Nadia Ghazzali (Canada) - IANAS

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16 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Nadia Ghazzali, Prof., Ph.D.



NSERC
-

Industrial Alliance Chair for Women in Science and Engineering in
Quebec


Department of Mathematics and Statistics

www.chaire
-
crsng
-
inal.fsg.ulaval.ca




The evolution of public
policies in Education,
Science and Technologies
in Quebec


April 20
-
21, 2009

Outline


A brief overview of the Chair


Heroic times for women scientists


Current situation: some statistics


Why?


A few thoughts

April 20
-
21, 2009

April 20
-
21, 2009

History of the Chair


Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada
(NSERC)



1989
: National chair for women in engineering (Ms. Frize)



1995
: Recommandations of the Ad Hoc Committee to encourage
women in sciences and engineering



1997
: Establishment of 5 Regional Chairs for women in sciences
and engineering (British Columbia, Prairies, Ontario,
Quebec
,
Atlantics)

April 20
-
21, 2009

Partners of the Chair




Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
(NSERC) Improve the efforts to attract, maintain and to help the
advancing of women in sciences and engineering



Industrial Alliance



Concerned by the workforce needs in their area of involvement



Laval University



Reflect their will and the will of the other universities in Quebec
to facilitate the integration of women in sciences and
engineering

April 20
-
21, 2009

Objectives of the Chair






To
stimulate

further the interest of young women to
pursue careers in sciences and engineering


To have a
better understanding

of the key factors
influencing the choices of careers among young
girls


To
intervene

in the academic (colleges and
universities) and workplace environments


To
emphasize

the role and leadership of women


To
increase

the participation of women in positions
of authority


To
promote

a positive climate facilitating the
recruitment of students for undergraduate and
graduate studies in sciences and engineering


www.chaire
-
crsng
-
inal.fsg.ulaval.ca

April 20
-
21, 2009

History of women scientists
in Quebec

«

Women in sciences and
engineering through history in
Quebec
»
(2008)



April 20
-
21, 2009

Beginning of the XXth century:
2 main women role models


Reference to the emancipation of the
English North American Women


At the root of the revendications of the
women education, the occupational entry
and the obtention of the Women right to vote


Reference to the French Christian
feminism


Based on Christian personal development

April 20
-
21, 2009

April 20
-
21, 2009

English
women

decades ahead of their time


Women admitted at McGill University since 1884


The
Donaldas
:
nickname of women students from McGill


The firsts to obtain jobs at the University


They participated to major research projects


Between 1900 and 1910, about thirty women are working
in the nuclear physics field


They earned less than men and are struggling to obtain
their peers recognition


The interest for men in science, field more and more
prestigious, led to a progressive exclusion of women



Heroic

times
for
women
scientists

Carrie Derick (1862
-
1941)

Harriet Brooks (1876
-
1933)


April 20
-
21, 2009

Firsts English Women


DERICK, Carrie



Pioneer in Plants Genetics


First full professor in Canada in 1912 (U.
McGill)


Bachelor of Arts1890, Master 1896


BROOKS, Harriet



Physicist and professor


Author of researches about
the radioactive
decay of radium

at the beginning of the XXth
(U. McGill)


Bachelor of Math. and SN 1898

Master of sciences 1901

Heroic times
for women
scientists

French women entering by the back door


Laval University is implicated for women higher education
since
1908


It is only at the end of
1920

that women can finally have
access to programs in universities


Between
1929

et
1945


Almost all women registered in cultural, service and teaching
programs


Only 6 women registered in sciences programs


The percentage of women increases from 0.6% in
1929

to
21% in
1945



Widen the offer of courses (pedagogy 1943)


Obtention of the Women right to vote(1941)


Compulsory education(1943)


April 20
-
21, 2009

Marcelle Gauvreau (1907
-
1968)
Marie Gérin
-
Lajoie (1890
-
1971)

April 20
-
21, 2009

Firsts French Women



GAUVREAU, Marcelle
(
Fée des fleurs
) 1907
-
1968


Botanist

and
popularizer
, License in
natur
al

sciences


Founder

of the
School

of
Awakening

(École de l’Éveil) (1935)


Writer

of the catalogue of
Canada's

algae

(1933)


Columnist

for the Young
Naturalists

Club in the journal
L’Oiseau
bleu




GÉRIN
-
LAJOIE, Marie


1
st

graduated of the women classical education(1911)


1
st

French
-
Canadian obtaining a Bachelor of Arts


Top in her school that year


the information was not public


Upgraded her educational skills in social work in USA(1918)


Founder of the Notre
-
Dame du Bon
-
Conseil

Institute (1923)


Social centers, playgrounds et housing facilities


Women

Classical Colleges



In the
catholic environments
: the
ultimate fear to see
women femmes
access to the humanities and imitate
men


Government

of
Quebec funds


Men Classical Colleges
(1922)


Women Classical Colleges
(1961)



Home
economics

education

became systematic


Schools of happiness

April 20
-
21, 2009

First step towards university

World
War

II



National Resources Mobilization Act
-
1940


(Women
mecanics
, electricians, welders, etc)


About 150 women soldiers go to the University



Desire of freedom


Tax laws penalize men whose wives are still
working


Child care centers are dismantled

April 20
-
21, 2009

A stepping stone for women

World
War

II



Home economics education looses its
popularity (1956)


Between 1954 et 1962: 15 woman classical
colleges, two of them led by lay people


In 1964, the Parent Report
recommands


Right for girls to an
educational identical t
o the boys
education


Classes opening for men and women


Free education for all

April 20
-
21, 2009

A stepping stone for women

The «

Révolution tranquille

»


Secularism of the institution and the society (1960)


Gradual acceptation of paid work for women but not
yet integration

in non
-
traditional field


Establishment of the MEQ, the CEGEPs, the UQ
network


Abrogation of the classical colleges, normal schools
and schools of domestic science


Free education for the collegial level


In 1968, 17 women engineers, 150 lawyers, 7
architects, 2 psychoanalysts, 6
urbanists

April 20
-
21, 2009

University for all

Current situation


Some statistics

April 20
-
21, 2009

CURRENT SITUATION IN QUEBEC

PRE
-
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
2000
-
2004

Program

Details

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Sciences

Men

Women

Total

(

+

)

(3)

% (3
)/ (1)

%

/(2)

%

/ (3)


: 10 938


: 10 740

T: 21 678

19.6 %

17.6 %

49.5 %


: 10 517


: 10 763

T: 21 280

19.5 %

17.6 %

50.6 %


: 10 103


: 10 399

T: 20 502

18.8 %

16.9 %

50.7 %


: 10 190


: 10 139

T: 20 329

18.6 %

16.4 %

49.9 %


: 10 153


: 10 001

T: 20 154


18.4 %

16.1 %

49.6 %

Human

Sciences

Men

Women


: 15 467


: 21 920


: 15 238


: 21 395


: 16 022


: 21 835


: 16 666


: 22 400


: 17 290


: 22 248

Biological
techniques

Men

Women


: 3 590


: 13 420


: 3 524


: 14 756


: 3 518


: 15 323


: 3 553


: 15 633


: 3 599


: 15 907

Physical
techniques

Men

Women


: 14 226


: 2 870


: 13 853


: 2 635


: 12 956


: 2 383


: 12 162


: 2 227


: 11 431


: 2 247


Art, letters
and multiple

Men

Women


: 5 081


: 12 075


: 4 850


: 11 700


: 4 960


: 11 493


: 5 132


: 11 438


: 5 304


: 11 564

Total

Women (2)

Total (1)


: 61 025

T: 110 327


: 61 249

T
: 109 231


: 61 433

T
: 108 992


: 61 837

T
: 109 540


: 61 967

T
: 109 744

Source : Statistique de l’éducation 2006

April 20
-
21, 2009




CURRENT SITUATION IN QUEBEC


Undergraduate University Studies

1999
-
2007

April 20
-
21, 2009

8 688
9 943
12 957
13 272
7 754
2 799
2 940
2 160
598
13 363
8 665
14 102
13 202
8 918
3 078
2 499
2 412
1 104
13 489
8 396
14 914
13 544
9 596
2 877
2 515
2 550
1 031
2 146
19 450
6 455
3 604
6 699
1 507
1 048
1 451
440
2 694
20 871
6 727
3 803
8 164
1 654
854
1 423
630
2 871
20 472
7 494
4 114
8 626
1 653
926
1 430
529
0
10 000
20 000
30 000
40 000
50 000
60 000
70 000
Nomber of students
F1999
F2005
F2007
M1999
M2005
M2007
Health sciences
Science and engineering
Human sciences
Education
Administration
Arts
Letters
Law
Multisectorial studies
61 111
68 912
42 800
48 115
F : Female
M : Male
67 343
46 820
CURRENT SITUATION IN QUEBEC

Undergraduate University Studies

1999
-
2007


Sector of study

Year

Men

Women

Total

(Men and Women)

All

1999

42 800



12.4 %

61 111



12.8 %

103 911



12.6 %

2007

48 115

68 912

117 027

Science and
Engineering

1999

19 450




5.3 %

9 943



15.6
%

29 393



1.8

%

2007

20 472

8 396

28 868

Health Sciences

1999

2 146



33.8

%

8 688



55.3

%

10 834



51.0

%

2007

2 871

13 489

16 360

Science and
Engineering

and

Health Sciences

1999

21 596



8.1

%

18 631



17.5

%

40 227



12.4

%

2007

23 343

21 885

45 228

April 20
-
21, 2009

Undergraduate University Studies in Quebec

PERCENTAGES OF
MALE STUDENTS

1999
-
2007

Sector of study

1999

2005

2007

Health sciences

5.0 %

5.8 %

6.0 %

Science and Engineering

45.4 %

44.6 %

42.5 %

Human sciences

15.1 %

14.4 %

15.6 %

Education

8.4 %

8.1 %

8.6 %

Administration

15.7 %

17.4 %

17.9 %

Arts

3.5 %

3.5 %

3.4 %

Letters

2.4 %

1.8 %

1.9 %

Law

3.4 %

3.0 %

3.0 %

Multisectorial studies

1.0 %

1.3 %

1.1 %

April 20
-
21, 2009

Undergraduate University Studies in Quebec

PERCENTAGES OF
FEMALE STUDENTS

1999
-
2007

Sector of study

1999

2005

2007

Health sciences

14.2 %

19.8 %

19.6 %

Science and Engineering

16.3 %

12.9 %

12.2 %

Human sciences

21.2 %

20.9 %

21.6 %

Education

21.7 %

19.6 %

19.7 %

Administration

12.7 %

13.2 %

13.9 %

Arts

4.6 %

4.6 %

4.2 %

Letters

4.8 %

3.7 %

3.6 %

Law

3.5 %

3.6 %

3.7 %

Multisectorial studies

1.0 %

1.6 %

1.5 %

April 20
-
21, 2009

Number of graduate students in
Quebec
(Master’s degree)

1999
-
2007

2 590
477
392
940
3 499
1 195
1 241
1 815
246
3 589
596
375
1 019
3 687
1 672
1 292
2 595
395
3 845
620
443
1 057
3 659
1 770
1 311
2 512
410
3 551
290
348
392
2 152
644
448
3 561
199
4 802
373
297
427
2 233
679
367
5 092
321
4 772
392
257
435
2 196
658
375
4 681
275
0
2 000
4 000
6 000
8 000
10 000
12 000
14 000
16 000
18 000
20 000
Nombre d'étudiants
F1999
F2005
F2007
H1999
H2005
H2007
Administration
Arts
Droit
Lettres
Sc. humaines
Sc. de la santé
Éducation
Sciences et génie
Études plurisectorielles
12 395
15 627
11 585
14 041
F : Femmes
H : Hommes
15 220
14 591
April 20
-
21, 2009

Graduate students in Quebec (Master’s
degree),
PERCENTAGES OF
FEMALE
STUDENTS
, 1999
-
2007

Secteurs

1999

2005

2007

Administration

20,9 %

23,6 %

24,6 %

Arts

3,8 %

3,9 %

4,0 %

Droit

3,2 %

2,5 %

2,8 %

Lettres

7,6 %

6,7 %

6,8 %

Sc. humaines

28,2 %

24,2 %

23,4 %

Sc. de la santé

9,6 %

11,0 %

11,3 %

Éducation

10,0 %

8,5 %

8,4 %

Sciences et génie

14,6 %

17,0 %

16,1 %

Études plurisectorielles

2,0 %

2,6 %

2,6 %

April 20
-
21, 2009

Number of graduate students in
Quebec
(Doctorate’s degree)

1999
-
2007

162
102
53
408
1 533
518
366
763
38
282
187
88
422
1 995
866
389
1 201
86
310
217
112
398
2 255
1 032
388
1 356
90
281
84
55
257
1 245
523
193
2 005
58
418
163
81
245
1 476
631
199
3 035
101
414
206
98
231
1 525
731
221
3 271
114
0
1 000
2 000
3 000
4 000
5 000
6 000
7 000
8 000
9 000
Nombre d'étudiants
F1999
F2005
F2007
H1999
H2005
H2007
Administration
Arts
Droit
Lettres
Sc. humaines
Sc. de la santé
Éducation
Sciences et génie
Études plurisectorielles
3 943
6 158
4 701
6 811
F : Femmes
H : Hommes
5 516
6 349
April 20
-
21, 2009

Graduate students in Quebec (Doctorate’s
degree),
PERCENTAGES OF
FEMALE
STUDENTS
, 1999
-
2007

Secteurs

1999

2005

2007

Administration

4,1 %

5,1 %

5,0 %

Arts

2,6 %

3,4 %

3,5 %

Droit

1,3 %

1,6 %

1,8 %

Lettres

10,3 %

7,7 %

6,5 %

Sc. humaines

38,9 %

36,2 %

36,6 %

Sc. de la santé

13,1 %

15,7 %

16,8 %

Éducation

9,3 %

7,1 %

6,3 %

Sciences et génie

19,4 %

21,8 %

22,0 %

Études plurisectorielles

1,0 %

1,6 %

1,5 %

April 20
-
21, 2009

Profile for undergraduate and graduate
students in Quebec Universities, 1999
-
2007

Applied sciences

Sciences

Engineering

Women




1
st

cycle





2
nd

and
3
rd

cycles

Women




1
st

cycle




2
nd

and 3
rd

cycles

Women




1
st
and

2
nd

cycles




3
rd

cycle

Men




1
st

cycle





2
nd

and
3
rd

cycles

Men




1
st

cycle




2
nd

and 3
rd

cycles

Men




1
st
and

2
nd

cycles




3
rd

cycle

April 20
-
21, 2009

NOTE

:

1
ST

cycle : undergraduate studies, 2
nd

cycle : Master’s degree, 3
rd

cycle : Ph. D.

Situation of Women in
Engineering in Quebec

In the workplace:


Women in Quebec represented in 2001, less than
15

% of professionals in Engineering
(MDEIE, 2004)



In Canada, women engineers hold about 12

% of
positions for the profession
(CCWESTT, 2008)




studying in Engineering at the graduate level
are more likely than


to leave the field after their
graduation and not to be working in Engineering
(Powell and coll. 2004)


April 20
-
21, 2009

Factors linked to the numerical
weakness of Women in Sciences
and Engineering

1.
School environment


2.
Family environ
ment


3.
Stereotypes and perception
s

4.
Culture,
atmosphere and relationships


5.
Work
-
family articulation


6.
Discrimination



April 20
-
21, 2009

Institutional and social mechanisms of exclusion
and self
-
exclusion

In high school

In the University

In the Workplace

Institutional/social

mechanisms

of exclusion

(explicit or subtle)



loss of interest for
mathematics and
physics (14
-
15
)



dropout for boys



learning strategies between
boys and girls



influence of school staff and
parents



lack of personal financial
resources or of
adequate child care



expectations of society
different than towards
men



biological clock



subtle discrimination



work
-
family articulation



expectations
(availability, mobility)



biases



emphasize on valuing
men’ work



weak institutional support

M
echanisms

of self
-
exclusion



misunderstanding the
occupations



lack of role models



sensitivity to biases and
friends



stereotypes



self
-
actualization



individual aspirations
(weak sense of
purpose)



environment reflecting
competition values
(power fights)



Identity conflicts

April 20
-
21, 2009

April 20
-
21, 2009

A few thoughts



Is there a disengagement of youth for sciences and
engineering?


Is it by lack of interest that young people are
abandoning this field?


Do we have to adjust our sciences teaching
methods?


How can the school environment can react towards
this issue?


Are the needs and aspirations of young people, at the
professional level, well
-
understood?


What is the government position on the issue and
what are the actions done?


April 20
-
21, 2009

A few thoughts



Have the parents a role to play in the development of the
scientific interest of their child?


Is it a question of sciences perception?


Do people intervening with young people in sciences
have to modify their approach?


Shouldn’t we «humanize» the profession?!


Which type of intervention are counselors developing to
help young people in their career paths?


What are the possible effects on the economy of the
country?