Chapter 16 - Hesperia Christian School

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13 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Chapter 18B

Mammals

Animals
-
Vertebrates
-
Mammals

On the fifth and sixth days of creation God
created a new kind of being: “the moving
creature that hath life.” Genesis 1:20


Genesis 1:20
-
25 describes the two main
attributes of the animal kingdom: mobility
and diversity.


Mobility and Diversity

Animals are living organisms that move from place
to place in their environment, mainly for the
purpose of obtaining food.


Most animals are motile


they move from place to
place.


Some animals are sessile


they are stuck in one
place, but are able to move food toward
themselves.

Mobility and Diversity

There are over one
million known and
classified species of
animals alive today.


Symmetry in the Animal Kingdom

Three types of symmetry:


1. Bilateral


organism
can be cut in half and be
the same on both halves


2. Radial


cut in half in
many ways and all the
halves will be the same


3. Asymmetry


changing
shape constantly


no
symmetry


Vertebrates: Animals with
Backbones

Zoology is a broad study that is divided into
smaller parts…



two of these parts are:




1. vertebrates


animals with
backbones




2. invertebrates


animals without
backbones


Vertebrates make up only 3% of all animals and
include: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians,
and fish

Characteristics of Vertebrates


Endoskeleton


made of bone or cartilage


Tetrapods


most have four appendages


Bilateral symmetry



Phylum Chordata


modern evolutionists
place vertebrates into this larger group.

Mammals


Warmblooded


Hair


Mammary glands (produce milk)


Lungs


Four
-
chambered heart


Most are born alive


Most have two pairs of limbs and seven
neck vertebrae


Mammals

Mammals have many characteristics in
common, but there are differences in
structure of the design.


Example: Elephants have incisors, but they
take the form of tusks.

Temperature Regulation


Animals are classified as either warmblooded or
coldblooded.


A warmblooded animal does not necessarily
have warmer blood than a coldblooded animal.


The difference?



a warmblooded animal regulates its
temperature by internal mechanisms



a coldblooded animal must regulate its
temperature by external mechanisms


All mammals are considered warmblooded.



Temperature Regulation


Homeothermic


warmblooded animals are able
to maintain the same temperature



Hibernation


small animals like squirrels cannot
gather enough food in the winter to maintain
warmth and so will hibernate.




if disturbed they will not wake up


Winter Sleep


larger animals like bears sleep in
the winter to maintain warmth




if disturbed they will wake up

Mammals and Nature


Mammals are important to man as helpers
and food.


Mammals are important to nature in that
they keep a balance in population of
animals and plants.


Carnivores prey upon herbivores and thus
keep plant populations from dwindling.



Mammal Reproduction


Fertilization


mammals reproduce by
sexual fertilization


In sexual reproduction a reproductive cell
from a male unites with a reproductive cell
of a female.


The male cell (a sperm) is produced in the
organ called testes.


The female cell (an egg) is produced in the
organ called ovaries.

Three Major Categories of
Mammals

Based upon the way the developing young
are nourished:


1.
Placental mammals

2.
Egg
-
laying mammals

3.
Pouched mammals

Mammal Reproduction


Mammals that then nourish their young
during development are called viviparous.



Mammal Reproduction

Non
-
placental mammals



two orders of mammals are not nourished thru a
placenta

1.
Monotemata



young are expelled in an egg
-
like shell.



these oviparous mammals do not bear live young.



Examples: duckbill platypus


the babies lap up milk

from the mother.

2.
Marsupials

Young attach to the mother in a pouch

Example: kangaroos, opposums

The Mammalian Orders

There are about 20 mammalian orders
comprising 4000 species…

Order
Tububildentata

Contains only one
species: The
aardvark




designed for two things:





digging holes and
eating termites and
ants


Order
Proboscidea

Only two species:

African
elephants and Asian
elephants


They are the largest living
land mammal, but there
are over 300 species in
fossils


Elephants are herbivores
and a bull male can eat
300 lbs of food a day!!


Order
Proboscidea

Tusks are made from
ivory and are
enlarged incisor teeth.


Their teeth wear down
over time, but are
replaced 5 times over
their lifetime.


Order
Sirenia


Often called “sea cows”


Include manatees and





dugongs



Dugongs live in smaller seas like the red
sea


Manatees are larger and live in larger
coastal waters around the Caribbean and
Florida.

Order
Monotremata


The only oviparous
(egg
-
laying)
mammals in
existence


Includes the echidna
(spiny anteater) and
the duckbill platypus


Both only live in
Australia, New
Guinea, and
Tasmania

Order
Edentata


Armadillos, Sloths,
and Anteaters

Order
Pholidota


Pangolins (scaly
anteater)


Live in southeast
Asia, Indonesia, and
parts of Africa south
of the Sahara

Order
Marsupialia


The pouched
mammals


Includes kangaroos,
opossums, wombats,
koalas, and numbats


Order
Insectivora


Includes 300 species


Includes shrews,
hedgehogs, and
moles


The smallest mammal
is believed to be the
pigmy shrew.

Order
Chiroptera


The flying mammals


bats


Echolocation system:
Contrary to popular
opinion, bats can see
very well…but they also
have a sonar system to
locate insects.


Scientist think that this
system is so unique that
the bats are able to
actually create a mental
picture of the insect.


Order
Chiroptera


In the summer in
Bracken Cave near
San Antonio, Texas,
the 20 million bats
that live there
consume 250 tons of
insects every night.


Order
Chiroptera

Bats


Behavioral Characteristics:


-

Bats are timid and do not generally attack
people


-

Some bats are fruit eaters


-

Bats are nocturnal


-

Bats in cold regions are known to spend
longer periods of time in hibernation than any
other mammal


-

vampire bats do drink blood, but it is the blood
of cattle


the only danger to the livestock is
the rabies virus that many bats carry

Order
Cetacea

Marine Mammals:





Includes: Baleen whales


they sift their


food




Blue whales


largest animal




Sperm whale and killer whale




both have teeth




Dolphins


use echolocation

Order
Cetacea

This order gives birth to live young.


The whaling industry in the United States
ceased in 1971.


kwintro.mov

Order Primata

Tree Dwelling Mammals


Includes 166 species…monkey, apes,
chimpanzees, orangutans, gibbons, and
gorillas...lemurs and others…




Order Primata

Apes: Primates without tails…


The largest is the mountain gorilla of the volcanic
mountain ranges of East Africa (Congo)


The smallest ape is the gibbon.


Considered the most intelligent is the
chimpanzee…

Order Primata

Monkeys


Monkeys are divided into two groups…



New world and old world monkeys.


New world monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central
and South America as well as Africa and Asia




They possess a prehensile tail (a tail for
grasping objects)




They include spider monkeys and howlers as
well as others…

Order Primata

Monkeys


Old world monkeys are
noted for their close
nostrils.




They live in
Africa and Asia only…




They include
colobus monkeys,
baboons




They mostly
eat leaves…


Order Primata

Lemurs:


Live only in one area


Madagascar




They eat some
insects as well as
leaves, fruit, and bark

Order Rodentia

Gnawing Mammals


1700 species…



Including: mice, rats, capybara,
squirrels, woodchucks, gophers, beavers,
porcupines…


There are more rodents than there are all
other mammals combined.

Order Rodentia

Mice: mice are the most prolific animal…they
produce 5 or more litters of 3 to 12 young every
year..


Rats: rats are aggressive…they are impossible to
kill off…if their numbers become low, the
survivors become stronger and more productive




rats are a great health concern as they
carry many diseases (plague, food poisoning,
and typhus)

Order Rodentia


Woodchucks (groundhog):
make tunnels and
mounds several feet high.

Beavers: largest rodent in
U.S…have been known
to build dams up to 2300
feet wide.

Porcupines: even with their
barbs, they are still
preyed upon by
carnivores and owls.










woodchuck

Order Dermoptera

Flying lemers


Found in Malaysia,
Thailand, Borneo,
Java, and the
Philippines.

The longest gliding
mammal.

Order Lagomorpha

Hare
-
like mammals:


Have four upper
incisors…


Includes rabbits, hares,
and pikas

Order Hyracoidea

This order includes only the
hyrax…


It is mentioned in the
Bible…Proverbs 30:26.


They have hoofs on their
toes and pads on the sole
of their feet.


They are defenseless and
live in rocky terrains for
protection.

Order Perissodactyla

Odd
-
toed hoofed mammals


Hoofed animals are called ungulates.


Includes rhinoceros, tapirs, horses, zebras, and
donkeys


Most ungulates have been designed as swift
runners, because they need to escape from
predators.

Order Artiodactyla

Even
-
toed hoofed animals


There are 171 species of even
-
toed ungulates.


Many either have antlers or horns…


They include cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats,

and antelope


with horns




and deer


with antlers


It also includes the giraffe.



Order Artiodactyla

This order is the most important on the
earth, providing a link between man’s use
and also the use by a number of flesh
eating animals.



Order Carnivora

Flesh eaters!!!!


Carnivores lead a more active life than herbivores.


There are over 200 species of carnivores.


Includes bears, cats, dogs, foxes, raccoons,
weasels, seals, walruses, sea lions, pandas,
skunks, badgers, otters, mongooses, civets, and
hyenas.


Order Carnivora

Carnivores eat herbivores and lack a
complex stomach.


Carnivores eat separate meals and have
time in between to play, explore, and
develop their hunting skills.

Order Carnivora

Bears


Bears are actually omnivores


they eat
plant and meat


The Alaska brown bear (Kodiak bear) is the
largest bear


they are a type of grizzly
bear.


The End