Molecular Genetics Studyguide Test on Friday, October 21, 2011 ...

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Molecular Genetics Studyguide








Test on
Friday
,
October 21, 2011

Section 12.1


Vocabulary

Adenine

Cytosine

Double Helix

Guanine

Nitrogen Bases

Nucleotide

Thymine


1.

The twisted ladder shape of DNA is called a _
_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __.

2.

Which scientists were instrumental in the discovery of the shape of the DNA molecule?

_______________________ & _______________________

3.

Draw and label a nucleotide from a DNA molecule in the space below
.










4.

Draw and label a segment of DNA showing its helix and complementary base pairing in the space below.











5.

DNA strands run anti
-
parallel. What does that mean?



Section 12.2

Vocabulary

Semiconservative Replication

DNA polymerase

Okazaki
fragments


1.

Which one of the following nucleotide pair bonds would be formed in a DNA molecule?

a.

adenine
-
guanine




c. adenine
-
uracil

b.

guanine
-
thymine



d. cytosine
-
thymine

2.

Describe the role of the following enzymes in DNA replication:

a.

DNA
helicase

b.

DNA ligase

c.

DNA polymerase

3.

Describe the difference between the leading and lagging strand during DNA replication.
(A diagram may be helpful)





Section 12.3

Vocabulary

Amino Acid





RNA

Codon





RNA Polymerase

Exon





Transcri
ption

Intron





transfer RNA

messenger RNA




Translation


4.

Summarize the following processes involved in protein synthesis. Be sure to include: what is produced, where it
happens and which molecules are used during the process.

a.

Transcription




b.

RNA Processing




c.

Translation




5.

What is the DNA sequence for the following tRNA anticodon: UAC


6.

Write a sentence that connects the vocabulary terms in each pair.


a.

mRNA


tRNA


b.

codon


amino acid


c.

intron


exon


7.

For the following DNA sequence, determine

the mRNA codon sequence and the sequence of amino acids.

5’ TAC ATG TTT GAT CTT ACT 3’



mRNA




Amino acid



Section 12.4

Vocabulary

Mutagen





Frameshift Mutation

Mutation





Point Mutation

1.

How does a mutation in DNA alter the
function of a protein?

2.

A DNA segment is changed from
-

TTAAGGCCTAC
-

to
-

TAAGGCCTAC
-
. This is a _____.

a.

frameshift mutation


c. inversion

b.

point mutation



d. translation

3.

Explain how a point mutation alters a protein compared to how a frameshift mutation alt
ers a protein.





4.

Name two ways that your cells help to protect you from negative mutations.

a.



b.



5.

Explain why DNA replication needs to be so accurate. How does it accomplish this?



Section 11.3

Vocabulary

Karyotype







Nondisjunction


1.

Summarize how a
scientist might use a karyotype to study genetic disorders.



2.

Explain how chromosomes are arranged in a karyotype.



3.

Describe how nondisjunction occurs. Name two examples of disorders caused by nondisjunction.




4.

What could explain a human karyotype
containing 47 chromosomes?

a.

monosomy



c. codominance

b.

trisomy




d. dominant traits


Section 13.1

Vocabulary

Hybrid

Inbreeding

Selective breeding

Test cross


1.

Clarify why test crosses are used in selective breeding.




2.

A breeder performs a test cross to determine the genotype of a black cat. He crosses the black cat (BB or
Bb) with a white cat (bb). If 50% of the offspring are black, what is the genotype of the black cat?



3.

Both a cow and a bull that are closely
related carry two recessive alleles for a mutation that causes
decreased milk production. Should they me bred? Why or why not?


4.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of selective breeding.



5.

A __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ is used to determin
e the genotype of a plant or animal.


Section 13.2

Vocabulary

Cloning





Polymerase chain reaction

Gel electrophoresis




Recombinant DNA

Genetic Engineering




Restriction enzyme

Genome





Transgenic organism


1.

Why is the polymerase c
hain reaction used?

a.

to amplify DNA



c. to ligate DNA

b.

to cut DNA



d. to separate DNA

2.

What is the purpose of gel electrophoresis? Describe the overall process.



3.

How are restriction enzymes used in genetic engineering?



4.

What is one major difference
between selective breeding and genetic engineering?



Section 13.3

Vocabulary

DNA fingerprinting




Genomics

Pharmacogenomics




Human Genome

Gene therapy


1.

How is DNA fingerprinting used in crime scene analysis?


2.

Explain the goal of gene therapy.


3.

Which s
tatement about the human genome is false?

a.

The human genome contains approximately 25,000 genes.

b.

The human genome contains long stretches of DNA with no known function.

c.

The human genome was sequenced by scientists from around the world.

d.

The human genome
contains nucleotides sequences that all code for proteins.

4.

List three ways patients will benefit from pharmacogenomics.



5.

What impact does sequencing the human genome have on diagnosing and treating diseases?