On the fifth and sixth days of creation God
created a new kind of being: “the moving
creature that hath life.” Genesis 1:20
25 describes the two main
attributes of the animal kingdom: mobility
Mobility and Diversity
Animals are living organisms that move from place
to place in their environment, mainly for the
purpose of obtaining food.
Most animals are motile
they move from place to
Some animals are sessile
they are stuck in one
place, but are able to move food toward
Mobility and Diversity
There are over one
million known and
classified species of
animals alive today.
Symmetry in the Animal Kingdom
Three types of symmetry:
can be cut in half and be
the same on both halves
cut in half in
many ways and all the
halves will be the same
Vertebrates: Animals with
Zoology is a broad study that is divided into
two of these parts are:
Vertebrates make up only 3% of all animals and
include: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians,
Characteristics of Vertebrates
made of bone or cartilage
most have four appendages
place vertebrates into this larger group.
Mammary glands (produce milk)
Most are born alive
Most have two pairs of limbs and seven
Mammals have many characteristics in
common, but there are differences in
structure of the design.
Example: Elephants have incisors, but they
take the form of tusks.
Animals are classified as either warmblooded or
A warmblooded animal does not necessarily
have warmer blood than a coldblooded animal.
a warmblooded animal regulates its
temperature by internal mechanisms
a coldblooded animal must regulate its
temperature by external mechanisms
All mammals are considered warmblooded.
warmblooded animals are able
to maintain the same temperature
small animals like squirrels cannot
gather enough food in the winter to maintain
warmth and so will hibernate.
if disturbed they will not wake up
larger animals like bears sleep in
the winter to maintain warmth
if disturbed they will wake up
Mammals and Nature
Mammals are important to man as helpers
Mammals are important to nature in that
they keep a balance in population of
animals and plants.
Carnivores prey upon herbivores and thus
keep plant populations from dwindling.
mammals reproduce by
In sexual reproduction a reproductive cell
from a male unites with a reproductive cell
of a female.
The male cell (a sperm) is produced in the
organ called testes.
The female cell (an egg) is produced in the
organ called ovaries.
Three Major Categories of
Based upon the way the developing young
Mammals that then nourish their young
during development are called viviparous.
two orders of mammals are not nourished thru a
young are expelled in an egg
these oviparous mammals do not bear live young.
Examples: duckbill platypus
the babies lap up milk
from the mother.
Young attach to the mother in a pouch
Example: kangaroos, opposums
The Mammalian Orders
There are about 20 mammalian orders
comprising 4000 species…
Contains only one
designed for two things:
digging holes and
eating termites and
Only two species:
elephants and Asian
They are the largest living
land mammal, but there
are over 300 species in
Elephants are herbivores
and a bull male can eat
300 lbs of food a day!!
Tusks are made from
ivory and are
enlarged incisor teeth.
Their teeth wear down
over time, but are
replaced 5 times over
Often called “sea cows”
Include manatees and
Dugongs live in smaller seas like the red
Manatees are larger and live in larger
coastal waters around the Caribbean and
The only oviparous
Includes the echidna
(spiny anteater) and
the duckbill platypus
Both only live in
Live in southeast
Asia, Indonesia, and
parts of Africa south
of the Sahara
koalas, and numbats
Includes 300 species
The smallest mammal
is believed to be the
The flying mammals
Contrary to popular
opinion, bats can see
very well…but they also
have a sonar system to
Scientist think that this
system is so unique that
the bats are able to
actually create a mental
picture of the insect.
In the summer in
Bracken Cave near
San Antonio, Texas,
the 20 million bats
that live there
consume 250 tons of
insects every night.
Bats are timid and do not generally attack
Some bats are fruit eaters
Bats are nocturnal
Bats in cold regions are known to spend
longer periods of time in hibernation than any
vampire bats do drink blood, but it is the blood
the only danger to the livestock is
the rabies virus that many bats carry
Includes: Baleen whales
they sift their
Sperm whale and killer whale
both have teeth
This order gives birth to live young.
The whaling industry in the United States
ceased in 1971.
Tree Dwelling Mammals
Includes 166 species…monkey, apes,
chimpanzees, orangutans, gibbons, and
gorillas...lemurs and others…
Apes: Primates without tails…
The largest is the mountain gorilla of the volcanic
mountain ranges of East Africa (Congo)
The smallest ape is the gibbon.
Considered the most intelligent is the
Monkeys are divided into two groups…
New world and old world monkeys.
New world monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central
and South America as well as Africa and Asia
They possess a prehensile tail (a tail for
They include spider monkeys and howlers as
well as others…
Old world monkeys are
noted for their close
They live in
Africa and Asia only…
Live only in one area
They eat some
insects as well as
leaves, fruit, and bark
Including: mice, rats, capybara,
squirrels, woodchucks, gophers, beavers,
There are more rodents than there are all
other mammals combined.
Mice: mice are the most prolific animal…they
produce 5 or more litters of 3 to 12 young every
Rats: rats are aggressive…they are impossible to
kill off…if their numbers become low, the
survivors become stronger and more productive
rats are a great health concern as they
carry many diseases (plague, food poisoning,
make tunnels and
mounds several feet high.
Beavers: largest rodent in
U.S…have been known
to build dams up to 2300
Porcupines: even with their
barbs, they are still
preyed upon by
carnivores and owls.
Found in Malaysia,
Java, and the
The longest gliding
Have four upper
Includes rabbits, hares,
This order includes only the
It is mentioned in the
They have hoofs on their
toes and pads on the sole
of their feet.
They are defenseless and
live in rocky terrains for
toed hoofed mammals
Hoofed animals are called ungulates.
Includes rhinoceros, tapirs, horses, zebras, and
Most ungulates have been designed as swift
runners, because they need to escape from
toed hoofed animals
There are 171 species of even
Many either have antlers or horns…
They include cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats,
It also includes the giraffe.
This order is the most important on the
earth, providing a link between man’s use
and also the use by a number of flesh
Carnivores lead a more active life than herbivores.
There are over 200 species of carnivores.
Includes bears, cats, dogs, foxes, raccoons,
weasels, seals, walruses, sea lions, pandas,
skunks, badgers, otters, mongooses, civets, and
Carnivores eat herbivores and lack a
Carnivores eat separate meals and have
time in between to play, explore, and
develop their hunting skills.
Bears are actually omnivores
plant and meat
The Alaska brown bear (Kodiak bear) is the
they are a type of grizzly