Lesson One Evolution of Computer

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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1

Lesson One

Evolution of Computer


John Von Neumann:
-


He was a Mathematician and discovered a principle of stored program in 1945 AD. So he is
called the father of stored program. Before his principle, programs required for the computers were
integrated and written permanently in chips.

So, modification of program was not possible but after the
discovery of stored program concept programs were stored inside the computer in some storage media
.That makes the modification easy and flexible

Q.2 Why John Von Neumann is a remarkable name in c
omputer history?

Ans:
-

John Von Neumann is a remarkable name in computer history because he discovered a principle of
stored program. So he is called as the father of stored program , Before his principle, program required for
the computers were integrate
d and written permanently in chips, so modification of program was not
possible. But after Neumann such programs were stored inside computer in some storage media,
modification become easy and flexible

History of computer in Nepal


There is not a long hist
ory of computers in Nepal. Nepal hired some types of Calculators and Computers
for its census calculation. Now a day’s most of the organizations are using computers for their record
keeping, database and communication.

Following list shows its history in
Nepal



In 2018 BS, an electronic calculator called ‘Facit’ was used for census



In 2028 BS, a second generation mainframe computer called IBM 1401 was hired for census



In 2031 BS, a centre for electronic Data Processing, later renamed to National Computer
Centre
(NCC) was established for Data Processing and Computer Training



In 2038 BS, a second generation mainframe computer called ICL 2950/10 was hired for the
census



Now a days probably each and every institutions like schools, colleges business organiza
tion,
communication centre, ticket counters etc are using computers.

Generation of Computer

Q.1 what do you mean my generation of computer? What are the affected areas when the
generation of computer goes from first to second or from second to third or fro
m third to
fourth or from fourth to fifth?

-

The development in the field of computer technology is called generation of computer. The
development in the field of hardware as well software. There are all together five generation
of computer. In different gen
eration of computer there is a vast change in computer
technology

The affected area when the generation of computer goes form first to fifth are
as fallows:
-

Characteristics of computer

Effects

Size

Decrease

Speed

Increase

Power Consumption

Decrease

Heat Generation

Decrease

Complexity

Decrease

Storage Capacity

Increase

Processing Capability

Increase

Use of user’s friendly software

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2

Q.2 What are the different device used in the different generation of computer and mention their
development year

-

The device used in different generation of computer and their development years are as fallows:
-

Generation

Development Year

Memory Device

First Generation

1945
-
1954

Vacuum tubes

Second Generation

1955
-
1964

Transistors

Third Generation

1965
-
1979

IC(Integrated Circuit)

Fourth Generation

1980
-
till now

Microprocessor or VLSI

Fifth Generation

1990 onwards

Bio
-
chips



Q.3 Differentiate between First generation and Second generation of computer


First generation

Second Generation

1)

The

computer developed between 1945

-
1955 AD is called the first generation
computer

2)

These computers use vacuum tubes as
main memory devic
e

3)

They were extremely large and occupied a
very large space

4)

Operating speed was measured in
millisecond

5)

Punch cards were used as secondary
storage device

6)

They were less reliable and accurate

7)

Machine level programming were used

8)

Power consumption was ver
y high and
generate much heat

9)

Example:
-
UNIAC,ENIAC,MARK
-
I etc




1)

The computer developed between 155
-
1964
AD is called the second generation computer

2)

These computers use transistor as main
memory device

3)


They were smaller in size than first
generation computer because 1000 vacuum
tubes are converted into 1 transistor and
occupies a less space than first generation
computer

4)

operating speed was measured in microsecond

5)

Magnetic tapes were used as secondary
storage device

6)

They were more reliable and accurate than
first generation computer

7)

High level programming language were used

8)

Power consumption was less and generate less
heat than first generation computer

9)

Example:
-
IBM 1401,ICL 2950/10 etc




Q.4 Diffe
rentiate between third and fourth generation computer

Third Generation computer

Fourth Generation computer

1)

These computers used IC(integrated circuit) as
main memory or processing device

2)

Magnetic disk were used as secondary storage
device

3)

Processing
speed was measured in nanosecond

4)

Less accurate and reliable than fourth generation
computer

5)

They have less storage capacity than fourth
generation computer

6)

Use high level language for programming
COBOL,C etc

7)

Desktop computers were developed

8)

Graphics wer
e not used in operating system

9)

Network technology was not properly developed

10)

Multiprogramming and multiprocessing concept
was not developed

11)

Example:
-

IBM 360 series ,UNIVAC 9000

1)

These computers used microprocessor or
VLSI(very large scale integration ) a
s main
memory or processing device

2)

Magnetic disk and Optical disk were used as
secondary storage device

3)

Processing speed was measured in
picoseconds

4)

More accurate and reliable than third
generation computer

5)

They have high storage capacity than third
generation computer

6)

Use fourth generation language for
programming Dot Net , Java etc

7)

Laptop computers and palm top computers
were developed

8)

Graphic were

used in operating system

9)

Network technology was develop
ed in
advance form such as internet

10)

Multiprogramming and multiprocessing
concept was developed and used in operating

3

system

11)

Example:
-
Pentium PC, Apple/Macintosh etc









Q.5
Write short notes on:
-


Fifth Generation computer
:


The computer which will use AI and Bio
-
chips as memory device is called fifth
generation computer. They are parallel in structure (parallel processing).These computer use super
conductor materials like Bio
-
chips and Galli
um Arsenide chip as memory device which makes the speed of
computers unimaginably very
-
very high. These computers will use AI which makes computer intelligent
and knowledgeable so, that computer can learn logic and reason. These computers will use all the
natural
languages like English, German, and Japanese which makes more users friendly. These computers will
have capacity to decode and respond to natural language. These computers will use programming logic as
operating system

Artificial Intelligence:
-

AI
is the ability of computer by which they will have logic and decision making
capability


Bio
-
chips:
-

Bio
-
chips are made up of biological organism or protein fibers obtained from living organism.
They are super conductor which makes speed of operation unim
aginably very high


Q.6 Differentiate between other generation computers and fifth generation computer


Basis of difference

Other generation

Fifth generation

Structure

Serial in structure

Parallel in structure

Functioning

Algorithmic in
functioning

Knowledge based
processing

Architecture

DISP/LISP(Data/logic
information processing system )
based

KI
P
S
(Knowledge
information processing
system )based

Nature

Only data

processing

data

as well as
knowledge processing

Interaction

Interaction

only in terms of
programming language

Interaction in terms of
programming as well
as natural language

Speed

Slower

Very much higher