Title: Nutrient Cycles

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Bio 9A/9D:
Wednesday, 5.18.11

Title:
Nutrient Cycles


Homework:

None



Silent Do Now: (in NB w/ title & date)


What are nutrients?


Name one nutrient from the reading last night and explain
why it’s important!


Today’s Objectives:


Explain why nitrogen and phosphorus are limiting nutrients


Explain how nutrient loading can negatively affect an
ecosystem

ECOLOGY: NUTRIENT CYCLES

PHA Biology: 2009

Moretti
/ Dickson


Nutrients

(This is REVIEW so writing it is optional)


The body’s chemical
“Building Blocks”



Made of CHNOPS and a few other
elements


Uses:



build tissues



essential body functions
(think:
carbs
, proteins,
nucleic acids)


Cycle between organisms and environment

Nitrogen

Cycle


N

is important for
building amino acids


Used for making proteins


Most
N

is in an un
-
usable
form in the atmosphere


Only
bacteria

can get
N

into the soil/food web.


Decomposers
return
N

from living things to the
soil.


Phosphorous

Cycle


P is important for
making
DNA, RNA,
ATP, ADP


Most P is stuck in
rocks


Erosion/dissolving in
water makes P
available for plants


Then P moves
through food web
(plants


animals


decomposers)

Limiting

Nutrient:


A nutrient that is
scarce
(there’s not much
available)



This
limits

growth of producers



Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)
are
naturally limited
because they…


move slowly through the environment


involve many transformations to make them
usable by living things




Nutrient Loading:

Humans add more nutrients to an
ecosystem by…


Chemical Fertilizers


Add extra nutrients to make plants grow faster


From farms, lawns, parks



Animal & Human Waste:


Full of Phosphorus and Nitrogen


From dog poop, agricultural waste (cow/pig/chicken
poop), and overflowing sewers (human waste)


These things get carried by
run
-
off

into rivers,
lakes, and oceans.


http://www.hoorwa.org/index_image
s/cows3edited.jpg

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/106/3052
93863_50e6a517ef.jpg?v=0

Nutrient Loading: What’s the problem?



When
limiting nutrients
become
unlimited



some plants
(algae) grow out of control!


Shade other producers below the surface (underwater plants die
b/c no sun)


Bacteria eat the dead plants


bacteria grows out of control


Bacteria use all the oxygen in the water =
Oxygen Depletion
Kills Fish and Other Organisms

9D


Special seats just for today

Celeste

Davnys

Dyani


Joas

Marcelo

Courtney

Carlheb

Warren

Kayla

Owen


Hannah

Samantha

Nekeyla

Nicholas

Lorreno

Trae


Rayoni

Loveng

Jackson


Miguel

Bio 9A/9D:
Thursday, 5.19.11

Title:
Nutrients in the Watershed
Game!


Homework:

None. Do an awesome job at exhibition night tonight!

We DO STILL have MCAS Prep class after school.


Silent Do Now


NOT in your notebook!


Get a “Nutrients in your Watershed” packet


Silently read the first 2 paragraphs


In the margin next to each paragraph, write a 1
-
sentence
summary (one per paragraph) of the important points


Today’s Objectives:


Explain how nutrient loading can negatively affect an ecosystem


Identify at least 3 different ways that humans contribute to nutrient loading,
and at least 1 change in human behavior that could reduce this!

Game: Nutrients in Your Watershed!


Background Info


Read it on the packet


Rules of the game


3
-
4 players


For each player’s turn:


Draw a card and read it aloud


Record N and P gain/loss and nutrient total


Record Effects on River Ecosystem


Play for 10 rounds


After the game is over: ANSWER THE ANALYSIS Q’S


Bio 9A/9D:
Friday, 5.20.11

Title:
Pollutants in Urban Run
-
off


Homework:

If you don’t finish in class, you must finish:


Back of Urban Run
-
Off worksheet (2 questions)


Nutrient Game Analysis Questions (from yesterday)


Silent Do Now:

1.
Get a “Polluted Urban Run
-
Off” Article

2.
Read the first 5 paragraphs (stop at “Sediment”)

3.
In your notebook:


How would you define “urban run
-
off”?


What are some of the pollutants in urban run
-
off?

Today’s Objectives and Agenda


Today’s Objectives:


Identify how sediments, bacteria, pesticides, and toxins enter
waterways and why each one is harmful


Explain 2 ways that YOU can help improve water quality in your city


Practice explaining scientific ideas in
writing

(this is good prep for
MCAS open response)


Today’s Agenda:


Article


Read and analyze 6 types of pollutants (30 minutes)


We’ll do the first one together


Then do the rest on your own


Article


Small
-
group discussion (15 minutes)


Pollution Video & Notes/Discussion (20 minutes)


Writing Assignment (20 minutes)




Article: Urban Run
-
Off


Step 1:
Read silently on your own and fill in the chart


If there are things you can’t find, leave them blank OR
make an inference (but don’t give up too quickly!)


Be as
specific

as possible!


Step 2:

In your small group


check your answers!


Each person shares out on one pollutant


Other group members clarify if they got different info


Go around until you’ve discussed each pollutant

Pollution Video

Write down these questions to answer during the video:


What is point source pollution?



What is nonpoint source pollution?



What are some examples of non
-
point
source
pollution?


Nonpoint Source Pollution:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cACFw8lzkPI&featur
e=related


Sources of Water Pollution


Point Source Pollution


From a direct source


Sewage Treatment Plant


Factory


Storm water discharge pipe



Non
-
Point Source Pollution


From a widespread, non
-
specific
source, carried by air or run
-
off


Fertilizers


Animal Wastes


Car exhausts

80 percent of ocean pollution
comes from land
-
based sources*

We ALL play a role in Non
-
Point
Pollution






http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/images/wsci_03_img0431.jpg

http://
www.eriewatershed.org/wp/wp
-
content/uploads/2007/11/parking
-
lot
-
dedication
-
1
-
orig.jpg

http://i7.photobucket.com/albums/y289/teckno
puppy/pollution_steel_factory.jpg

*http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/facts/pollut.htm

http://www.hoorwa.org/index_image
s/cows3edited.jpg

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/106/3052
93863_50e6a517ef.jpg?v=0

Chemical Pollution


Numbers:


More than 70,000 commercial and industrial compounds are now
in use


An estimated 1,000 new chemicals are introduced
each year
(most of these are not adequately tested)


Pathways Through Environment


Point Source Discharge from Factories/ Industries:
Water or
Airborne


Nonpoint Runoff:
Urban Centers and Farms


Nonpoint Airborne:
Autos, aerosols, burning, dust particulate, etc.


Airborne brought down through Deposition


Poor Disposal/ Leach from Landfills into Groundwater

http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/community/classroom/c2
-
foodweb
-
e.html

Silent Writing Time (finish for HW)


Complete the writing assignment on the back of the
Urban Run
-
Off Worksheet


Then go back and finish yesterday’s analysis
questions if you didn’t already


Finish both of these for HW

Erick

Devin

Victor

Emiliano

Naidaliz

Beverly

Bryan

Kenny

Lorena

Jesse

Daysia

Alerte

Hajar

Nathy

Olivia

Cassandra

Joshua

Lila

Javier

Joelle

Imani

Martely

9A


Seats for Today

Amrita

Yamile

Lennin

Bio 9A/9D:
Monday, 5.23.11

Title:
BioAccumulation


Homework:

None


Silent Do Now: (in NB w/ title and date)


What is a food chain or food web?


Within a food chain, what is a producer?


(We haven’t studied this yet


just write what you think)

When finished, look in your folder for…


Urban Run
-
Off Assignment from Friday (chart and paragraphs)


Nutrients in the Watershed Game


Analysis Questions

Get ready to pass these forward if you didn’t hand them in last
week.


Today’s Objective:


Simulate the feeding relationships in an aquatic food chain

Today’s Agenda


Bio
-
Accumulation and Food Chain Simulation


Assign roles


Explain rules


No running!


Boundaries = desks. No going under, over, or around them.


Zooplankton and fish can’t make noise! Stay SILENT as you
search for food and try to evade capture.


Play the game


Analyze the data

Bio 9A/9D:
Tuesday, 5.24.11

Title:
BioAccumulation
, Food Webs, and
Energy Pyramids


Homework:

Finish the
BioAccumulation

Packet


Silent Do Now: (
NOT
in your notebook)


Take out the
BioAccumulation

packet from yesterday.


Turn to page 2 and silently complete ALL of the questions on
this page.


I will give you back your scorecard so that you have all the
info from yesterday.


Today’s Objectives:


Explain the 10% rule of energy transfer


Draw and interpret a food web


Define and explain bioaccumulation in food webs

D3/*$
Bwc

Energy Pyramids &
Trophic

Levels

(Write these notes on your packet)

Producers

Secondary Consumers

Primary Consumers

Tertiary Consumers

Top Carnivore

Energy from the
SUN

The 10% Rule:

Only 10% of the energy
in one
trophic

level gets
passed up to the next
level!

Trophic

Levels =
Energy Levels in the
Pyramid

If there’s 100,000
Calories of Energy in
the Phytoplankton,
how much will the
Zooplankton get?


Bioaccumulation/
Biomagnification
:


The build
-
up of toxins in an
organisms tissues


Higher concentrations in organisms
than in surrounding ecosystem


Tend to accumulate most in higher
-
level consumers. Become toxic at
certain concentrations


Examples:


Metals: mercury, lead, & cadmium


PCBS


Pesticides: DDT


Chemical Pollution: Effects on Ecosystems

Chemical Equations

Cell Respiration
:



Photosynthesis:

Compare

Reactants



剥R捴c湴s 扯瑨 捯湴慩渠
CARBON



Reactants

of C.R. are the
products of Photo.

Compare

Catalysts

Both enzymes


C.R. =
mitochondria


Photo = light and
chloroplasts

Compare

Products



偲潤畣瑳u扯瑨 捯湴慩渠
CARBON



Products

of C.R. are the
reactants of Photo.

Glucose + Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP + Heat

C
6
H
12
O
6

+
6
O
2


6
CO
2

+
6
H
2
O


Glucose + Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light

C
6
H
12
O
6

+
6
O
2


6
CO
2

+
6
H
2
O

mitochondria enzymes

light

+
chloroplast enzymes

The Carbon Cycle


Study the diagram


Use it to answer the questions in
your notebook!

Bio 9D:
Thursday, 5.26.11

Title:
MCAS Review Day


Homework:


Finish any work from yesterday


Silent Do Now: (in your head


don’t need to write)


Which do you think will be most challenging for you on
next week’s MCAS exam?


Biochemistry (
carbs
, lipids, proteins, etc.)


Cells (organelles, eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes, etc.)


Long multiple choice questions with graphs, diagrams, too
many words


Open response questions


Go to
phascience.wordpress.com


Find “Biology 9 MCAS Prep


Review Materials”


Scroll down to choose the review activity that’s best
for you


If you finish one, go on to the next.


You should have evidence in your notebook of
completing at least two of these review assignments
(write the answers in your notebook)


Check answers when done

Bio 9D:
Friday, 5.27.11

Title:
Carbon Cycle and Climate Change


Homework:


Email me (
adickson@prospecthillacademy.org
) with your top 3
choices for your pollution poster topic


Do some MCAS review


use the blog!


Silent Do Now: (Refer to your Carbon Cycle worksheet)


What is the equation for photosynthesis?


How does photosynthesis relate to the carbon cycle?


How does cell respiration relate to the carbon cycle?


What questions do you have about the Carbon Cycle worksheet?


Take out your HW from Wed. (multiple choice questions) to hand in


Today’s Objectives:


Explain how humans are adversely affecting the carbon cycle to bring
about global climatic change.


Identify ways that humans can help slow climate change.

Chemical Equations

Cell Respiration
:



Photosynthesis:

Compare

Reactants

The reactants of one are the
products of the other.


Both contain hydrogen,
oxygen, carbon.


Photo. Uses

energy as a
reactant and C.R. doesn’t

Compare

Catalysts


Both

use enzymes
that are in
organelles
(mitochondria and
chloroplasts)

Compare

Products


The

products of one are the
reactants of the other.


Both contain oxygen, carbon,
and hydrogen.


C.R. releases energy and
photo. Does not.

Glucose + Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP + Heat

C
6
H
12
O
6

+
6
O
2


6
CO
2

+
6
H
2
O


Glucose + Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light

C
6
H
12
O
6

+
6
O
2


6
CO
2

+
6
H
2
O

mitochondria enzymes

light

+
chloroplast enzymes

Carbon Cycle Review


Turn to the questions you answered about this diagram…

Carbon Cycle (Review/Notes)

Carbon is…


Found in
ALL

life forms.
ALL life is
Carbon
-
Based!


Absorbed by photosynthesis


Stored (sink):


Plant Tissue (forests…)


Dead organisms turn to fossil
fuels (coal, oil, …)


Released by living things:


Respiration


Decomposition


Released by non
-
living things:


Volcanoes


Erosion


Released by human activities):


Burn Fossil Fuels (cars,
factories) and Deforestation


How Does Carbon Dioxide Affect the
Climate?
The Greenhouse Effect

Earth

CO2 and other greenhouse
gases in atmosphere

Heat from sun


some
trapped, some released

Earth


warming
up.

Thicker layer of CO2 and
other greenhouse gases

Heat from sun


more
trapped, less released

Climate Change Videos


“Al Gore warns of latest climate trends” from TED.com:

http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/al_gore_warns_on_latest_climate_trends.html

(stop at Joe Camel)


“Al Gore’s new thinking on the climate crisis” from TED.com
(begin 5 minutes in):
http://www.ted.com/talks/al_gore_s_new_thinking_on_the_climate_crisis.html

Note: You can find more of the videos at www.ted.com


-
Distribute Overview and Rubric

-
Read an Article and Use it to Model the Poster

-
Compare and Contrast Poster Examples


Introduce Pollution Poster Project

Pollution Poster Practice

Stonyfield

Farm Article

Actively read and look for…


Pollutant?





Pathway



Effects of Pollutant?



Strategy?


Highgate
, Vermont

Pollution Issue Analysis:

Stonyfield

Farm


Pollutant?



Methane Gas


Pathway?



Comes from cow farts!



Released into atmosphere


Effects of Pollutant?



Traps heat inside the atmosphere (greenhouse effect)



This contributes to global warming


Strategy?



Feed cows
grass

instead of corn & soy


瑨楳 浡步猠瑨敭

fart less methane!


Unforeseen Benefits?



Cows are happier & healthier b/c grass is their natural diet


MCAS Answers

MCAS Review Questions

Question


Correct Answers

1

D

2

D

3

B

4

D

5

A

6

C

7

D

8

A

9

C

10

C

11

C

12

B

13

B

14

B

15

B

16

B

17

B

18

D

19

D


Bio 9A/9D:
Tuesday, 5.31.11

Title:
Last MCAS Review Day!


Homework:


Get a good night’s sleep for tomorrow’s MCAS Test

Tomorrow morning: Bagels for breakfast, 4
th

floor @ 7:40


Silent Do Now:


Get an MCAS Review Packet


Work on it silently for 10 minutes


you will then have
time to consult with partner, so just fill in what you can
for now.


Today’s Objectives:


Review important vocabulary words for tomorrow’s MCAS

Bio 9A/9D:
Tuesday, 5.31.11

Title:
Last MCAS Review Day!


Take 15 more minutes to complete as much as the
packet as you can with your small group


Use your notes if no one in your group can remember


We will then review as a class

Bio 9A/9D:
Wednesday, 6.1.11

Title:
Pollution Project Planning (Day 1)


Homework:


Get a good night’s sleep for the second day of MCAS Testing

We have some extra breakfast so there will be some but maybe not
a lot


eat beforehand just in case.


Silent Do Now: (in NB with title and date)

1.
How was this morning’s test? What felt easy? What
was hard? What made you think?

2.
On the next slide: Evaluate the 5 example posters.
Which is most effective? Why?


Today’s Objective:


Gather notes/information on your pollutant

Compare/ Contrast Poster Ideas

Pollution Poster Planning

Set up the following template in your notebook.

Fill it in using notes, articles read in class, and/or textbook.

See the Pollution Poster Rubric for more details!


Pollutant: ___________________________________


Source:



Pathway:



Effects of Pollutant:



Why it has this effect:



Strategy for change:



Why it would work:


Poster Topics Assignments

1.
The effects of deforestation on the water cycle
-

Fatima

2.
Nutrient pollution from fertilizers (be specific to Nitrogen and Phosphorus)
-

Poppy

3.
The effects of large
-
scale forest fires
-

Nicole


4.
Prescription drugs/ Antibiotics in the environment (not directly covered in
class)
-

Klara

5.
Pesticides in the environment
-

Aaron

6.
Urban Run Off


Brian (littering)

7.
Leaking discharge of oil and other fluids from automobiles
-

Kimberly

8.
Pollution from other metals (not lead) in the sediment
-

Mario

9.
Oil spill from offshore drilling


1.

Sara


effects on food webs

2.
Gabe


effects on dissolved oxygen

10.
Lead Pollution in the environment
-

Keith

11.
Zinc Pollution in the environment


Karen

12.
Acidity in waterways


J.J.

13.
Plastics in the environment
-

Dimitri



More Topic Assignments:

1.
Nutrient pollution from pet/animal feces (be specific to Nitrogen and
Phosphorus)
-

Jasmin

2.
Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere

1.
Ashley


forest fires effects on atmospheric CO2

2.
Esther


deforestation’s effects on atmospheric CO2

3.
Andrea


cars’ effects on atmospheric CO2

4.
Amando



coal
-
burning power plants

3.
PCBs Pollution in the environment


Helen

4.
PAHs Pollution in the environment
-

Talia

5.
Mercury Pollution in the environment
-

Paul

6.
Poisonous/ deadly bacteria in the environment
-

Ilyanna

7.
Effects of limited dissolved oxygen on fish
-

Marpha

8.
Sewer discharge from storm water overflow (Note: you must identify the
type

of pollutant you plan to highlight when signing up. We will accept up to 2
different
proposals for this.)



Adaiah
; Nelson