Academic Enrichment Theme – Simple Machinesx - bridges21cclc

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Academic Enrichment

Theme



Simple Machines




Overview

Students will learn about
what a simple machine is and study the six
different kinds of simple machines: inclined plane, lever, pulley, screw,
wedge, and wheel and axle
.

This unit is book based,
with books available
from the Howard County Public Library and also involves student
experiments and a collection of simple machines. Students will complete a
page in a workbook for each type of simple machine.

You could culminate this theme with a Rube Go
ldberg challenge (the
public library sponsors one every year) where students have to use simple
machines to complete a task.
Here’s what the library website has to say
about the challenge: The Rube Goldberg Challenge unleashes the creativity
of fourth and
fifth grade students as they apply STEM concepts to solve a
problem. Download a PDF of the photo sheet from the
2011

Awards
Ceremony.
Details
.


General
B
ibliography


Each simple machine has a separate bibliography, but here are three books
that give an overview of all the machines and provide additional
experiments.


Thompson, Gare.
Lever, Screw, an
d Inclined Plane: the Power of Simple

Machines
. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2006.


Tocci, Salvatore.
Experiments with Simple Machines
. New York: Children’s
Press,

2003.


Van Cleave, Janice.
Janice VanCleave’s Machines: Mind
-
boggling
Ex
periments

You Can Turn Into Science Fair Projects
. New York: John Wiley &
Sons,

1993.

Session



What is Work? What is a Simple Machine?


In this session, students will learn the scientific definition of work that will be
used throughout all the
sessions. They will also sort a variety of simple
machines learning the six categories that will

be studied in further sessions.


The book by Thompson
,

Lever, Screw, and Inclined Plane: the Power of
Simple

Machines
,

has a great explanation for work that
can be repeated with
students

(page 7)
. Have students push against an immovable object (wall or
really heavy piece of furniture



make sure that it can’t be moved). Have
them push as hard as they can. Then ask students to push a chair around
them room. Tel
l them that scientists would only think of one of these
activities as work


ask them to guess which one (pushing the wall or
pushing the chair). Then tell them that scientists define work as
a forced
used to move an object over a distance
. So, pushing aga
inst the wall wasn’t
work to a scientist because the wall didn’t move. Students will define work in
their workbooks.


The book by Tocci
,

Experiments with Simple Machines
,

does a great
introduction on simple machines and Rube Goldberg (pages 4


10). After
reading the pages, pass out an assortment of machines to students and see
if they can sort them into groups. The next two pages have a variety of
simple machines sorted out by type. Try not to pass out the machines
already in their groups. Have students sh
are the groups that they made at
their tables


you will have a variety of sorting methods. Define simple
machine



a device that makes work easier to do

and have students copy
the definition into their workbooks. Provide simple categories and sort the
mac
hines with students


doing an example for each one and then seeing if
they can find other examples that fit in the category. Students will
draw the
simple machine that they had during the sorting activity and label what kind
of machine it is.


Save the m
achines in sorted groups for the next six sessions.


Lever

Pulley

Scr
ew


Baseball bat

Bicycle brakes

Bolt cutters

Bottle opener

Car jack

Chopsticks

Crowbar

Door handle

Drawbridge

Fishing pole

Flat head screwdriver

Golf club

Hammer

Hand truck

Hockey stick

Ice cream s
coop

Nail clippers

Nutcracker

Oar

Paintbrush

Piano

Pliers

Scissors

Seesaw

Shovel

Tennis racquet

Tiller on a sailboat

Tongs

Tweezers

Wheelbarrow

Wire cutters

Wrench


Bicycle wheels &
chain

Bucket in well

Clothesline

Crane

Elevator

Exercise Machines

Fishing Nets

Flagpole

Hay
loft hook in barns

Halyards on sailboat

Lifeboat storage

Sewing machine

Steam engine

Tow truck

Window blinds

Window curtains



Archimedes screw

Auger

Bolt & nut

Corkscrew

Curving ramps

Drill

Eyeglasses

Faucet (turn kind)

Lid

& Jar

Light

bulb & socket

Propelle
r

Screw

Soda bottle & lid

Spiral slide

Spiral staircase

Sunglasses

Toothpaste tube &
cap

Toy t
op

Vise grip

Wedge

Inclined Plane

Wheel and Axel


Ax

Bow of a boat

Bulldozer
blade

Cheese grater

Chisel

Cone of a rocket

Doorstop

Dovetail joints

Knife blade

Nail

Needle

Nose of an airplane

Plow blade

Pizza cutter

Pushpins

Sandbox shovel

Scissor blades

Shovel blade

Starting block

Teeth

Wheel chuck

Woodpecker’s beak

Zippers
Access
ramp

Bathtub

Boat ramp

Dump truck

Freeway exit and
entrance ramps

Funicular

Gumball machine

Ladder

Loading ramp

Luggage ramp

Roller coaster

Roof (slanted)

Screws

Sink

Skateboard ramp

Ski jump

Slide

Stairs

Swimming pool

Switchback road

Truck ramp

Wheelchair

ramp
Bicycle

Big wheel

Car

Clock with gears

Conveyor belt

Doorknob

Eggbeater

Faucet

Ferris wheel

Fire engine

Fishing reel

Go
-
cart

Luggage carousel

Motorcycle

Pencil sharpener

Pottery wheel

Pull toy

Roller skates

Scooter

Screwdriver

Shower knob

Skateboard

Steering wheel

Tricycle

Truck

Wagon

Wheelchair

Windmill / grindstone

Session



Levers


In this session, students will learn about levers. This session is based
around the book
Scoop, Seesaw, and Raise

mentioned in the bibliography
below. You

will also need examples of lever simple machines from the
introduction lesson.

In addition, each pair of students will need a 12
-
inch
ruler, unsharpened pencil, large marshmallow, and a yardstick for the
experiment.


As you read the book to the students,
stop and allow them to use the simple
machines mentioned on the page if you have examples of them.


Page 9


flat head screwdriver, paint can (Michael’s sells empty cans)

Page 11


seesaw (borrow a pan balance from Kindergarten)

Page 13


scoop/digger, container of damp sand

Page 15


bottle opener, soda bottle with cap


Page 17


broom, paint brush and water

Page 18,19


pan balance, nut cracker, nail clipper, play
-
doh extruder,
hammer


Have the students complete the Marshmallow Madness experiment to see
how a lever works. Then, they will define lever and draw
two

example
s

in
their workbook

(labeling the fulcrum, load, and force) one of the experiment
and another lever from one of the bo
oks.


Lever Bibliography


Dahl, Michael.
Scoop, Seesaw, and Raise: a Book About Levers
.
Minneapolis,

MN: Picture Window Books, 2006.


Glover, David.
Levers: Simple Machines
. Crystal Lake, IL: Rigby Education,

1997.


Gosman, Gillian.
Levers in Action: Sim
ple Machines at Work
. New York:
Rose
n


Publishing Group, 2011.


Oxlade, Chris.
Levers: Simple Machines
. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple

Media: 2008.


Welsbacher, Anne
. Levers
. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2001.
Session



Pulley


In this session, students w
ill learn about
pulleys
. This session is based
around the book
Pull, Lift, and Lower

mentioned in the bibliography below.
You will also need examples of
pulley

simple machines from the introduction
lesson. In addition, each
group of 3 s
tudents will need
2
thread spools, 2

pencil
s
,
40 feet of string or yarn
,
paperclips,
and a
message on a piece of
paper
.


As you read the book to the students, stop and
visit the simple machines in
various parts of your building if

you have examples of them.


Page 9


window
blinds

(
if you have them somewhere in your building
)

Page 11


flagpole (raise and lower the flag)

Page 13


block and tackle


Page 17


elevator (if you have one in your building


take a ride)

Page
19


bucket in well (have a student hold the pulley, whi
le another
students

pulls up a bucket with a rope


Have the students complete the
Message on a Pulley

experiment to see
how a
pulley

works. Then, they will define
pulley

and draw two examples in
their workbook (labeling the
pulley
, load, and force) one o
f the experiment
and another
pulley

from one of the books.


Pulley

Bibliography


Dahl, Michael.
Pull, Lift, and Lower
: a Book About
Pulleys
. Minneapolis,

MN: Picture Window Books, 2006.


Glover, David.
Pulleys and Gears
: Simple Machines
. Crystal Lake, IL:

Rigby

Education, 1997.


Gosman, Gillian.
Pulleys

in Action: Simple Machines at Work
. New York:
Rose
n


Publishing Group, 2011.


Oxlade, Chris.
Pulleys
: Simple Machines
. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple

Media: 2008.


Welsbacher, Anne
.
Pulleys
. Mankato, MN:
Capstone Press, 2001.
Session



Screw


In this session, students will learn about
screws
. This session is based
around the book
Twist, Dig, and Drill

mentioned in the bibliography below.
You will also need examples of
screw

simple machines from the introduction
lesson. In addition, each
group of 4

students will need a
2
-
liter soda bottle
with the bottom removed
,

a piece of cardboard, scissors, tape, and a large
bowl of round cereal

for the experiment

(they can share the bowl
s of cereal
if needed)
.


As you read the book to the students, stop and allow them to use the simple
machines mentioned on the page if you have examples of them.


Page 9


different kinds of screwdrivers

and screws

Page 11


eyeglasses or sunglasses with
screws

Page 15


jars with screw top lids


Page 17


table lamp and lightbulb

Page
21



curvy slide or toy with curvy ramp


Have the students complete the
Up and Around

experiment to see how a
screw

works. Then, they will define
screw

and draw two example
s in their
workbook (labeling the
head
,
threads
, and
tip
) one of the experiment and
another
screw

from one of the books.


Screw

Bibliography


Dahl, Michael.
Twist, Dig, and Drill
: a Book About
Screws
. Minneapolis,

MN: Picture Window Books, 2006.


Glover,
David.
Screws
: Simple Machines
. Crystal Lake, IL: Rigby Education,

1997.


Gosman, Gillian.
Screws

in Action: Simple Machines at Work
. New York:
Rose
n


Publishing Group, 2011.


Oxlade, Chris.
Screws
: Simple Machines
. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple

Media:
2008.


Welsbacher, Anne
.
Screws
. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2001.

Session



Wedge


In this session, students will learn about
wedges
. This session is based
around the book
Cut, Chop, and Stop

mentioned in the bibliography below.
You will also need examp
les of
wedge

simple machines from the
introduction lesson. In addition, each pair of students will need a
sharpened

pencil,
sheet of paper
, and
2 thick books (phone books/encyclopedias)

for
the experiment.


As you read the book to the students, stop and al
low them to use the simple
machines mentioned on the page if you have examples of them.


Page 9


toy boat or ocean liner

Page 11


chisel

Page 13


nails of various sizes (piece of wood and hammer

to try nails out)

Page 15


toy airplane or rocket


Page 1
7


door
stop or triangular block (borrow from Kindergarten)

Page 18,19


foods shaped like wedges


Have the students complete the
Get the Point
experiment to see how a
wedge

works. Then, they will define
wedge

and draw two examples in their
workbook (labe
ling the
wide end
,

narrow end, slanting side
, and force) one
of the experiment and another
wedge

from one of the books.


Wedge

Bibliography


Dahl, Michael.
Cut, Chop, and Stop
: a Book About
Wedges
. Minneapolis,

MN: Picture Window Books, 2006.


Glover, David.
Ramps and Wedges
: Simple Machines
. Crystal Lake, IL:
Rigby

Education, 1997.


Gosman, Gillian.
Wedges

in Action: Simple Machines at Work
. New York:
Rose
n


Publishing Group, 2011.


Oxlade, Chris.
Wedges and Ramps
: Simple Machines
. North Mankato, MN:

Smart Apple Media: 2008.


Welsbacher, Anne
.
Wedges
. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2001.

Session



Inclined Plane


In this session, students will learn about
inclined planes
. This session is
based around the book
Roll, Slope, and Slide

mentioned in the bibliography
below. You will also need examples of
inclined plane

simple machines from
the introduction lesson. In addition, each pair of students will need a 12
-
inch
ruler,
a yardstick, box or stack of books, weight that would fit on a r
uler, and
a spring scale.



As you read the book to the students, stop and visit the simple machines in
various parts of your building if you have examples of them.


Page 9


truck ramp, airplane luggage ramp

Page 11


slide (on playground)

Page 13


access ramp for wheelchairs (think sidewalks or school stage)


Page 17


highway exit and entrance ramps

Page
19


slanted roofs in community, sinks in bathrooms

Page 21


roller coasters


Have the students complete the
How Ramps Help

experiment to see how

an inclined plane

works. Then, they will define
inclined plane

and draw two
examples in their workbook (labeling the
slanted surface
, load, and force)
one of the experiment and another
inclined plane

from one of the books.


Inclined Plane

Bibliography


D
ahl, Michael.
Roll, Slope, and Slide
: a Book About
Ramps
. Minneapolis,

MN: Picture Window Books, 2006.


Glover, David.
Ramps and Wedges
: Simple Machines
. Crystal Lake, IL:
Rigby

Education, 1997.


Gosman, Gillian.
Inclined Planes

in Action: Simple Machines at Work
. New
York:

Rose
n

Publishing Group, 2011.


Oxlade, Chris.
Wedges and Ramps
: Simple Machines
. North Mankato, MN:

Smart Apple Media: 2008.


Welsbacher, Anne
.
Inclined Planes
. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2001.

Session



Wheel and Axle


In this session, students will learn about
wheels and axles
. This session is
based around the book
Tires, Spokes, and Sprockets

mentioned in the
bibliography below. You will also need examples of
wheel and axle

simple
machines from the intr
oduction lesson. In addition, each pair of students will
need
an empty spool of thread, string, 2 paper cups, 2 pencils, 20 pennies,
and tape
for the experiment.


As you read the book to the students, stop and allow them to use the simple
machines mentione
d on the page if you have examples of them.


Page 9


skateboard

Page 11


tricycle

Page 13


bicycle with chain and gears


Page 15


old clock or clockworks


Page 17


hand turn pencil sharpener, big wheel, eggbeater, fishing reel

Page 21


toy car with s
teering wheel that works


Have the students complete the
Round and Round

experiment to see how a
wheel and axle

works. Then, they will define
wheel and axle

and draw two
examples in their workbook (labeling the
wheel and axle
) one of the
experiment and an
other
wheel and axle

from one of the books.


Wheel and Axle

Bibliography


Dahl, Michael.
Tires, Spokes, and Sprockets
: a Book About
Wheels and
Axles
.

Minneapolis, MN: Picture Window Books, 2006.


Glover, David.
Wheels and Cranks
: Simple Machines
. Crystal Lake, IL:
Rigby

Education, 1997.


Gosman, Gillian.
Wheels and Axles

in Action: Simple Machines at Work
.
New

York: Rose
n

Publishing Group, 2011.


Oxlade, Chris.
Wheels
: Simple Machines
. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple

Media: 2008.


Welsbacher,
Anne
.
Wheels and Axles
. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press,
2001.


Name
_________________
_____________


What is work? What is a simple machine?




Work is
_
______________
___________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________



A simple machine is

___________
___________
____
____________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________




This is the simple machine that I had to sort into a
group:












It was a

_________________________________________

Levers




This simple machine
______________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


__________________________________________________________
__
_________


One example of a lever is
:












Another example of a lever is
:











Label


fulcrum, load, force

Pulleys




This simple machine
______________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________


One example of a
pulley

is
:












Another example of a
pulley

is
:











Label


pulley
, load, force

Screws




This simple machine
______________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________


One example of a
screw

is
:












Another example of a
screw

is
:











Label


head, threads, tip
, force

Wedges




This simple machine
______________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________


One example of a
wedge

is
:












Another example of a
wedge

is
:











Label


wide end
,
narrow end
,
slanting side,
force

Inclined Plane / Ramp




This simple machine
______________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


____________________________________________________________
_________


One example of
an inclined plane

is
:












Another example of
an inclined plane

is
:











Label


slanted surface
, load, force

Wheel and Axle




This simple machine
______________________________________________


____________________________________________________________
_________


_____
_______________________________________________________
_________


One example of a
wheel and axle

is
:












Another example of a
wheel and axle

is
:











Label


wheel
,

axle,

load, force