB300-79 BB 13.5 15.6 20.1 29.7
800LSB250-98 BB 21.2 23.6 28.4 36.9
800LSB250-79 BB 13.0 16.1 16.8 27.0
800LSB250-59 BB 7.0 9.2 9.8 15.4
1400LSB350-134 N 12.9 12.9 19.2 28.7
1400LSB350-118 N 10.3 10.3 16.1 23.2
1400LSB350-98 N 6.9 6.9 11.0 15.9
1200LSB350-134 N 13.1 13.1 22.1 32.5
1200LSB350-118 N 11.9 11.9 18.4 28.5
1200LSB350-98 N 9.9 9.9 14.9 19.0
1000LSB300-118 N 12.4 12.4 18.6 23.9
1000LSB300-98 N 9.3 9.3 10.5 18.1
1000LSB300-79 N 6.7 6.7 10.0 13.2
800LSB250-98 N 9.4 9.4 13.2 19.0
800LSB250-79 N 7.1 7.1 10.2 14.3
800LSB250-59 N 4.5 4.5 6.0 8.0
The following rules should be followed when stiffening
the webs of LSB:


M
inimum end bearing when using stiffeners is 3-1/2˝

Minimum interior bearing when using stiffeners is 3-1/2˝

For more bearing requirements when stiffeners are
used, see bearing table.


C
apacities for single stiffener can be LSB stiffener
or (2) 2 x 4˝s

Double Stiffener capacities are for LSB stiffeners only

Reference Installers Guide for additional stiffener
information

BB denotes two LSB beams in back-to-back
configuration

N denotes two LSB beams in nested configuration
22
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
Due to the unique shape of LSB, when the compression
flange of LSB is unbraced for various lengths, it buckles
in a mixed mode of lateral and distortional buckling.
Lateral buckling can be described as buckling sideways
in the weak direction, and distortional buckling can be
described as distorting the overall cross-section along
the length.

Full Bending Moment Capacity should be
considered only when the compression flange is fully
laterally braced
Distortional Buckling Design Strength (bending about x-axis) LRFD Design Method
2.7 Lateral Distortional Buckling Strength

When the compression flange is unbraced for a given
length, the Bending Moment Capacity at that length
should be considered

The ASD Allowable Bending Moment Capacity
assumes

b
is equal to 1.67

The LRFD Design Bending Moment Capacity
assumes
φ
b
is equal to 0.90 for lateral
distortional buckling
Design Design
Wt.Shear Flexural
φ
b
M
nx
(kip ft)
ID per ft.Strength Strength
Unbraced length, L
x
(ft)
φ
v
Vnx
φ
b
M
nxo
lb/ft kip kip ft 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 34 36 38 40
1400LSB350-134 13.07 28.7 73.6 73.6 73.6 69.6 61.0 54.5 50.0 44.5 41.1 36.8 33.8 31.4 29.4 27.8 27.0 26.3 25.7 25.1
1400LSB350-118 11.59 19.9 63.5 63.5 63.5 59.9 52.3 47.1 43.6 38.7 35.7 32.1 29.6 27.7 26.0 24.6 24.0 23.4 22.9 22.3
1400LSB350-98 9.73 11.5 50.1 50.1 50.1 47.3 41.5 37.5 34.4 30.6 28.4 25.9 24.3 22.8 21.6 20.5 20.0 19.6 19.1 18.7
1200LSB350-134 12.17 28.7 60.5 60.5 60.5 60.5 51.3 46.5 43.3 39.2 36.5 32.9 30.2 28.0 26.2 24.7 24.0 23.4 22.9 22.3
1200LSB350-118 10.80 22.3 53.8 53.8 53.8 53.8 45.1 40.7 37.7 34.0 31.8 28.8 26.5 24.8 23.2 21.9 21.4 20.9 20.4 19.9
1200LSB350-98 9.07 14.0 42.7 42.7 42.7 42.7 36.2 33.0 30.8 27.6 25.7 23.4 21.8 20.5 19.3 18.4 17.9 17.5 17.1 16.7
1000LSB300-118 8.97 22.3 37.2 37.2 37.2 32.0 28.6 26.4 24.9 22.8 21.3 19.0 17.3 16.0 14.9 14.0 13.7 13.3 13.0 12.6
1000LSB300-98 7.54 15.5 31.4 31.4 31.4 26.5 23.5 21.6 20.3 18.6 17.5 15.8 14.5 13.5 12.6 11.9 11.6 11.3 11.0 10.7
1000LSB300-79 6.09 8.6 23.6 23.6 23.6 20.1 18.0 16.7 15.7 14.4 13.5 12.4 11.5 10.8 10.1 9.6 9.4 9.1 8.9 8.7
800LSB250-98 5.96 15.5 19.7 19.7 17.1 15.0 13.7 12.9 12.2 11.2 10.4 9.2 8.4 7.7 7.1 6.7 6.5 6.2 5.8 5.6
800LSB250-79 4.82 9.9 16.1 16.1 13.6 11.7 10.7 10.0 9.5 8.8 8.3 7.4 6.8 6.3 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.1 4.9 4.6
800LSB250-59 3.67 4.6 11.1 11.1 9.4 8.2 7.6 7.1 6.8 6.4 6.0 5.5 5.1 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6
Design Design
Wt.Shear Flexural
M
nx
/

b
(kip ft)
ID per ft.Strength Strength
Unbraced length, L
x
(ft)
V
nx
/

v
M
nxo
/

b
lb/ft kip kip ft 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 34 36 38 40
1400LSB350-134 13.07 18.9 46.4 46.4 46.4 46.3 40.6 36.3 33.3 29.6 27.4 24.5 22.5 20.9 19.6 18.5 18.0 17.5 17.1 16.7
1400LSB350-118 11.59 13.1 40.0 40.0 40.0 39.9 34.8 31.3 29.0 25.8 23.8 21.4 19.7 18.4 17.3 16.4 16.0 15.6 15.2 14.9
1400LSB350-98 9.73 7.6 31.6 31.6 31.6 31.5 27.6 24.9 22.9 20.3 18.9 17.2 16.1 15.2 14.4 13.6 13.3 13.0 12.7 12.5
1200LSB350-134 12.17 18.9 38.1 38.1 38.1 38.1 34.1 31.0 28.8 26.1 24.3 21.9 20.1 18.6 17.4 16.4 16.0 15.6 15.2 14.9
1200LSB350-118 10.80 14.7 33.9 33.9 33.9 33.9 30.0 27.1 25.1 22.6 21.1 19.1 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.6 14.2 13.9 13.6 13.2
1200LSB350-98 9.07 9.2 26.9 26.9 26.9 26.9 24.1 22.0 20.5 18.3 17.1 15.6 14.5 13.6 12.9 12.2 11.9 11.6 11.4 11.1
1000LSB300-118 8.97 14.7 23.4 23.4 23.4 21.3 19.0 17.6 16.6 15.2 14.2 12.7 11.5 10.7 9.9 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.6 8.4
1000LSB300-98 7.54 10.2 19.8 19.8 19.8 17.6 15.6 14.4 13.5 12.4 11.6 10.5 9.7 9.0 8.4 7.9 7.7 7.5 7.3 7.1
1000LSB300-79 6.09 5.7 14.9 14.9 14.9 13.3 12.0 11.1 10.5 9.6 9.0 8.2 7.7 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.8
800LSB250-98 5.96 10.2 12.4 12.4 11.3 9.9 9.1 8.6 8.1 7.4 6.9 6.1 5.6 5.1 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7
800LSB250-79 4.82 6.5 10.1 10.1 9.0 7.8 7.1 6.7 6.4 5.9 5.5 4.9 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.1
800LSB250-59 3.67 3.0 7.0 7.0 6.3 5.5 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4
Allowable Distortional Buckling Design Strength (bending about x-axis) ASD Design Method
23
Version 1.1 Nov. 2011
The table below is for use with beams that do not have
a fully laterally braced compression flange. Examples
of lateral bracing are joists and trusses attached either
directly to the beam or by means of a nail plate.
The values presented in the table below should be
multiplied by the Design Bending Strength (LRFD) or
Allowable Bending Strength (ASD) and compared to the
required bending moment based on LRFD or ASD load
combinations along the unbraced portion.
2.8 Laterally Unbraced Retention Table
Laterally Unbraced Retention Table Based on LSB Distortional Buckling Strength
Design Allowable
Flexural Flexural
LSB Unbraced length, L
x
(ft) Strength Strength
φ
b
M
nxo
M
nxo
/

b
3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 34 36 38 40 kip ft kip ft
1400LSB350-134 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.83 0.74 0.68 0.60 0.56 0.50 0.46 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 73.6 46.4
1400LSB350-118 1.00 1.00 0.94 0.82 0.74 0.69 0.61 0.56 0.51 0.47 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 63.5 40.0
1400LSB350-098 1.00 1.00 0.94 0.83 0.75 0.69 0.61 0.57 0.52 0.48 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 50.1 31.6
1200LSB350-134 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.77 0.72 0.65 0.60 0.54 0.50 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 60.5 38.1
1200LSB350-118 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.84 0.76 0.70 0.63 0.59 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 53.8 33.9
1200LSB350-098 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.77 0.72 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.40 0.39 42.7 26.9
1000LSB300-118 1.00 1.00 0.86 0.77 0.71 0.67 0.61 0.57 0.51 0.47 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 37.2 23.4
1000LSB300-098 1.00 1.00 0.84 0.75 0.69 0.65 0.59 0.56 0.50 0.46 0.43 0.40 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 31.4 19.8
1000LSB300-079 1.00 1.00 0.85 0.76 0.71 0.67 0.61 0.57 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 23.6 14.9