T1 – Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture

stubbornnessuglyΒιοτεχνολογία

12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

172 εμφανίσεις

T1


Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture

Here is a brief overview of what will be covered in this book. Basically, the book was written for tissue
culturists of all levels, from beginners to the advanced. It has been written in the most simplified form,
most clear and straight to the point. Be
cause we are dealing with plants, a basic knowledge of botany
will be important (or else have good sources nearby).

This is the part of the class I am mainly excited about. Not looking forward to animal cells…

The book i
s divided into 5 major parts.

1)

His
tory of plant Tissue Culture

a.

Shortened version of how Plant Tissue Culture has been developed over time. It is
recorded in the order of significant world events. It will connect the past to the present,
touching on the controversial topic of Genetically
Modified Plants.

2)

Supporting Methodologies

a.

Overview of common methods and principles of plant tissue culture. Here we find the
tools we use: equipment, formulas, mediums, etc.

b.

Defined and clarified here:
Callus:
”unorganized tumor
-
like growth of cells”

3)

Propogation Techniques

a.

Covers 3 types of techniques:

i.

Micropropogation
-
most commonly used for ornamental plants

ii.

Organogenesis
-
used in genetic engineering. Takes cells that normally wouldn’t
develop into organs and induce them into doing so.

iii.

Nonzygotic
-
emb
ryogenesis
-

not such a common technique, but quite important
for genetic engineering. Where embryogenesis would normally occur in the
seed, nonzygotic embryogenesis is induced to occur elsewhere.

4)

Crop Improvement Techniques

a.

Combines previously mentioned

propagation techniques with other methodologies.
Different topics include protoplasts, halploid culture, gene transformation,
cryopreservation, particle bombardment, secondary product production, in vitro plant
pathology, etc, etc, etc…

5)

Special Topics

a.

Th
e odd but informative chapter. However, still relevant to what we study.

The authors encourage students to use additional information available on the internet, and also would
like our feedback (if any) about the book for improvements on their book for
future students…and
teachers.




T2
-

History of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture

Gottlieb Haberlandt: Was the first person to successfully culture plant
tissues

and cells.
(right before the
20
th

century) Probably drawing much knowledge from previous philosophers and plant physiologists,
he predicted totipotency, but could not prove it in his lifetime.

White(193
4): Cultured tomato root tips and was able to repeatedly culture them from other c
ultures.
Yeast extract was used in his medium, but had no idea it was because yeast was rich in vitamin B.

1920’s
-
30’s

-
People understood afterwards that auxins and B vitamins are important for meristematic tissue growth

-
Discovery of PGR’s

-
Fast progre
ss in this area was almost completely stopped by the start of WWII.

1940’s

-
tumor induction of crown gall disease

-
first grafting experiments in tissue culture

1950’s

-
improvement on tissue culture techniques

-
discovery of many more PGRs and an important
group called cytokinins.

-
Many Cancer Institutes promoted research in “plant cancer” so that mammalian cancer could be
understood further.

-
discovery that single somatic cells could be differentiated to embryos depending on nutrients.


The possibility of

a sterile environment and information flow throughout the world allowed discoveries
and experiments to progress faster than ever.


1960’s
-
70’s

-
Discovery and continued studies on gibberellins, ethylene, and abscisic acid.

-
Haploid cells open a way for
pure breeding lines.

-
Somatic hybridization through plant protoplast.

-
Breakthrough of endonuclease enzyme which resulted in a boom for GM plant research.


1990’s to present

-
introduction of commercial
GM crops in 1996.

-
The public started having concern
s about GM foods and continues to be a very controversial issue even
to the present.




F1
-

Introduction

I have to be honest. This is/was a really difficult chapter to read. Even though it’s only an intro, I got lost
in most all of the terminology the
y use. I’m not a biologist so forgive me for my short, and maybe
misinterpreted summary.

1.1

History

The idea of tissue culture started at the beginning of the 20
th

century. Tissue culture did start out
with tissues, but over time the name “tissue culture” also cov
e
red cell and organ culturing.

-
1948 first cloned cell strain

-
1955 first cloned human cell strain: tissue culture was then used more because of the intr
oduction
of antibiotics

-
Table 1.1 shows key events of tissue culture from 1907 to present

Different types of animals were used, beginning with frog tissue, working its way up to warm
-
blooded animals. The mouse became the selected favorite for research be
cause they have a “well
established genetic background.”

However, now there are


What are the applications for tissue culture?

-
intracellular activity

-
intracellular flux

-
environmental interation

-
cell
-
cell interation

-
genetics

-
cell products


1.2