Technologies for E-learning

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20 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Exploiting Semantic Web and
Knowledge Management
Technologies for E
-
learning

Sylvain Dehors

Director

Rose Dieng
-
Kuntz

INRIA Sophia Antipolis

University of Nice
-
Sophia Antipolis/ ED STIC

2

E
-
learning, this ?

3

A vision of e
-
learning


For us:


Any learning activity mediated by a computer


Buzz Word, but also real change in practices


Use of computers in daily activities


All ages, from youngster to adult teaching


In practice, several types of application


Simulation programs


Tutoring systems


On
-
line courses

4

Our e
-
learning situation


Learning organization


Teacher(s) with a group of students


Environment


Computers for daily usage


Either on
-
line or face
-
to
-
face


Knowledge Sources


Course documents


Teacher’s expertise

Provide computer support for taking
advantage of the knowledge sources

5

Outline

1.
Research question

2.
Method Proposal

1.
Selection and analysis of existing material

2.
Semi automatic annotation

3.
Learning activity

4.
Analysis

3.
Conclusion

6

Research question


Proposal:


apply Knowledge Management techniques
and Semantic Web technology


develop a practical method


Illustration: a tool (QBLS) and experiments

How can teachers and students better use
knowledge sources, such as pedagogical
documents, with computer interfaces ?

7

Inspirations


Knowledge Management



The objective of a knowledge management structure
is to promote knowledge growth, promote
knowledge
communication
, and in general preserve knowledge
within the organisation
” (Steels L., 93)


Semantic Web:



The Semantic Web provides a common framework
that allows data to be shared across application,
enterprise, and common boundaries
.” (W3C)



Standards: RDF, RDFS, OWL, SPARQL

8

Existing methods and tools (Dieng et al.)



Corporate semantic web

Semantic

annotation

base

ontologies

Knowledge
holder

DB

services

Knowledge Management Syst.

edit O

edit A

query

documents

User (collective task)

User (Individual task)



Apply to a learning organization

-

Tool: Corese semantic search engine to query formalized
knowledge

-

W3C Standards expressing knowledge about the course

9

Method description

4

3

2

1

1
-

Selection and
analysis of
existing
material

2
-

Semi automatic
annotation

3
-

Learning activity

4
-

Analysis

10

4

3

2

1

Method description

Original
resources

selection

Semantization

Conceptual
navigation

+ adaptation

Activity
analysis

tests

Usage
feedback

Ontologies

:


Document


Pedagogy


Domain

Annotations

Select

Enrich

Use

Analyze

KM tools

11

Experiment’s

Agenda

2005

2006

2007

QBLS
-
1 :

2 hours lab

Signal Analysis

QBLS
-
2 :

3 months course

Java Programming

QBLS
-
ASPL :

Knowledge Web NoE

Semantic Web studies

12

Resource selection


First, establish a pedagogical strategy


Collaboration Teacher/QBLS designer


QBLS: Question Based Learning Strategy: Motivation,
autonomy, self
-
directed learning


Existing resources:


Objective criteria


Availability, standard editable format (XML)


Suitability for annotation (modularity, coherence, vocabulary
used)


Subjective criteria


Scope, goal, context



Teacher’s acceptance

13

Original documents

Power Point presentations


Signal analysis / Java programming


Used as hard copy course material

Modularity

Coherence, Vocabulary

14

Ontology selection


Selection of existing models, ontologies?


Document:


Must fit the course structure


Document organization Document ontology


Pedagogy:


Appropriate for the pedagogical approach


Domain to learn:


Usually the biggest ontology


Fit the document contents (vocabulary used, conceptualization)


Fit the teacher’s vision

Lots of
constraints
,
difficult to

find

appropriate

ontologies


15

1
-

Selection and
analysis of
existing material

2


Semi automatic
annotation

3


Learning activity

4
-

Analysis

16


Express additional knowledge about the
course


Based on teacher’s expertise and vision


Principles :


Use existing edition tools


Proceed through visual mark
-
up


Rely on XML technologies and Semantic Web
formalisms

Annotation

17

A semi
-
automatic process


3 steps


Pre
-
processing


Manual annotation


Automatic extraction


resource

to
reuse

“annotable”

version

annotated

version

annotation

(RDF)


content

(XHTML)


manual
annotation

xsl

transform
.

pre
-
processing

Ontologies
(OWL, RDFS)

(XML)

18

Preprocessing


Identification of the content characteristics


Separation in small entities


Automatic annotation


Vocabulary used


domain concepts,
automatic annotation with domain ontology


Resource roles


pedagogical ontology


Preparation


Styles


reflect ontological concepts


enrich style lists with ontologies

22

Preprocessing

23

Manual annotation


Exploitation of tools functionalities by the teacher
for a visual markup


Evolution/enrichment/creation of corresponding
domain ontology


Practical objective: connecting navigation paths


Edition of the content


Linking concepts with semantic hierarchical relations
(SKOS)

Interface

Keyword «

implements

»

skos:broader

Statement

Conditional

Statement

Assignment

Statement

skos:broader

skos:broader

24

Final result: Open Office
-
Writer

25

Final result : MS
-
Word


26

Experimental results: ontology re
-
use



Pedagogical ontology


Reused directly


Same intention as original: describe ped. role
(generic?)


Domain Ontology


Design intention very important: here offer
“conceptual views” of the resources


Mostly developed specifically, comparisons with other
domain ontologies show striking incompatibilities.

Access rights

public

protected

private

Method modifiers

public

protected

private

27

Experimental results: annotation cost

QBLS
-
1

QBLS
-
2

Number of resources

92

359

Num. of resources discarded

None

54

Course duration

2
H

3

months

Number of pedagogical
types used (directly)

8
/
8

12
/
27

Num. of domain concepts

41

171

Editing Tool

Microsoft

Word

OpenOffice

Writer

Annotation time

N/A

20
H

Modification of content

Yes

No

28

1
-

Selection and
analysis of
existing material

2


Semi automatic
annotation

3


learning activity

4
-

Analysis

29

Learning activity


Offer “conceptual” navigation in the set of
resources while answering questions or
performing exercises


Navigation through semantic queries


Take advantage of domain concepts hierarchy
(broader links)


Use typology of pedagogical concepts for ordering
(subsumption)


Interface generation


Static XSL style sheets: performance, reuse,
maintenance

30

Semantic Web architecture

content

(XHTML)

Pedagogical
ontology

Domain
vocabulary

Doc. model

(Skos)

(OWL)

(RDFS)

Corese

Semantic

Search Engine

XSLT

Queries

(Sparql)

HTTP

web
-
app

Tomcat web server

Answers


(Sparql
-
XML)

Interface

(XHTML)

Request

Learner

logs

(RDF)

Formalized Knowledge

rules

1

2

3

4

5

6

31

Semantic Web at work


Dynamic SPARQL queries:


SELECT * WHERE {

FILTER (?
c

=
java:variable
)

{
?doc

skos:primarySubject
?c

}


UNION

{
?doc

skos:primarySubject
?c2

.
?c2

skos:broader
?c
}


?doc

rdf:type
?t


?t
edu:order

?order


?doc

dc:title
?docTitle

?t

rdfs:label
?docLab

?c

skos:prefLabel
?cLab

}

ORDER BY ?order

Variable

Local

Variable

Definition

Example

3

7

skos:primarySubject

skos:broader

skos:primarySubject

rdf:type

rdf:type

Layout
information

edu:order

edu:order

33

QBLS
-
1

34

QBLS
-
2

Variable

Fields

Local
variable

Human readable information

35

Experimental results: students’ feedback


Good satisfaction


Structured navigation appreciated for
direct access to information


Use of domain and pedagogical
information

QBLS
-
1

QBLS
-
2

Num. of students using the system

100
%

30
%

Num. of resources visited

90
%

80
%

Overall Satisfaction

4
.
3
/
5

3
.
9
/
5

Off
-
hours access

N/A

50
%

of

connections

36

QBLS
-
ASPL

(Advanced Semantic Platform for Learning)


Existing resources on a portal : REASE,


MS
-
PowerPoint files

37

QBLS
-
ASPL

Interesting
Web sites
for
advanced
learners

38

QBLS
-
ASPL

Provided by
QBLS

39

1
-

Selection and
analysis of
existing material

2


Semi automatic
annotation

3


Exploitation by
learners

4
-

Analysis

40

Analysis


Modeling user activity


A navigation model based on a graph representation






Exploitation of logs


Visualization through automatically generated graphs


Use semantic querying to highlight particular
characteristics of the graphs represented in RDF

Concept

Resource

Concept

Resource

subject of

mentions

subject of

User A

Time t

41

Visualization

42

Visualization

43

Semantic querying


Find regularities, patterns?


Using the graph structure


Relying on the ontology

SELECT ?user count ?v WHERE {

?aux skos:primarySubject ?concept

?aux rdf:type edu:Auxilliary

?v edu:user ?user

?v edu:conceptVisited ?concept

OPTIONAL { ?v2 edu:resourceVisited ?aux


?v2 edu:user ?user}

FILTER(! bound(?v2))

}

Object

Def

Ex.

?v

?v2

44

Experimental Results


Involve teacher’s in the analysis


Problem with large size graphs


Visualization tools not sufficient yet


Needs to be coupled with other sources of
information


First step towards automated interpretation


Define a collection of patterns
-
> behavioral
patterns


Use in “real
-
time”?

45

Conclusion

Learning Object Repositories

LOM standard

Scorm?

Learning Design

Adaptive hypermedia

Annotation tools

Linguistic analysis

Learner modeling

Activity tracking

Semantic Web = valid connector

46

Conclusion (2)


Semantic web interests:


Existing tools, Corese, Protégé, etc.


Existing models, in standard language


Unification and connection with other systems


Ontologies for e
-
learning


Interest, reusability of domain might be limited


Need for simple expressivity, “goal oriented
design”

47

Conclusion(3)


Resource Reuse


Observed use and good satisfaction level


Definite interest, cost still high


Knowledge management approach


Satisfaction of users


Initial goal fulfilled


May apply to other learning contexts


48

Perspectives (1)


Short term


Further develop annotation system based on existing
tools


Administrative tools to make teachers fully
autonomous


Middle term


Enhance scalability with large RDF bases ( when
triples are generated by learner activity)


Generalize log visualization, work on usage of such
representations (e.g. teachers’ interpretations)

49

Perspectives (2)


Long term


Investigate the cognitive implications for
learning of the annotations


Importance of the pedagogical concepts


Structure of the domain


Enhance user tracking (more information,
refine model)

50

Acknowledgements


Catherine Faron
-
Zucker


Jean Paul Stromboni


Peter Sander