Test 2 Study Guide

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Name:


Date:

3/23/13

Period:




Biology B


Test 2

Study Guide

Unit Objectives



Identify the major experiments and scientists involved in the discovery of DNA as the genetic
material.



Explain the structure of DNA, RNA
and proteins.



Define the Central Dogma of Genetics and explain its significance.



Explain the significance of genetic technologies, including genetic engineering.

2
.1:

Introduction to Molecular Genetics

Definitions



Factors



Genes



Alleles



Chromosome Theory of

Inheritance



Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri



Thomas Hunt Morgan



Calvin Bridges

Concepts



Explain the connection between Mendel’s discoveries and the experiments that lead to the
discovery of DNA as the genetic material.

2.2 Structure of DNA

Definitions



Nucleotide



DNA



Hydrogen Bonds



Covalent Bonds



Base
-
pair Rules



The Genetic Code



The Central Dogma of Genetics

Concepts



Explain the structure of DNA, including the shape of the molecule, the subunits that comprise it,
and the types of bonds that hold the diff
erent pieces together.


Name:


Date:

3/23/13

Period:




2.3
: The Road to DNA

Definitions



Watson and Crick



Avery



Griffith



Hershey and Chase



Chargaff

Concepts



Name and explain the contributions of the eight scientists or teams of scientists involved in the
discovery of the identity and stru
cture of the genetic material.

2.4: The Central Dogma

Definitions



The Central Dogma of Genetics



Replication



Transcription



mRNA



Translation

Concepts



What are the physical components of DNA, RNA and proteins that encode genetic information?



Describe the
process of replication.



Describe the process of transcription.

2.5:
The Genetic Code and Translation

Definitions



Amino Acid



Protein



The Genetic Code



Codon



Anticodon



tRNA



Ribosome

Concepts



Describe the chemical components of a protein.



Explain how proteins
are ultimately produced from DNA.


Name:


Date:

3/23/13

Period:






Explain how amino acid sequence is related to protein function.



Describe the process of translation.



Explain how three
-
letter sequences of RNA code for amino acids.

You must be able to use an
amino acid chart to determine
the amino acid sequence that would result from a given
sequence of DNA.

2.6: Gene Expression and Mutation

Definitions



Gene Expression



Mutation



Operon



Transcription Factor



Gene Regulation



Hox Genes

Concepts



Explain how gene expression is regulated in
eukaryotes and prokaryotes.



Explain how the
lac

operon works.



Differentiate between the types of mutation.

2.7: DNA Technology

Definitions



Genetic Engineering



Human Genome Project



Clone

Concepts



Describe some ways that genetic engineering can be used.



Expl
ain the significance of the Human Genome Project.