Technology Development and Innovation:

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27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Technology Development and Innovation:
Role of Universities
-
An Indian Perspective

Rangan

Banerjee

Dept. of Energy Science and Engineering

IIT Bombay

Keynote address at the International Conference in Technology & Innovation Management, 10
-
12 Oct, 2012, Nepal

Role of University


institutions that create opportunity not just for
individuals, but also for states, regions, nations
or industries by virtue of the economic impact of
the knowledge and the educated men and
women they produce







Charles Vest (2007)

Impact of Universities : US


25,800 active companies founded by MIT alumni


annual world sales $2 trillion (11
th

nation GDP)


MIT alumni 26% sales in state , 1 million jobs


(Robert and Easley, 2009)


Univ

of California impact (ICF, 2003)
-
creating
jobs, generating revenues,
catalysing

and
supporting industry clusters, nurturing
innovation and entrepreneurs

Goal 1

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Goal 2

Achieve universal primary education

Goal 3

Promote gender equality and empower women

Goal 4

Reduce child mortality

Goal 5

Improve material health

Goal 6

Compact HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

Goal 7

Ensure environmental sustainability

Goal 8

Develop a global partnership for development

Millenium

Development Goals

Source: UN millennium Project, 2005

Technology Development


UN task force
-

Science Technology and Development
(2005)

’to meet the
Millenium

development goals
effectively countries need to recognize the benefits from
advances in science and technology and develop
strategies to exploit and benefit from new knowledge



Example : Kigali Institute of Science and Technology


1997
-

Rwanda
-

reconstruction

Innovation


‘the deliberate introduction of change to improve
performance’ (Go8,2011)


President of India


declared 2010 as the decade of
innovation and set up the National Innovation Council


‘thinking differently, creatively and insightfully to create
solutions that have an impact in terms of social and
economic value’ (Strategy Document, 2011, GOI)

Country

Innovation
Capacity Index

Quality of
Scientific
Research
institutions

Company
spending R&D

University

industry
research
collaboration

Availability of
scientists &
engineers

Govt.
procurement of
advanced
technology

Utility patents
(per million
pop.)

Value

Rank

Value

Rank

Value

Rank

Value

Rank

Value

Rank

Value

Rank

Value

Rank

Brazil

3.8

31

4.1

42

3.8

30

4.2

38

3.8

91

3.9

52

0.9

60

China

4.7

15

4.3

38

4.2

23

4.5

29

4.6

33

4.4

16

2

46

India

3.6

35

4.5

34

3.7

33

3.8

50

4.9

21

3.5

78

0.9

59

Japan

5.8

1

5.5

11

5.9

1

5.1

16

5.8

2

4.1

32

352.9

2

Nepal

2.3

129

2.1

137

2.4

127

2.6

129

3.1

130

2.6

133

0.0

90

South
Korea

4.3

20

4.8

25

4.8

11

4.7

25

4.9

23

4.1

31

240.6

5

United

Kingdom

4.8

13

6.1

3

4.7

12

5.8

2

5.1

14

3.9

49

69.5

20

United

States

5.2

7

5.8

7

5.3

6

5.7

3

5.5

4

4.7

9

339.4

3

Leading

Country

Japan

Israel

Japan

Switzerland

Finland

Qatar

Taiwan, China

Global competiveness: Innovation Capacity Innovation Capacity
Components Index

Source: WEF, 2012

Frugal Innovations
-

India

Source:
Nesta
, 2012

The Arch

IIT Bombay

Vision

To be the fountainhead of new ideas and of
innovation in technology and science

Established year
-
1958

Main Building

Schematic of interaction between

IIT Bombay and Society

Schematic of interaction between IIT Bombay and Society

Student Output of IIT Bombay

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Total Number of Students

Year

Total Degrees Awarded
Post Graduate Degrees
675

356

1115

1846

Internal Changes
-

Enablers


Responsive, flexible administration


Decentralisation

of Decision making


Empowerment of functionaries
-
Deans, Heads,
Principal Investigators


Budget allocations, financial autonomy

spending within limits

Enablers for Research


Online Processes and Online Purchase System



Quick response, turnaround time


Recruitment, Project accounts, IP management


Central Facilities

maintenance fund, online
registration, support for staff

user workshops


Research Infrastructure Fund
-

transparent
internal funding mechanism


Catalysing

inter
-
disciplinary research


Central Facility


Central

Surface

Analytical

Facility

(ESCA

Lab
.
)




PPMS

Mini

Liquid

N
2

facility




Microcompounder

and

mini

injection

moulding




High

Performance

Computing

(HPC)

facility




Dielectric

Broadband

Spectrometer




Cryo

TEM

Ellipsometer

Scanning Probe Microscope

Confocal Microscope

Liquid N
2

plant

Enhance access

Online user interfaces

Increase
utilisation

Specialised

Workshops


Centre for Excellence in Nanoelectronics


PowerAnser

Laboratory


VLSI Research Consortium


ISRO


IITB Research Cell


National Mission on Education through Information and Technology


Centre for Excellence in Telecom
(IITB


Tata Teleservices)


Geospatial Information Science and Engineering Lab


National Solar Thermal Research, Testing and Simulation Facility




Research
Centres / Consortia: Examples


National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education
(NCPRE)


National Centre for Aerospace Innovation and Research
(NCAIR)


IGCAR


IITB Research Cell


Climate Change Research Centre


Healthcare Consortium


Proposed Centre of Excellence for Homeland Security


Water Research Initiative


Rural Development


Combustion



Research
Centres

/ Consortia: Examples
(
Contd.)

Solar Thermal Power
Plant

Schematic of 1 MW Solar Power Plant

Thermal
Storage


Solar Field

Expansion
Vessel

Heat
Exchanger

Generator

Condenser

Turbine

Pump

Pump

Cooling
Water
Circuit

Water/
Steam
Loop

Thermic

Oil Loop

CLFR
Direct
Steam

IITB
-
Solar Thermal Power Plant

Solar Fields under construction

Foundation
stone

10
January, 2010

PTC Field

Steam
Generation

LFR Field

Heat Exchanger

Turbine

Solar Thermal Power Plant

Schematic of the Solar Power Consortium

Solar Thermal Power Plant Simulator

Incentives
-

Awards

Research Excellence Awards:


Prof. S.C. Bhattacharya Excellence Award in Pure Sciences


Prof. H.H. Mathur Excellence Award in Applied Sciences


IRCC Awards:


IIT Bombay Research Paper award


IIT Bombay Review Paper award


IIT Bombay Young Investigator award


IIT Bombay Industrial Impact Award


Dr. P.K. Patwardhan Technology Development Award



Dr. P. K.
Patwardhan

Award

Dr. P. K.
Patwardhan

Award

Dr. P. K.
Patwardhan

Award

Dr. P. K.
Patwardhan

Award

IP/ Licensing


Liberal explicit revenue sharing 70:30 Inventors,
Institute, Explicit IP policy


Institute bears IP protection cost


Panel of
attorneys,Simplified

processes
-

online


Pro
-
active


abstract search Masters thesis, pre
-
publication drafts


Licensing web site, advertisement, brochures


SINE
-

Technology Business Incubator

Trend of Patent filing at IIT Bombay

4

6

1

6

10

14

9

16

11

12

10

14

16

46

66

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
No. of Indian Patent Applications Filed

Year

Indian Patent Applications
(1.1.97

to 31
.12.11) :

241

Foreign patent applications :

64

(US, Europe, Japan,
Canada, Taiwan, Brazil, Gulf)

PCT applications

: 56

Patents granted (lndian+ Foreign) : 69+3

IRCC Home > Technologies for Licensing > Advertisement

Ready
access to technologies at IITB

Attracting students to research


Enthuse


first year students


Support student Technology development
initiatives


Encourage learning by doing


Alumni funded labs


Umasruwala

Innovation
Centre,
Wadhwani

Electronics Lab


Student Technical Activities Body


lectures,
workshops, projects, competitions, tech clubs

Students Initiative at IIT Bombay

SINE Companies
-
Products

Unmanned aerial system
-
NETRA

IdeaForge

Railway berth LED

Jugnoo

Solar
Home Light

Ctech

Labs Pvt. Ltd.

GRAM++

Bhugol

GIS Pvt. Ltd.

Aqua Crop Project

Agrocom

(AAQUA)

Developing country universities
-

Challenges


Attracting quality students, faculty


Competing on global rankings


attracting
international students, faculty


Changing the perception and the reality
-

building industry confidence


Negotiating fair deals for IP with industry


Fair two way international partnerships


Decide research thrust areas


Responsiveness to local needs


Shaping the innovation agenda


What is innovation for?


Who is innovation for?


Importance of Direction, Distribution and
Diversity of innovation agenda (STEPS, 2010)


University
-

Catalytic role in supporting and
building local and regional technology
development and innovation ecosystems



End
-

Note

‘A university stands for humanism, for tolerance, for
progress, for adventure of ideas and for the search of
truth. It stands for the onward march of the human
race towards ever higher objectives. If the universities
discharge their duty adequately, then it is well with the
nation and the people’


Jawaharlal
Nehru, First Prime Minister of India


Thank You

Email: rangan@iitb.ac.in

References


Charles M. Vest, The American Research University from World War II to World Wide Web, University of California Press, Berkel
ey,

2007.


Philip G.
Altbach
: The Past, Present and Future of the Research University, in the Road to Academic Excellence, The making of world class
Research Universities, World Bank, 2011, Washington D.C.


E.B. Roberts and C. Easley: Entrepreneurial Impact: The Role of MIT, February, 2009, Kaufmann
Foundation,The

Foundation of
Entrepreneurship.


UN
Millenium

Project, 2005: Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development. Task Force on Science, Technology and Innovation, UNDP,
Earthscan
, London.


KIST 2012: http://www.kist.ac.rw (last accessed on October 5, 2012).


ICF, 2003: ICF Consulting: California’s Future: It starts Here UC’s contributions to Economic Growth, Health and Culture, Mar
ch
2003.


Go8, 2011: Role of Universities in the national innovation system, Discussion Paper, February 2011, The Group of Eight.
www.go8.edu.au/university
-
staff/go8
-
policy
-
_and_
-
analysis/2011/role
-
of
-
universities
-
in
-
the
-
national
-
innovation
-
system (last acce
ssed on
October 5, 2012)


GOI, 2011: Creating a Roadmap for a Decade of Innovation Strategy Paper, March 2011, Office of Adviser to the Prime Minister,

Pu
blic
Information Infrastructure and Innovations, Government of India, New Delhi.


Global Competitiveness Report, World Economic Forum 2011
-
2012.


NESTA, 2012: Our Frugal Future: lessons from India’s Innovation System


K. Bound and I. Thornton, July 2012, London UK. Availab
le
online at: www.nesta.org.uk


Banerjee
, R. and
Muley
,
Vinayak

P.: Engineering Education in India. New Delhi: Macmillan Publishers India Limited, 2009.


Directors Report IIT Bombay: Fiftieth Convocation. 18th August 2012. http://www.iitb.ac.in/Convo2012/conv.pdf (last accesse
d o
n
October 8, 2012)


SINE: Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, IIT Bombay, www.sineiitb.org (last accessed on October 8, 2012)


Students' Technical Activities Body (STAB) of IIT Bombay, IIT Bombay, http://www.stab
-
iitb.org (last accessed on October 8, 2012
)


Industrial Research & Consultancy Centre (IRCC), IIT Bombay


R&D Publications, http://www.ircc.iitb.ac.in/IRCC
-
Webpage/rnd/Publication.jsp (last accessed on October 8, 2012).


National Innovation Day Workshop, 2012: A one
-
day brainstorming workshop for Vice
-
Chancellors & Directors was
organised

by MHRD,
UGC and IIT Bombay on March 1, 2012. http://www.ircc.iitb.ac.in/IRCC
-
Webpage/InnovationDayWorkshop/index.html (last accessed on
October 8, 2012).


STEPS: Innovation, Sustainability, Development: A new Manifesto; Brighton, UK STEPS Centre, 2010.


Manchanda
, 2008: 50 years of IIT
-
Bombay: IIT Bombay, Mumbai, 2008.