The Semantic Web: [You are here]

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20 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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The Semantic Web: [You are here]

Professor James Hendler

http://www.cs.umd.edu/~hendler

Director, Semantic Web and Agent Technologies

Maryland Information and Network Dynamics
Laboratory

SWMU, 03

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owl.mindswap.org

Building the Semantic Web

SWMU, 03

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owl.mindswap.org

The World Wide Web…


Works reasonably well for single document
texts, or for finding sites based on single
document text


Cannot integrate information from multiple
documents


Cannot find things in databases, programs, devices
and sensors


Cannot ever get better (qualitatively)!


Keyword
-
based IR will never really do better than it does
today (in satisfying user needs)

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What about the rest of the Web?

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Getting there: The Semantic Wave

(Berners
-
Lee, 03)

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What’s the problem

Name

Rank

Serial Number

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XML is NOT semantics

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<photo>


<subject> http://www.w3.org/~timbl </subject>


<name> Tim Berners
-
Lee</name> </name>




</photo>

XML is NOT semantics

SWMU, 03

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<photo>


<subject> http://www.w3.org/~timbl </subject>


<name> Tim Berners
-
Lee</name> </name>




</photo>

XML is NOT semantics

Xml schema is DOCUMENT checking


photo has multiple subject fields


photo has one physical location


etc.

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owl.mindswap.org

<photo>


<subject> http://www.w3.org/~timbl </subject>


<name> Tim Berners
-
Lee</name> </name>




</photo>

XML is NOT semantics

Xml schema is DOCUMENT checking


photo has multiple subject fields


photo has one physical location


etc.

WHICH SAYS NOTHING ABOUT
TALKS, SUBJECTS, PEOPLE,
EVENTS, etc.

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owl.mindswap.org

Event:title

Event:WebPage

< > rdf:type photo:Photograph,


Photo:File http://…/images#image1,


Photo:topic :event1#event:speaker.


Event1 a Event:event;


date “May 7
-
11”,


speaker http://…#timbl.html


Title “WWW 2002…”

TimBL rdf:type w3c
-
ont:person;


name “Tim Berners
-
Lee”





<daml:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="photograph">

<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Picture"/>

<rdfs:range rdf:resource= …#person"/>

</daml:ObjectProperty>




<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Person">

<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf
-
schema#Class"/>

<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/earl/0.95#Assertor"/>

</rdf:Description>

<s:Class
rdf:about="http://www.semanticweb.org/o
ntologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Conference">

<s:comment>

describes a generic conceptabout events


</s:comment>

<s:subClassOf
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.or
g/ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Event"/>

<a:disjointFrom
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.or
g/ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#Workshop"/>

<a:restrictedBy
rdf:resource="http://www.semanticweb.or
g/ontologies/swrc
-
onto
-
2000
-
09
-
10.daml#genid18"/>

The SEMANTICS is in

the links (e.g. to ontologies)!

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From the small and structured

<daml:Class rdf:about="#Book">


</daml:Class>



<daml:Class rdf:about="#Author">


<rdfs:subClassO rdf:resource="#Person"/>


</daml:Class>


<daml:Property rdf:about="#age">


<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Book"/>


<rdfs:range rdf:resource="#age_value_id"/>


</daml:Property>



<rdfs:Property rdf:about="#award">


<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="Book"/>


<rdfs:range rdf:resource="#award_value_id"/>


</rdfs:Property>


Database schema for
International Digitial Children’s
Library Metadata repository


~40 classes


~25 properties (corresponding to
database keys)


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To the large and complex

owl:Class rdf:ID="CD80_Antigen">


<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Cell_Adhesion_Molecule</rdfs:label>


<rdfs:label>CD80 Antigen</rdfs:label>


<rdfs:subClassOf>


<owl:Restriction>



<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#Protein_Expressed_In_Tissue"/>





<owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#T_Cell"/>


</owl:Restriction>

</rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:subClassOf>


<owl:Restriction>



<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#Protein_Expressed_In_Tissue"/>





<owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#B_Cell"/>


</owl:Restriction>

</rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:subClassOf>


<owl:Restriction>



<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#Protein_Expressed_In_Tissue"/>





<owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Macrophage"/>


</owl:Restriction>

</owl:Class>


<CD80_Antigen rdf:ID="CD80_AntigenData">


<Swiss_Prot>P33681</Swiss_Prot>


<DEFINITION>


<![CDATA[<def
-
source>NCI</def
-
source>


<def
-
definition>A member of the immunoglobulin supergene family .


Co
-
regulator of T cell activation with CD86.


Plays a critical role in autoimmune, humoral, and transplant responses.

Expressed on activated T and B cells and on macrophages. (from PROW)</def
-
definition>]]>


</DEFINITION>


US National
Cancer
Institute
Ontology


~17,000
classes


>1 million
synonyms
and
definitions


RDF graph
>500,000
triples

SWMU, 03

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owl.mindswap.org

“My” Semantic Web

(I have nearly 200 daml/owl/rdf(s) files

on my laptop)
--

March, 2003

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“Our” Semantic Web


Jan 1, 03: Crawler finds 5.8M+ DAML statements on 20,000+ web pages


Doesn’t include many instance KBs tied to ontologies


Doesn’t include many very large RDFS
-
based KBs that include some OWL


Ontology library at
http://www.daml.org

has 209 ontologies (March 2003)


Open for anyone to create


Open for anyone to use


OWL is being supported by large corporation labs


Web tool developers: IBM, HP, Sun, Intel, Fujitsu


Content providers: Daimler
-
Chrysler, Nokia, Motorola, EDS, Agfa


OWL is starting to be used by thesaurus developers


C.f. National Cancer Institute metathesaurus released in OWL Lite


CALL Thesaurus in DAML


NASA thesaurus available in DAML


Use of semantic markup for Web Services beginning to move beyond basic
research


DAML
-
S cited as required reading for Web Services Choreography WG


DAML
-
S being demoed to WSDL WG next week

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The incoming tide …

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What comes next

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Tools are critical

Tools for marking up images, figures and other non
-
textual data…
must be built in a way that they
tie into the "business processes"
of the working scientist

--

that is, rather than learning a whole new
set of tools, the basic web tools of the scientist must include
mechanisms that make it EASIER

for the scientist
to produce
web content

(appropriately markedup) while authoring papers,
performing experiments, creating and logging data, and the other
day to day activities

of the working researcher.

Science and the Semantic Web, Hendler, 03

The same is true of the military user

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Automatically
-
organized portals

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New Info Management Paradigms

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And other “cool stuff”

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Tools for visualization and use

A number of tools for
querying, browsing and
visualizing SW data are
being developed

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Handle larger size/complexity

Tools are now scaling as well

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PhotoSMORE:


Marking up (sub)images

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And the info flows…

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And the info flows… correctly

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Surf’s up!

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Putting all this together…

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Wrapping/Mapping tool

DAML Ontology

(DAML
-
S)

XML Schema

(WSDL)

Mappings for

attributes

Define transformation

functions

Manual

editing

if necess.

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owl.mindswap.org

…is starting to work

document

service

database

Are there any
mountains in
Europe bigger
than Mt. Blanc?

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owl.mindswap.org

“Ad hoc Programming”

Advanced information management capabilities


Discovery, Filtering, Composition


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Ad hoc programming + logic

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Distributed trust

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Conclusions


The Semantic Web is real


allows us to create models of information and share these on the web


In a web
-
like open
-
system way


In a way that exposes more semantics


Vocabularies/ontologies first step, but they need to be easier to create and use
and modify and crawl and query


Application development has begun!


A new generation of Semantic Web tools is becoming available


First prototypes are becoming available for “end to end” functionality


Some components, and the OWL language, are ready for prime time


The Semantic Wave


Is an incoming tide…